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AMEN-RA, the King of the Gods, the Lord of Heaven. 






E. A. WALLIS BUDGE, m.a., Litt.d., d.Litt., d.Lit. 








I. Amen, and Amen-Ra, and the Triad of Thebes ... 1 

II. Hapi, the God of the Nile 42 

III. The Triad of Elephantine 49 

IV. Aten, the God and Disk of the Sun 68 

V. The Great Company of the Gods of Heliopolis ... 85 

VI. Osiris 113 

VII. Hymns to Osiris 148 

VIII. Hymns to Osiris from the "Book of the Dead" . . 153 

IX. Hymn to Osiris, — Hieroglyphic text with interlinear 

transliteration and translation 162 

X. The Names of Osiris 176 

XI. Plutarch's Mythological History of Isis and Osiris . 186 

XII. Asar-Hapi or Serapis . 195 

XIII. Isis 202 

XIV. The Sorrows of Isis 222 

XV. Set and Nephthys 241 

XVI. Anpu or Anubis 261 

XVII. Cippi of Horus . ... 267 

XVIII. Foreign Gods 275 

XIX. Miscellaneous Gods : — 

1. Gods of the Cubit 291 

2. Gods of the Days of the Months .... 292 

3. Gods of the Months 292 

4. Gods of the Epagomenal Days 293 

5. Gods of the Hours of the Day 294 



Miscellaneous Gods (continued) : — 


6. Gods of the Hours of the Night .... 294 

7. Gods who watch behind Osiris-Serapis . . . 295 

8. Gods of the Winds . ' 295 

9. Gods of the Senses 296 

10. The Soul-God 299 

11. Gods and Goddesses of the Twelve Hours of the 

Night 300 

12. Gods and Goddesses of the Twelve Hours of the 

Day 302 

13. Gods of the Planets 302 

14. The Dekans and their Gods ..... 304 

15. Star-Gods behind Sothis and Orion .... 310 

16. Star-Gods of the Southern and Northern Heavens 312 

17. The Zodiac 312 

18. Gods in the Tomb of Seti 1 317 

19. Gods of the Days of the Month .... 320 

20. Gods in the Theban Eecension of the " Book of 

Dead " 323 

XX. Sacred Animals and Birds, etc 345 

Index . 385 


1. Amen-Ka, king of the gods 

2. The goddess Apit 

3. The god Amsu, or Min .... 

4. Menthu, lord of Thebes .... 

5. The goddess Mut . . . . 

6. Ta-urt (Thoueris) 

7. Khensu in Thebes, Nefer-hetep . 

8. The dual god Khensu standing upon crocodiles 

9. Nefer-hetep ...... 

10. The Nile-god Hapi 

11. Khnemu fashioning a man upon a potter's table 

12. The goddess Sati 

13. The goddess Anqet ..... 

14. Heru-shefit, lord of Suten-henen 

15. The goddess Anit 

16. Ba-neb-Tatau, the Eam-god of Mendes 

17. The god Shu . .... 

18. The goddess Tefnut .... 

19. Seb, the Erpa of the gods . 

20. The god Shu raising up Nut from Seb, and the Boats 

sailing over the body of Nut 

21. The Lion-gods of Yesterday and To-day 

22. Nut, the mother of the gods 

23. Nut holding a table on which stands Harpocrates 

24. Nut pouring out water from the sycamore tree 

25. Osiris-Unnefer ..... 

26. The Sekhet-hetepu, or Elysian Fields 

27. Osiris and Isis in a shrine . 

28. Anubis ministering to Osiris on his bier 

29. Ptah-Seker-Ausar .... 

30. Seti I. addressing Osiris Khent-Amenti 

31. The goddess Meskhenet 

32. The Judgment Scene (five-fold plate) 

33. The goddess Isis .... 

34. Isis and Ptah-Seker-Ausar 




of the 





35. Isis in the Papyrus Swamps suckling Horus 

36. Mersekert suckling Horus .... 

37. Isis-Sept 

38. The goddess Kennut 

39. The goddess Menqet . 

40. The dual-god Horus- Set . .- 

41. Set and Horus pouring out " Life " over Seti I 

42. The goddess Nephthys .... 

43. Anubis, god of the dead 

44. The deceased making offerings to Anubis . 

45. The god Bes 

46. Sebek-Ea ' 

47. The god An-Heru 

48. The goddess Urt-Hekau .... 

49. The goddess Serqet 


. 208 

. 210 

. 212 

. 214 

. 220 

. 242 

. 248 

. 254 

. 262 

. 264 

. 286 

. 354 

. 357 

. 362. 

. 377 



Khu-en-Aten and his 

sky-goddess Nut 

Horus and Hekau presenting Amen-hetep III. to Amen-Ea 

Amen-Ea, with his attributes . ..... 

Heru-sa-atef making offerings to Amen-Ea and his ram 

Menthu giving life to Ptolemy Alexander . 


The Beams of Aten illumining the names of 
family ...... 

Amen-hetep IV. and his wife adoring Aten 

Amen-hetep IV. seated on his throne beneath the Disk 

Amen-hetep IV. and his wife and daughter 

Seb and Nut 

Shu supporting the boat of the Sun beneath the 

Nut giving birth to the Sun 


Seb and Nut 
-31. The Eesurrection of Osiris 

Osiris on his funeral bed . 

Sepulchral stele ; the deceased adoring Osiris, Serapis, &c 

Serapis ..... 

Eennut, lady of Aat . 

The Seven Stars of the Great Bear 
-40. Gods from the Metternich Stele 

Qetesh, Min, and Anthat . 

Anthat .... 

Ashtoreth .... 


Eeshpu .... 

Bes playing a harp . 

Head of Bes 

Gods of the "Winds 

The gods of the Senses 

The gods of the Planets 
87. The Dekans . 

The Boat of Osiris, the oldest company of the g 

The Star-gods near the North Pole 

The Signs of the Zodiac 

Portraits of seventy-four gods from the tomb of Seti I. 

The gods of the fourteen days of the waxing moon 

The gods of the fourteen days of the waning moon 






ods, &c. 

. 70 

. 73 

. 74 

. 77 

. 98 

. 99 

. 101 

. 103 

. 104 

. 152 

. 196 

. 198 

. 215 

. 249 


. 276 

. 277 

. 279 

. 280 

. 282 

. 284 

. 285 

295, 296 

. 297 

. 303 


. 311 

. 313 

. 315 

318, 319 

. 321 

. 321 





AMONG the gods who were known to the Egyptians in 
very early times were Amen and his consort Ament, 
[I o (I /wwvv 5 and their names are found in the Pyramid 

Texts, e.g., Unas, line 558, where they are mentioned immediately 
after the pair of gods Nau and Nen, ™~* M v\ 8 11 ® , 

and in connexion with the twin Lion-gods Shu and Tefnut, who 
are described as the two gods who made their own bodies, 1 and 
with the goddess Temt, the female counterpart of Tern. It is 
evident that even in the remote period of the Vth Dynasty Amen 
and Ament were numbered among the primeval gods, if not as 
gods in chief certainly as subsidiary forms of some of them, and 
from the fact that they are mentioned immediately after the 
deities of primeval matter, Nau and Nen, who we may consider 
to be the equivalents of the watery abyss from which all things 
sprang, and immediately before Temt and Shu and Tefnut, it 
would seem that the writers or editors of the Pyramid Texts 



assigned great antiquity to their existence. Of the attributes 
ascribed to Amen in the Ancient Empire nothing is known, but, 
if we accept the meaning "hidden" which is usually given to his 
name, we must conclude that he was the personification of the 
hidden and unknown creative power which was associated with 
the primeval abyss gods in the creation of the world and all that 
is in it. The word or root amen (I : , certainly means "what 

7 AftAAAA Li 

is hidden," " what is not seen," " what cannot be seen," and the 
like, and this fact is proved by scores of examples which may be 
collected from texts of all periods. In hymns to Amen Ave often 
read that he is " hidden to his children," and " hidden to gods and 
men," and it has been stated that these expressions only refer to 
the "hiding," i.e., "setting" of the sun each evening, and that 
they are only to be understood in a physical sense, and to mean 
nothing more than the disappearance of the god Amen from the 
sight of men at the close of day. Now, not only is the god himself 
said to be " hidden," but his name also is " hidden," and his form, 
or similitude, is said to be "unknown;" these statements show that 
" hidden" when applied to Amen, the great god, has reference to 
something more than the " sun which has disappeared below the 
horizon," and that it indicates the god who cannot be seen with 
mortal eyes, and who is invisible, as well as inscrutable, to gods as 
well as men. In the times approaching the Ptolemaic period the 
name Amen appears to have been connected with the root men 
" to abide, to be permanent ; ' ' and one of the attributes 

which were applied to him was that of eternal. 

Amen is represented in five forms : — 1. As a man, when he 
is seen seated on a throne, and holding in one hand the sceptre, 
j , and in the other the symbol of " life ; " in this form he is one 
of the nine deities who compose the company of the gods of Amen- 
Ra, the other eight being Ament, Nu, Nut, Hehui, Hehet, Kekui, 
Keket, and Hathor. 1 2. As a man with the head of a frog, whilst 
his female counterpart Ament has the head of a uraeus. 3. As a 
man with the head of a uraeus, whilst his female counterpart has the 
head of a cat. 4. As an ape. 5. As a lion couchant upon a pedestal, 

1 See Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 12. 

The Goddess APIT 

article T, t 


Of the early history of the worship of Amen we know nothing, but 
as far as the evidence before us goes it appears not to have been 
very general, and in fact, the only centre of it of any importance 
was the city of Thebes. Under the Xllth Dynasty we find that 
a sanctuary and shrine were built in honour of Amen at Thebes 
in the northern quarter of the city which was called Apt, f\ D Q , 
r © ; from this Avord, with the addition of the feminine 
le Copts derived their name for the city Tape, T<\ne, 
and from it also comes the common name " Thebes." Over Apt 
the quarter of the city there presided a goddess also called Apt, 
Q i who was either the personification of it, or a mere local 
goddess to whom accident or design had given the same name as 
the quarter ; it is, however, most probable that the goddess was 
the spirit or personification of the place. In the reliefs on which 
she is represented we see her in the form of a woman holding the 
sceptre, J, and "life," -¥-, in her hands, and wearing upon her 
head the disk and horns, \°y ' •> which rest upon £2, the hiero- 
glyphic which has for its phonetic value Apt, and stands for the 
name of the goddess. The disk and the horns prove that the 
tutelary goddess of Thebes was a form of Hathor. 

Up to the time of the Xllth Dynasty Amen was a god of no 
more than local importance, but as soon as the princes of Thebes 
had conquered their rival claimants to the sovereignty of Egypt, 
and had succeeded in making their city a new capital of the 
country their god Amen became a prominent god in Upper 
Egypt, and it was probably under that dynasty that the attempt 
was made to assign to him the proud position which was after- 
wards claimed for him of " king of the gods." His sanctuary at 
Karnak was at that time a comparatively small building, which 
consisted of a shrine, with a few small chambers grouped about it 
and a forecourt with a colonnade on two sides of it, and it remained, 
practically, in this form until the rise to power of the kings of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty. It is difficult to decide if the sanctuary of 
Amen at Thebes was a new foundation in that city by the kings 
of the Xllth Dynasty, or whether the site had been previously 
occupied by a temple to the god ; the probability is that the god 


possessed a temple in Apt from the earliest times, and that all 
that they did was to rebuild Amen's sanctuary. As soon as the 
Theban princes became kings of Egypt their priests at once began 
to declare that their god was not only another form of the great 
creative Sun-god who had been worshipped for centuries at Annu, 
or Heliopolis, in the North of Egypt, under the names of Ra, 
Temu, Khepera, and Heru-khuti, but that all the attributes which 
were ascribed to them were contained in him, and that he was 
greater than they. And as Thebes had become the capital instead 

Horns and Hekan presenting Amen-lietep III., when a babe, and bis double, to Amen-Ea, 
lord of the thrones of Egypt, king of the gods. 

of Memphis, it followed as a matter of course that all the 
attributes of all the great gods of Memphis were contained in Amen 
also. Thus by these means the priests of Amen succeeded in 
making their god, both theologically and politically, the greatest 
of the gods in the country. 

Owing to the unsettled state of Egypt under the XHIth and 
XlVth Dynasties, and under the rule of the Hyksos, pretensions of 
this kind passed unchallenged, especially as they were supported 
by arms, and by the end of the XVIIth Dynasty Amen had 
attained to an almost unrivalled position among the gods of the 


land. And when his royal devotees in this dynasty succeeded in 
expelling the Hyksos from the land, and their successors the kings 
of the XVIIIth Dynasty carried war and conquest into Palestine 
and founded Egyptian cities there, the power and glory of Amen 
their god, who had enabled them to carry out this difficult work of 
successful invasion, became extraordinarily great. His priests 
began by asserting his equality with the other great gods of the 
old sanctuaries of Heliopolis, Memphis, Herakleopolis, and other 
ancient cities, and finally they satisfied, or, at all events, attempted 
to do so, all worshippers of every form of the Sun-god Ra by 
adding his name to that of Amen, and thus forming a great god 
who included within himself all the attributes of the primeval god 
Amen and of Ra. The highest conception of Amen-Ra under the 
XlXth and XXth Dynasties was that of an invisible creative 
power which was the source of all life in heaven, and on the earth, 
and in the great deep, and in the Underworld, and which made 
itself manifest under the form of Ra. Nearly every attribute of 
deity with which we are made familiar by the hymns to Ra was 
ascribed to Amen after his union with Ra ; but the priests of Amen 
were not content with claiming that their god was one of the greatest 
of the deities of Egypt, for they proceeded to declare that there was 
no other god like him, and that he was the greatest of them all. 

The power and might ascribed to Amen-Ra are Avell described 
in hymns which must be quoted in full. The first of these occurs 
in the Papyrus of Hu-nefer (Brit. Mus., No. 9,901, sheet i.), where 
it follows immediately after a hymn to Ra ; this papyrus was 
written in the reign of Seti I., and it is interesting to observe that 
the two gods are addressed separately, and that the hymn to Ra 
precedes that to Amen-Ra. The text reads : — " Homage to thee, 
" Amen-Ra, Avho dost rest upon Maat ; as thou passest over the 
" heavens every face seeth thee. Thou dost wax great as thy 
" majesty doth advance, and thy rays [shine] upon all faces. 
" Thou art unknown, and no tongue hath power to declare thy 
" similitude ; only thou thyself [canst do this]. Thou art One, 
" even as is he that bringeth the tend basket. Men praise thee in 
" thy name, and they swear by thee, for thou art lord over them. 
" Thou nearest with thine ears and thou seest with thine eyes. 


" Millions of years have gone over the world, and I cannot tell the 
' number of those through which thou hast passed. Thy heart 
"hath decreed a day of happiness in thy name of 'Traveller.' 
"Thou dost pass over and dost travel through untold spaces 
" [requiring] millions and hundreds of thousands of years [to pass 
" over] ; thou passest through them in peace, and thou steerest 
" thy way across the watery abyss to the place which thou lovest ; 
" this thou doest in one little moment of time, and then thou dost 
" sink down and dost make an end of the hours." How far the 
attributes ascribed to Amen-Ra in this hymn represent those 
generally bestowed upon the god in the XlXth Dynasty is 
unknown, but the points chiefly dwelt upon are the unity, and the 
invisibility, and the long duration of the existence of the god ; 
nothing is said about Amen-Ra being self-begotten and self-born, 
or of his great creative powers, or of his defeat of the serpent-fiend 
Nak, and it is quite clear that Hu-nefer drew a sharp distinction 
between the attributes of the two gods. 

The following hymn, 1 which was probably written under the 
XXth or XXIst Dynasty, well illustrates the growth of the power 
both of Amen-Ra and of his priests : — " Praise be to Amen-Ra, the 
" Bull in Annu, the chief of all the gods, the beautiful god, the 
" beloved one, the giver of the life of all warmth to all beautiful 
" cattle. 2 Homage to thee, Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the 
" two lands, the governor of the Apts (i.e., Thebes, north and south), 
" thou Bull of thy mother, who art chief in thy fields, whose steps are 
" long, who art lord of the land of the South, who art lord of the 
" Matchau peoples, and prince of Punt, and king of heaven, and first- 
" born god of earth, and lord of things which exist, and stablisher of 
" creation, yea, stablisher of all creation. Thou art One among the 
" gods by reason of his seasons. Thou art the beautiful Bull of the 
" company of the gods, thou art the chief of all the gods, thou art 
" the lord of Maat, and the father of the gods, and the creator of 

1 For the hieratic text see Mariette, Les Papyrus Hjgyptiens du Muse'e de 
Boidaq, pll. 11-13 ; and a French version of the hymn is given by Grebaut, Hymne 
a, Ammon-Ba, Paris, 1875. 

The word nsed here for cattle is rnenmen, and a play is intended upon it and 
the name Amen, who in his character of " bull of Annu " was the patron of cattle. 


men and women, and the maker of animals, and the lord of 
things which exist, and the producer of the staff of life (i.e., 
wheat and barley), and the maker of the herb of the field which 
giveth life unto cattle. Thou art the beautiful Sekhem who wast 
made (i.e., begotten) by Ptah, and the beautiful Child who art 
beloved. The gods acclaim thee, thou who art the maker of 
things which are below and of things which are above. Thou 
illuminest the two lands, and thou sailest over the sky in peace, 
king of the South and North, Ra, whose word hath unfailing 
effect, who art over the two lands, thou mighty one of two-fold 
strength, thou lord of terror, thou Being above who makest the 

Amen-Ea, with his attributes. 

earth according to thine own designs. Thy devices are greater 
and more numerous than those of any other god. The gods 
rejoice in thy beauties, and they ascribe praise unto thee in the 
great double house, and at thy risings in (or, from) the double house 
of flame. The gods love the smell of thee when thou comest from 
Punt (i.e., the spice land), thou eldest born of the dew, who 
comest from the land of the Matchau peoples, thou Beautiful 
Face, who comest from the Divine Land (Neter-ta). The gods 
tremble at thy feet when they recognize thy majesty as their 
lord, thou lord who art feared, thou Being of whom awe is great, 
thou Being whose souls are mighty, who hast possession of 


" crowns, who dost make offerings to be abundant, and who dost 
" make divine food (tchefau). 

" Adorations be to thee, thou creator of the gods, who hast 
u stretched out the heavens and made solid the earth. Thou art 
" the untiring watcher, Amsu-Amen (or Min-Amen), the lord of 
" eternity, and maker of everlastingness, and to thee adorations 
" are paid as the Governor of the Apts. Thou hast two horns 
" which endure, and thine aspects are beautiful, and thou art the 

u lord of the ureret crown (<=> ° Pa) , and thy double plumes are 
" lofty, thy tiara is one of beauty, and thy White Crown M o n\ 
u is lofty. The goddess Mehen (™"5P n ), an d the Uatcheti 
u goddesses ("Hh Jk J)n, , i.e., Nekhebet and Uatchet), are about 
" thy face, and the croAvns of the South and North Cy ) , and the 
" Nemmes crown, and the helmet crown are thy adornments (?) in 
" thy temple. Thy face is beautiful and thou receivest the Atef 
" crown ( j2) ' anc ^ thou art beloved of the South and the North ; 
" thou receivest the crowns of the South and the North, and thou 
" receivest the amesu sceptre (y ) , and thou art the lord of the 
" makes sceptre (S) , and of the whip (or flail, J\) - 1 Thou art 
" the beautiful Prince, who risest like the sun with the White 
" Crown, and thou art the lord of radiant light and the creator of 
" brilliant rays. The gods ascribe praises unto thee, and he who 
" loveth thee stretcheth out his two hands to thee. Thy flame maketh 
" thine enemies to fall, and thine Eye overthroweth the Sebdu fiends, 
" and it driveth its spear through the sky into the serpent-fiend 
" Nak and maketh it to vomit that which it hath swallowed. 

" Homage to thee, Ra, thou lord of Maat, whose shrine is 
" hidden, thou lord of the gods ; thou art Khepera in thy boat, 
" and when thou didst speak the word the gods sprang into being. 

1 In the text of Unas (1. 206 f.) we have, " O Unas, thou hast not departed 
"as one dead, but as one living thou hast gone to sit upon the throne of Osiris. 

" Thy sceptre db ( y J is in thy hand, and thou givest commands to the living, thy 

" sceptre mekes ( ^|\ ^zz^ If) an( i ^7 sceptre nehbet (/vw™ j ^ Q ) are in 
" thy hands, and thou givest commands to those whose places are hidden." 

The God AMSU. 


"Thou art Temu, who didst create beings endowed with reason; 
" thou makest the colour of the skin of one race to be different 
" from that of another, but, however many may be the varieties of 
" mankind, it is thou that makest them all to live. Thou nearest 
" the prayer of him that is oppressed, thou art kind of heart unto 
" him that calleth upon thee, thou deliverest him that is afraid 
" from him that is violent of heart, and thou judgest between the 
" strong and the weak. Thou art the lord of intelligence, and 
" knowledge is that which proceedeth from thy mouth. The Nile 
" cometh at thy will, and thou art the greatly beloved lord of the 
" palm tree who makest mortals to live. Thou makest every work 
" to proceed, thou workest in the sky, and thou makest to come 
" into being the beauties of the daylight ; the gods rejoice in thy 
" beauties, and their hearts live when they see thee. Hail, Ra, 
" who art adored in the Apts, thou mighty one who risest in the 

"shrine: Ani (fl flfl ^)> tnou lord of the festival of the new 

" moon, who makest the six days' festival and the festival of the 
" last quarter of the moon. Hail, Prince, life, health, and strength, 
" thou lord of all the gods, whose appearances are in the horizon, 
" thou Governor of the ancestors of Aukert (i.e., the underworld), 
" thy name is hidden from thy children in thy name ' Amen.' 

" Hail to thee, thou who art in peace, thou lord of joy of 
" heart, thou crowned form, thou lord of the ureret crown, whose 
" plumes are exalted, whose tiara is beautiful, whose White Crown 
" is lofty, the gods love to look upon thee ; the crowns of the 
" South and North are established upon thy brow. Beloved art 
" thou as thou passest through the two lands, as thou sendest 
" forth rays from thy two beautiful eyes. The dead are rapturous 
" with delight when thou shinest. The cattle become languid 
" when thou shinest in full strength ; beloved art thou when thou 
" art in the southern sky, and thou art esteemed lovely when thou 
" art in the northern sky. Thy beauties take possession of and 
" carry away all hearts, and love for thee maketh all arms to relax, 
" thy beautiful form maketh the hands to tremble, and all hearts 
" melt at the sight of thee. 

" Hail, thou Form who art One, thou creator of all things ; 


" hail, thou Only One, thou maker of things which exist. Men 
" came forth from thy two eyes, and the gods sprang into being 
" as the issue of thy mouth. Thou makest the green 'herbs whereby 
" cattle live, and the staff of life for the use of man. Thou makest 
" the fish to live in the rivers, and the feathered fowl in the sky ; 
" thou givest the breath of life to that which is in the egg, thou 
" makest birds of every kind to live, and likewise the reptiles that 
" creep and fly ; thou causest the rats to live in their holes, and 
" the birds that are on every green tree. Hail to thee, thou 
" who hast made all these things, thou Only One ; thy might 
" hath many forms. Thou watchest all men as they sleep, and 
" thou seekest the good of thy brute creation. Hail, Amen, who 
" dost establish all things, and who art Atmu and Harmachis, all 
" people adore thee, saying, ' Praise be to thee because of thy 
" ' resting among us ; homage to thee because thou hast created 
" ' us.' All creatures say, ' Hail to thee ' ! and all lands praise 
" thee ; from the height of the sky, to the breadth of the earth, 
" and to the depths of the sea thou art praised. The gods bow 
" down before thy majesty to exalt the Will of their Creator ; they 
" rejoice when they meet their begetter, and say to thee, ' Come 
" ' in peace, father of the fathers of all the gods, who hast spread 
" ' out the sky, and hast founded the earth, maker of things which 
" ' are, creator of things which exist, thou Prince (life, health, and 
" ; strength [to thee !]), thou Governor of the gods. We adore thy 
" ' Will (or, souls) for thou hast made us ; thou hast made us and 
" ' hast given us birth.* 

" Hail to thee, maker of all things, lord of Maat, father of the 
" gods, maker of men, creator of animals, lord of grain, who 
" makest to live the cattle on the hills. Hail, Amen, bull, 
" beautiful of face, beloved in the Apts, mighty of rising in the 
" shrine, who art doubly crowned in Heliopolis ; thou art the 
" judge of Horus and Set in the Great Hall. Thou art the head 
" of the company of the gods, Only One, who hast no second, 
" thou governor of the Apts, Ani at the head of the company of the 
" gods, living in Maat daily, thou Horus of the East of the double 
" horizon. Thou hast created the mountain, and the silver and 
" real lapis-lazuli at thy will. Incense and fresh dnti are prepared 


for thy nostrils, beautiful Face, who comest forth from the 
land of the Matchau, Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two 
lands, at the head of the Apts, Ani, the chief of thy shrine. 
Thou king who art One among the gods, thy names are manifold, 
and how many they are is unknown ; thou shinest in the eastern 
and western horizons, and overthrowest thy enemies at thy birth 
daily. Thoth exalteth thy two eyes, and maketh thee to set in 
splendour ; the gods rejoice in thy beauties which those who are 
in thy [following] exalt. Thou art the lord of the Sektet Boat 
and of the Atet Boat, which travel over the sky for thee in 
peace. Thy sailors rejoice when they see Nak overthrown, 
and his limbs stabbed with the knife, and the fire devouring 
him, and his filthy soul beaten out of his filthy body, and his 
feet carried away. The gods rejoice, Ra is content, and Annu 
(Heliopolis) is glad because the enemies of Atmu are over- 
thrown, and the heart of Nebt-Ankh (i.e., Isis) is happy because 
the enemies of her lord are overthrown. The gods of Kher-aha 
rejoice, and those who dwell in the shrine are making obeisance 
when they see thee mighty in thy strength. Thou art the 
Sekhem (i.e., Power) of the gods, and Maat of the Apts in thy 
name of ' Maker of Maat.' Thou art the lord of tchefau food, 
the Bull of offerings (?) in thy name, ' Amen, Bull of his mother.' 
Thou art the fashioner of mortals, the creator, the maker of all 
things which are in thy name of Temu-Khepera. Thou art the 
Great Hawk which gladdeneth the body ; the Beautiful Face 
which gladdeneth the breast. Thou art the Form of [many] 
forms, with a lofty crown ; the Uatcheti goddesses (i.e., Nekhebet 
and Uatchet) fly before his face. The hearts of the dead (?) go 
out to meet him, and the denizens of heaven turn to him ; his 
appearances rejoice the two lands. Homage to thee, Amen-Ra, 
lord of the throne of the two lands ; thy city loveth thy radiant 

The chief point of interest in connexion with this hymn is the 
proof it affords of the completeness with which iinien had absorbed 
all the attributes of Ra and of every other ancient form of the 
Sun-god, and how in the course of about one hundred years he 
had risen from the position of a mere local god to that of the 


"king of the gods" of Egypt. In the XVIIIth and XlXth 
Dynasties the wealth of his priesthood must have been enormous, 
and the religious and social powers which they possessed made 
them, in many respects, as powerful as the reigning family. 
Thebes, the capital of Egypt and the centre of the worship of 

Amen-Ra, was rightly called the "city of Amen," ® (j 

(the No-Amon of Nahum iii. 8), and there is reason to think that 
many of the great Egyptian raids in Syria and Nubia were made 
as much for the purpose of supplying funds for the maintenance 
of the temples, and services, and priests of Amen-Ra as for the 
glory and prestige of Egypt. The slavish homage which the 
Thothmes kings, and the Amen-heteps, and the Ramessids paid to 
Amen-Ra, and their lavish gifts to his sanctuaries suggest that it 
was his priests who were, in reality, the makers of war and peace. 
Under the XXth Dynasty their power was still very great, and 
the list of the gifts which Rameses III. made to their order 
illustrates their influence over this monarch. Towards the close 
of this dynasty we find that they had succeeded in obtaining 
authority from the feeble and incapable successors of Rameses III. 
to levy taxes on the people of Thebes, and to appropriate to the 
use of their order certain of the revenues of the city ; this was 
only what was to be expected, for, since the treasury of the god 
was no longer supplied by expeditions into Syria, the priests 
found poverty staring them in the face. When the last Rameses 
was dead the high-priest of Amen-Ra became king of Egypt 
almost as a matter of course, and he and his immediate successors 
formed the XXIst Dynasty, or the Dynasty of priest-kings of Egypt. 
Their chief aim was to maintain the power of their god and 
of their own order, and for some years they succeeded in doing so ; 
but they were priests and not warriors, and their want of funds 
became more and more pressing, for the simple reason that they 
had no means of enforcing the payment of tribute by the peoples 
and tribes who, even under the later of the kings bearing the 
name of Rameses, acknowledged the sovereignty of Egypt. Mean- 
while the poverty of the inhabitants of Thebes increased rapidly, 
and they were not only unable to contribute to the maintenance 


of the acres of temple buildings and to the services of the god, 
but found it difficult to obtain a living. These facts are proved 
by many considerations, but chiefly by the robberies which are 
described or referred to in several papyri of the royal tombs 
in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes ; and the 
discoveries of the royal mummies at Der al-Bahari shows that the 
Government of the period was unable either to protect the royal 
tombs or to suppress the gang of robbers who systematically 
pillaged them. The robberies were carried out with the connivance 
of several high officials, and it Avas to the interests of large 
numbers of the inhabitants of Thebes to make abortive the legal 
proceedings which were taken by the Government against them. 
Notwithstanding their growing poverty and waning influence the 
priests in no way abated the pretensions of their god or of themselves, 
and they continued to proclaim the glory and power of Amen-Ra in 
spite of the increasing power of the Libyans in the Delta. 

In a very remarkable document written for Nesi-Khensu, the 
daughter of one of the priest-kings of Amen-Ra, the god is made to 
enter into an agreement to provide for the happiness and deification 
of the deceased in the Underworld, and the terms of this agree- 
ment are expressed with all the precision, and in the phraseology, 
of a leg-al document. This is interesting enough as illustrating; the 
relations which the priests assumed to exist between themselves 
and their gods, but the introduction to the agreement is more 
important for our purpose here, because in it are enumerated all 
the chief attributes which were ascribed to Amen-Ra under the 
XXIst Dynasty. The following is a rendering of this portion of 
the papyrus of Nesi-Khensu : — l 

" This holy god, the lord of all the gods, Amen-Ra, the lord of 
" the thrones of the two lands, the governors of Apt ; the holy soul 
" who came into being in the beginning ; the great god who liveth 
" by (or upon) Maat ; the first divine matter which gave birth 
" unto subsequent divine matter ! 2 the being through whom every 

1 A hieroglyphic transcript of the hieratic text of this remarkable document, 
together with a French translation, has been published by Maspero in Les Momies 
Eoyales dc Deir-el-bahaH, p. 594 f. 

2 Or, "the primeval paut which gave birth unto the [other] two pautti." 


" [other] god hath existence ; the One One who hath made every- 
" thing which hath come into existence since primeval times when 
" the world was created ; the being whose births are hidden, whose 
" evolutions are manifold, and whose growths are unknown ; the 
" holy Form, beloved, terrible, and mighty in his risings ; the lord 
" of wealth, the power, Khepera who createth every evolution of 
" his existence, except whom at the beginning none other existed ; 
" who at the dawn in the primeval time was Atennu, the prince of 
" rays and beams of light ; who having made himself [to be seen, 
" caused] all men to live ; who saileth over the celestial regions 
" and faileth not, for at dawn on the morrow his ordinances are 
" made permanent ; who though an old man shineth in the form of 
" one that is young, and having brought (or led) the uttermost 
" parts of eternity goeth round about the celestial regions and 
" journeyeth through the Tuat to illumine the two lands which he 
" hath created ; the God who acted as God, who moulded himself, 
" who made the heavens and the earth by his will (or heart) ; the 
" greatest of the great, the mightiest of the mighty, the prince who 
" is mightier than the gods, the young Bull with sharp horns, the 
" protector of the two lands in his mighty name of ' The everlast- 
" ' ing one who cometh and hath his might, who bringeth the 
" ' remotest limit of eternity,' the god-prince who hath been prince 
" from the time that he came into being, the conqueror of the two 
" lands by reason of his might, the terrible one of the double 
" divine face, the divine aged one, the divine form who dwelleth in 
" the forms of all the gods, the Lion-god with awesome eye, the 
" sovereign who casteth forth the two Eyes, the lord of flame 
" [which goeth] against his enemies ; the god Nu, the prince who 
" advanceth at his hour to vivify that which cometh forth upon his 
" potter's wheel, the disk of the Moon-god who openeth a way 
" both in heaven and upon earth for the beautiful form ; the 
" beneficent (or operative) god, who is untiring, and who is 
" vigorous of heart both in rising and in setting, from whose 
" divine eyes come forth men and women ; at whose utterance the 
" gods come into being, and food is created, and tchefau food is 
" made, and all things which are come into being ; the traverser of 
" eternity, the old man who maketh himself young [again], with 


" myriads of pairs of eyes and numberless pairs of ears, whose 
" light is the guide of the god of millions of years ; the lord of 
" life, who giveth unto whom he pleaseth the circuit of the earth 
" along with the abode of his divine face, who setteth out upon his 
" journey and suffereth no mishap by the way, whose work none 
"can destroy; the lord of delight, whose name is sweet and 
" beloved, at dawn mankind make supplications unto him the 
" Mighty one of victory, the Mighty one of twofold strength, the 
" Possessor of fear, the young Bull who maketh an end of the 
" hostile ones, the Mighty one who doeth battle with his foes, 
" through whose divine plans the earth came into being ; the 
" Soul who giveth light from his two Utchats (Eyes) ; the god 
" Baiti who created the divine transformations ; the holy one who 
" is unknown ; the king who maketh kings to rule, and who 
" girdeth up the earth in its courses, and to whose souls the gods 
" and the goddesses pay homage by reason of the might of his 
" terror; since he hath gone before that which followeth endureth ; 
" the creator of the world by his secret counsels ; the god Khepera 
" who is unknown and who is more hidden than the [other] gods, 
" whose vicar is the divine Disk ; the unknown one who hideth 
" himself from that which cometh forth from him; he is the flame 
" which sendeth forth rays of light with mighty splendour, but 
" though he can be seen in form and observation can be made of 
" him at his appearance yet he cannot be understood, and at dawn 
" mankind make supplication unto him ; his risings are of crystal 
" among the company of the gods, and he is the beloved object of 
" every god ; the god Nu cometh forward with the north wind in 
" this god who is hidden ; who maketh decrees for millions of 
" double millions of years, whose ordinances are fixed and are not 
" destroyed, whose utterances are gracious, and whose statutes fail 
" not in his appointed time ; who giveth duration of life and 
" doubleth the years of those unto whom he hath a favour ; who 
" graciously protecteth him whom he hath set in his heart ; who 
" hath formed eternity and everlastingness, the king of the South 
" and of the North, Amen-Ra, the king of the gods, the lord of 
" heaven and of earth, and of the deep, and of the two mountains 
" in whose form the earth began to exist, he the mighty one, who 


" is more distinguished than all the gods of the first and foremost 
" company." 

The definiteness of the assertions of this composition suggest 
that it formed the creed of the worshippers of Amen-Ra, for every 
one of them appears to have been made with the express purpose 
of contradicting the pretensions urged by the priests of other gods, 
e.g., Aten and Osiris ; and an examination of the sentences will 
show that Amen is made to be the source of life of all things, 
both animate and inanimate, and that he is identified with the 
great unknown God who made the universe. It is, however, 
important to note that he is not in any way identified with Osiris 
in this text, a fact which seems to indicate that the national god of 
the Resurrection in Egypt was ignored by the priests of Amen 
who composed the contents of Nesi-Khensu's papyrus. From what 
has been said above as to the importance of Amen-Ra it will be 
evident that a large number of shrines of this god must have 
existed throughout the country, but in nearly all of them he was 
an intruder, and his priests must have lived chiefly upon the 
endowments which the pious Egyptians had provided for gods 
other than he. 

We may now consider the various forms x in which Amen-Ra 
is depicted on monuments and papyri. His commonest form is 
that of a strong-bearded man who wears upon his head lofty 
double plumes, the various sections of which are coloured 
alternately red and green, or red and blue ; round his neck he 
wears a deep collar or necklace, and his close-fitting tunic is 
supported by elaborately worked shoulder-straps. His arms and 
wrists are provided with armlets and bracelets, in his right hand 

is the symbol of life, and in his left the sceptre ] . Hanging from 

his tunic is the tail of some animal, the custom of wearing which 
by gods and kings was common in Egypt in the earliest times. 
In this form his title is " Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two 
lands," |] a O ^ SS ^ ( Instead of the sign of life, •¥-, 
he sometimes holds the Jchepesh war knife, ^=^-, in his right hand. 2 

1 For a number of them see Lanzone, op. cit., pll. 18 ff. 

2 Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 21. 



At times he is given the head of a hawk which is surmounted by 
the solar disk encircled by a serpent, n&; as " Amen-Ra-Temu in 
Thebes " he has the head of a man surmounted by the solar disk 

encircled by a serpent ; before him is the dnkh, -¥- , which is 

provided with human legs and arms, offering lotus flowers to the 
god. 1 Thus he becomes the god both of Heliopolis and Thebes." 
In many scenes we find Amen-Ra with the head of a ram, when he 
usually wears the solar disk, plumes, and uraeus ; at times, how- 
ever, he wears the disk and uraeus, or the disk only. In this form 
he is called " Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two lands, the 
" dweller in Thebes, the great god who appeareth in the horizon," 

Heru-sa-atep, king of Ethiopia, adoring Amen-Ra. 

or " Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two lands, governor of 
" Ta-Kenset (Nubia)." Another form of Amen-Ra is that in 
which he is represented with the body of the ithyphallic god 
Amsu, or Min, or Khem, i.e., as the personification of the power of 
generation. In this form he wears either the customary disk and 
plumes, or the united crowns of the South and North, and has one 
hand and arm raised to support A , which he holds above his 
shoulder ; he is called " Amen-Ra, the bull of his mother," 

r"" 1 "! q 


and possesses all the attributes of Fa-a, 

i.e., the " god of the lifted hand,' 

1 Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 19. 



In one of the examples reproduced by Lanzone * Amen-Ra in 
his ithyphallic form stands by the side of a pylon-shaped building, 
on the top of which are two trees, one on each side of a large lotus 
flower; the lotus flower represents the rising sun, which was 
supposed to issue daily from between two persea trees. In 
another form Amen-Ra has the head of a crocodile, and he wears 
the crown which is composed of the solar disk, plumes, and horns, 
and is called the " disposer of the life of Ra and of the years of 
Temu." Finally, the god was sometimes represented in the form 
of a goose ; the animal sacred to him in many parts of Egypt, 
and all over Nubia, was the ram. In very late dynastic times, 
especially in the Ptolemaic period, it became customary to make 
figures of Amen-Ra in bronze in which every important attribute 
of the god was represented. In these he has the bearded head 
of a man, the body of a beetle with the wings of a hawk, the legs 
of a man with the toes and claws of a lion, and is provided with 
four hands and arms, and four wings, the last named being 
extended. One hand, which is stretched along the wing, grasps 

the symbols 1 , -V- , u , and two knives ; another is raised to 

support £\, after the manner of the "god of the lifted hand;" 

a third holds the symbol of generation and fertility ; and the 
fourth is lifted to his head. The face of the god is, in reality, 
that of the solar disk, from which proceed the heads and necks of 
eight rams. Resting on the disk is a pair of ram's horns, with a 
disk on each, and stretching upwards are the two characteristic 
plumes of the god Amen. From the tip of each of these projects 
a lion-headed uraeus which ejects moisture from its mouth. This 
form of the god was a production probably of the period imme- 
diately following the XXVIth Dynasty, but some modifications of 
it are not so old. The idea which underlies the figure is that of 
representing the paid or company of the gods, of which Amen was 
the chief, and of showing pictorially how every one of the oldest 
gods of Egypt was contained in him. 

In the Saite Recension of the Booh of the Dead we find 
several passages relating to Amen, or Amen-Ra, which appear to 

1 Op. cit., P l. 20, No. 1. 


belong to the same period, and as they illustrate the growth of a 
set of new ideas about the god Amen, some of them being probably 
of Nubian origin, they are reproduced here. The first is found 
in the Rubric to Chapter clxii. which contains the texts to be 
recited over the amulet of the cow, and was composed with the 
view of keeping heat in the body of the deceased in the Under- 
world. The first address is made to the god PAR, AK -£s& Jn , 
which is clearly a form of Amen-Ra, for he is called " lord of the 

phallus," ^zy ?\ fef |C==a ' "lofty of plumes," "lord of 

transformations, whose skins (i.e., complexions) are manifold," 
*^^ (1 < ^v fev CDL , the " god of many names," 

I ^ III 1 A/WWV _B^_B^ III' ° J ' 

" the mighty runner of mighty strides," etc. The second address 
is to the Cow Ahat, >\ \T\ \\ ^^hm, i.e., the goddess Meh-urt 

or Net, who made a picture of herself and placed it under the 
head of Ra when he was setting one evening, and is the petition 
which is to be said when a similar amulet is placed under the 
head of the deceased, and runs. " Amen, Amen, who art in 
" heaven, turn thy face upon the dead body of thy son, and make 
" him sound and strong in the Underworld." 

In Chapter clxiii. we have the second passage as follows : — 
" Hail, Amen, thou divine Bull Scarab ( ^J §--> & "^L, $\ ? 

" thou lord of the two TJtchats, thy name is Hes-Tchefetch 
" (? V fl^^s- ^ '^T) Jn, the Osiris (i.e., the deceased) is the 
" emanation of thy two TJtchats, one of which is called Share- 
" sharekhet (jjjjj *>\ < ~ => T1T1T "%\ ^7^ cfl) j anc ^ tne other 

" Shapdneterarika (JM, ^ □ ^ ^ ^ ^ V ^) '" The ma £ ical 
name of the deceased is " Shaka-Amen-Shakanasa er hatu Tern 
sehetch-nef-taui," x and on his behalf the following prayer is 
made : — " Grant that he may be of the land of Maat, let him not 
" be left in his condition of solitude, for he belongeth to this land 

UJ a = J T.T.T ^ ^ % ~~ ^ £ <=» 



"wherein he will no more appear, and 'An' (?) ( £s\ is his 
" name. let him be a perfect spirit, or (as others say) a strong 
" spirit, and let him be the soul of the mighty body which is in 
" Sau (Sais), the city of Net (Neith)." 

The third passage is Chapter clxv., which is really a petition 
to Amen-Ra by the deceased wherein the most powerful of the 
magical names of the god are enumerated. The vignette of the 
chapter contains the figure of an ithyphallic god with the body of 
a beetle ; on his head are the characteristic plumes of Amen, and 
his right arm is raised like that of Amsu, or Min, the god of the 
reproductive powers of nature. The text reads, " Hail, thou 

" Bekhennq (J ^ v\ T) , Bekhennu ! Hail, Prince, Prince ! 
" Hail Amen, Hail Amen! Hail Par, Hail Iukasa C^K 1^ j£=& Jn 
" (m v\ ^=^> *<k\ tpj ! Hail God, Prince of the gods of the eastern 
" parts of heaven, Amen-Nathekerethi- Amen (f\ Jn /WWVN ^, fl 
" ^^ I ft! fl Q 0^1 Jn) • Hail, thou whose skin is hidden, whose 
" form is secret, thou lord of the two horns [who wast born of] 
"Nut, thy name is Na-ari-k ("^ -az>- M ^^>, or Ka-ari-k, 

z=x) , and Kasaika (^ ^ ^ I (j(j ^=* ^ J), 

"is thy name. Thy name is Arethi-kasathi-ka (~K\ | Oil 

" ^z^s "vx & I ji \m ^z^> <|\ J"n , and thy name is Amen-naiu-an- 

(rv minim o. ^1 4 V 4 ^VVW 
fl 1 ^ j — .^k 1 1 u o 
1 aaaaaa i t rr\^ I ill I v ' 

" or Thekshare - Amen - Rerethi, ) ^* LM 1\ <=> J (1 e=a 

" <?*^ ll QQ w) ' Hail, Amen, let me make supplication unto thee, 
" for I know thy name, and [the mention of] thy transformations 
" is in my mouth, and thy skin is before mine eyes. Come, I pray 
" thee, and place thou thine heir and thine image, myself, in the 
" everlasting underworld. Grant thou that all my members may 
" repose in Neter-khertet (the underworld), or (as others say) 
" in Akertet (the underworld) ; let my whole body become like 
" unto that of a god, let me escape from the evil chamber and let 
" me not be imprisoned therein ; for I worship thy name. Thou 


" hast made for me a skin, and thou hast understood [my] speech, 
"and thou knowest it exceedingly well. Hidden (n R§ fl) 

" is thy name, Letasashaka ( * skiY T ? ^T "%^ ^^ "%^ M), 
" and I have made for thee a skin. Thy name is Ba-ire-qai 
" (VI WT *\ 11 &)> %-meisMarqatha (-^"^ 
" Ih^))' * n ^ name i s Rerei ( 'QQw))> * n y name is Nasa- 
" qebubu (^ ^^J^>JJ^>^j)> th J name is Thanasa- 
" Thanasa ( \ (1 ^aaa IK to 1 _j| ©V thy name is Sharshathakatha 

" Amen, Amen, God, God, Amen, I adore thy 
" name, grant thou to me that I may understand thee ; grant 
" thou that I may have peace in the Tuat (underworld), and that 
" I may possess all my members therein." And the divine Soul 
which is in Nut saith, " I will make my divine strength to protect 
" thee, and I will perform everything which thou hast said." 
This interesting text was ordered to be recited over a figure of the 
" god of the lifted hand," i.e., of Amen in his character of the god 
of generation and reproduction, painted blue, and the knowledge 

of it was to be kept from the god Sukati (m \\ Z5 *fes. ^TT^ fli] Jn) , 

in the Tuat ; if the directions given in the rubric were properly 
carried out it would enable the deceased to drink water in the 
underworld from the deepest and purest part of the celestial 
stream, and he would become " like the stars in the heavens 

A perusal of the above composition shows that we are dealing 
with a class of ideas concerning Amen, or Amen-Ra, which, though 
clearly based on ancient Egyptian beliefs, are peculiar to the 
small group of Chapters which are found at the end of the Sai'te 
Recension of the Booh of the Dead. The forms of the magical 
names of Amen are not Egyptian, and they appear to indicate, 
as the late Dr. Birch said, a Nubian origin. The fact that the 
Chapters with the above prayers in them are found in a papyrus 
containing so complete a copy of the Sai'te Recension proves that 


they were held to be of considerable importance in the Ptolemaic 
period, and they probably represented beliefs which were wide- 
spread at that time. Long before that, however, Amen-Ra was 
identified with Horus in all his forms, and Ra in all his forms, and 
Osiris in all his forms, and the fathers and mothers of these gods 
were declared to be his ; he was also made to be the male 
counterpart of all the very ancient goddesses of the South and the 
North, and the paternity of their offspring was attributed to him. 

From what has been said above it is evident that the worship 
of Amen-Ra spread through all the country both to the north and 
south of Thebes, and the monuments prove that it made its way 
into all the dominions of Egypt in Syria, and in Nubia, and in the 
Oases. In Upper Egypt its centres were Thebes, Hermonthis, 
Coptos, Panopolis, Cusae, Hermopolis Magna, and Herakleopolis 
Magna ; in Lower Egypt they were Memphis, Sais, Xoi's, Metelis, 
Heliopolis, Babylon, Mendes, Thmuis, Diospolis, Butus, and the 
Island of Khemmis ; in the Libyan desert the Oases of Kenemet, 

aaaaaa (i.e., the Oasis of the South, or Al-Khargeh), Tchestcheset, 

n-= *| n " =, j ^ ^ (i.e., Oasis Minor, or Dakhel), Ta-ahet, =s==» (1 fi ^ 

(i.e., Farafra), and the great Oasis of Jupiter Ammon ; in Nubia, 
Wadi SabiVa, Abu Simbel, Napata, and Meroe ; and in Syria at 
several places which were called Diospolis. 

The worship of Amen-Ra was introduced into Nubia by its 
Egyptian conquerors early in the XHth Dynasty, and the 
inhabitants of that country embraced it with remarkable fervour ; 
the hold which it had gained upon'^them was much strengthened 
when an Egyptian viceroy, who bore the title of " royal son of 
Cush," was appointed to rule over the land, and no efforts were 
spared to make Napata a second Thebes. The Nubians were 
from the poverty of their country unable to imitate the massive 
temples of Karnak and Luxor, and the festivals which they 
celebrated in honour of the Nubian Amen-Ra, and the processions 
which they made in his honour, lacked the splendour and 
magnificence of the Theban capital; still, there is no doubt 
that, considering the means which they had at their disposal, they 
erected temples for the worship of Amen-Ra of very considerable 


size and solidity. The hold which the priesthood of Amen-Ra of 
Thebes had upon the Nubians was very great, for in the troublous 
times which followed after the collapse of their power as priest- 
kings of Egypt, the remnant of the great brotherhood made its 
way to Napata, and settling down there made plans and schemes 
for the restoration of their rule in Egypt ; fortunately for Egypt 
their designs were never realized. In Syria also the cult of 
Amen-Ra was introduced by the Egyptians under the XVIIIth 
Dynasty, a fact which is proved by the testimony of the Tell 
el-'Amarna tablets. Thus in a letter from the inhabitants of the 

city of Tunep, 1 ^ v\ □ , to the king of Egypt (i.e., Amen- 
hetep III. or his son Amen-hetep IV.) the writers remind him 
that the gods worshipped in the city of Tunep are the same as 
those of Egypt, and that the form of the worship is the same. 
From an inscription 2 of Thothmes III. at Karnak we know that in 
the 29th year of his reign this king offered up sacrifices to his 
gods at Tunep, and it is probable that the worship of Amen-Ra in 
Northern Syria dates from this time. On the other hand Akizzi, 
the governor of Katna, in writing to inform Amen-hetep III. that 
the king of the Khatti had seized and carried off the image of the 
Sun-god, begs that the king of Egypt will send him sufficient 
gold to ransom the image, and he does so chiefly on the grounds 
that in ancient days the kings of Egypt adopted the worship of 
the Sun-god, presumably from the Syrians, and that they called 
themselves after the name of the god. To emphasize his appeal 
Akizzi addresses Amen-hetep III. as the " son of the Sun-god," a 
fact which proves that he was acquainted with the meaning of the 

title " sa Ra," i.e., " son of Ra," \^, which every Egyptian king 

bore from the time of the Vth Dynasty onwards. This evidence 
supports an old tradition to the effect that the Heliopolitan form of 
the worship of the Sun-god was derived from Heliopolis in Syria. 
In connexion with Amen-Ra must be mentioned an important 

form of the Sun-god which was called Menthu, s=> v\ 3 , 

AAAAAA " i — 1 

1 See The Tell el- l Amarna Tablets in the British Museum, pp. lxv., lxxi. 

2 Mariette, Karnak, pi. 13, 1. 2. 


or Menthu-Ra 


=» \\ JH Q J; though he was commonly 

/vww\ - /l i— i ■*■ — 'I -i— -t 

described as " lord of Thebes," the chief seat of his worship was at 
Hermonthis, the Annu-Rest, HlStk^ i- e -j " Heliopolis of the 
South," of the hieroglyphic texts. Menthu was probably an old 
local god whose cult was sufficiently important to make it 

Menthu giving "life" to Ptolemy Alexander. 

necessary for the priests of Amen to incorporate him with the 
great god of Thebes, and he appears to have been a personification 
of the destructive heat of the sun. The chief centres of his 
worship were Annu of the South, Thebes, Annu of the North, 
Tchertet, < 5 > ^^ (Edfu), Dendera, and perhaps the temples of 

MENTHU. Lord of Thebes. 


the First Cataract, and his commonest titles are, " Menthu-Ra, lord 
" of Thebes, King of the gods, he who is on his throne in Aptet, 
11 Merti, mighty one of two-fold strength, lord of Thebes of the 
" North, Sma-taui, Governor of Behutet, lord of Annu of the South, 
" prince of Annu of the North," 1 and "lord of Manu," i.e., the Libyan 
mountain. 2 Menthu is mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (Mer-en- 
Ra, line 784), together with a number of ancient gods, in such a 
way that we may be certain that his worship was widespread, 

even in the Vlth Dynasty. Thus Khepera ® £5 <==> , and Nu, 
"\^j&, and Tern, and Uash, *£] cs=>, the son of Seb, and 

Sekhem, the son of Osiris, I Y ® \j^, "n^ JJ > are entreated to 
hearken to the words which the dead king is about to address to 
them. Nekhebet of the Temple of Sar, fj M <=> , in Heliopolis is 
said to protect him, he is identified with the star Apsh, 
[ ' J * \/ ,, > an( i the gods who traverse the land of the 
Thehennu, A/ ® A ^^ *^\ =s?= ) ° , and who live on the " in- 
destructible heavens," 111 /ww* © £3 *|k (j e ^ ju ^ [I ^*, 

are besought to allow him to be with them. 

Five obscure gods are next mentioned, i.e., Tchent, «~^ df, 

c^-s> i 

Kher, ® I, Shenthet, e=s - is: => j Khenu, VpG, and Benutch, 

< - > V A^/W\A t=i O 

J ^} , and then it is said that " Seb hearkeneth to him, Tern 

" provideth him with his form, Thoth heareth for him that which 
" is in the books of the gods, Horus openeth out a path for him, 
" Set protecteth him, and Mer-en-Ra riseth in the eastern part of 
11 heaven even as doth Ra. He hath gone forth from Pe with the 
" spirits of Pe, he is even as is Horus and is fortified by the Great 



5 see Lanzoue, op. cit., p. 294. 

firm £24 &• 



" and the Little Companies of the gods. He riseth in the con- 
" dition of a king, he entereth into heaven like Ap-uat, he hath 
" received the White Crown and the Green Crown (|^^ J ^ £/), 
" his club is with him, his weapon (or sceptre) ams (*^\ t\ fl K), 
" is in his grasp, his mother is Isis, his nurse is Nephthys, and the 
"cow Sekhat-Heru (PTl^ l^^r$) §i vetn mm mu k. Net 
" is behind him, Serqet is on his two hands. . . . Let him pass, 
" and let his flesh pass, let him pass, and let his apparel pass, 
" for he hath gone forth as Menth ( aww J&j, he hath gone down 
" like Ba (\ fe* JkA , and he hath hunted like Ba-ashem-f " 

(^s= ^-, 1\ J©- *^^) • Of the origin and early history of 
Menthu nothing is known, but his worship must have been very 
ancient if we are to judge by the passage quoted above from the 
text of king Mer-en-Rii, for, although mentioned with the two 
obscure gods Ba and Ba-ashem-f, it is quite clear that he was a 
great god and that the deceased hoped to resemble him in the 
Underworld. Menthu is twice mentioned in the Theban Recen- 
sion of the Book of the Dead, but curiously enough, only as one of 
a number of gods. Thus, in Chapter cxl. 6, together with Ra, 
Tern, Uatchet, Shu, Seb, Osiris, Suti, Horus, Bah, Ra-er-neheh, 
Tebuti, Naam, Tchetta, Nut, Isis, Nephthys, Hathor, Nekht, 
Mert(?), Maat, Anpu, and Ta-mes-tchetta, he is said to be the 
" soul and body of Ra," and in Chapter clxxi. his name occurs 
among the names of Tern, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set, 
Nephthys, Heru-khuti, Hathor, Khepera, Amen, etc., who are 
entreated to bestow a garment of purity upon the deceased. 
Menthu is usually depicted in the form of a man with the head 
of a hawk, whereon he wears a crown formed of the solar disk with 
the uraeus and two high plumes ; as such he is styled " lord of 

In a figure reproduced by Lanzone 1 he has two hawks' heads, 
each of which is provided with the solar disk, two uraei, and two 
plumes ; in his right hand Menthu grasps the scimitar, ^sh, which 

1 Op. cit., pi. 119, No. 3. 


indicates that he was a god of war. Another proof of his warlike 
attributes is a scene l in which he is depicted, with a long spear 
having a bronze or iron head, in the act of spearing a foe, whose 

hands and feet are tied together. In the city of Tchert, -^ ^, 
Menthu was worshipped under the form of a man with the head of 
a bull, but instead of the solar disk he wears on his head the 
lunar crescent and disk, sometimes with and sometimes without 
plumes. The warlike character of this local form of Menthu 
is indicated by the bow and arrows, and club, and knife which he 
holds in his hands, and we are justified in assuming that he was a 
personification of the fierce, destroying heat of the sun which 
warred against the enemies of the Sun-god, and smote them to the 
death with his burning rays which were like fiery spears and 
darts. In the narrative of the battle of Kadesh we are told that 

Rameses II. "rose up as Ra riseth, and took the weapons (flfifl) 
" of father Menthu," and that when he saw the foe before him 
" he raged at them like Menthu, lord of Thebes, and took his 
" weapons in his hand," and that having become like " Bar 

( J <r=> ^n in his hour," he leaped into his chariot and drove 

headlong into the battle, wherein he, of course, gained a great 
victory. Elsewhere Menthu is often styled the " mighty bull," 
and it is possible that originally this god was nothing but a 
personification of the strength and might of the raging bull when 
fighting a foe, and that his worship in one form or another existed 
in predynastic times. It must, in any case, be very ancient, 
because when joined to Ra his name comes first in the compound 
name and we have "Menthu-Ra" instead of Ra-Menthu. The 
pictures of the god reproduced by Lanzone 2 prove that the god 
possessed other phases which are not at present well understood. 
Thus he is represented standing upright, with the head of a hawk, 
and he holds in the right hand what appears to be an ear of corn 
and in the left a vase, as if he were in the act of making offerings. 
In another scene the god, hawk-headed and wearing the solar 
disk encircled by a uraeus, is seated on a throne and is represented 

1 Op. cit., pi. 120, No. 4. ■ Ibid., pi. 120. 

28 MUT 

in the act of embracing a young Horus god who wears on his head 
the solar disk with plumes, and a tight-fitting cap with a uraeus in 
front of it, and who stands on the edge of the throne by the side of 
the god. 

The principal female counterpart of Amen-Ra, the king of the 

gods, in the New Empire was Mut, A\ ^ J] , whose name means 

" Mother," and in all her attributes we see that she was regarded 
as the great " world -mother," who conceived and brought forth 
whatsoever exists. The pictures of the goddess usually represent 
her in the form of a woman wearing on her head the united crowns 
of the South and the North, and holding in her hands the papyrus 
sceptre and the emblem of life. Elsewhere we see her in female 
form standing upright, with her arms, to which large wings are 
attached, stretched oat full length at right angles to her body; at 
her feet is the feather of Maat. She wears the united crowns, as 
before stated, but from each shoulder there projects the head of a 

vulture ; one vulture wears the crown of the North, \f , and the 

other two plumes, m ,* though sometimes each vulture head has 

upon it two plumes, which are probably those of Shu or Amen-Ra. 
In other pictures the goddess has the heads of a woman or man, a 
vulture, and a lioness, and she is provided with a phallus, and a 
pair of wings, and the claws of a lion or lioness. In the vignette of 
the clxivth Chapter of the Book of the Dead she is associated with 
two dwarfs, each of whom has two faces, one of a hawk and one of 
a man, and each of whom has an arm lifted to support the symbol 
of the god Amsu or Min, and wears upon his head a disk and 
plumes. In the text which accompanies the vignette, though the 
three-headed goddess is distinctly called "Mut" in the Rubric, she 

is addressed as " Sekhet-Bast-Ra," $ J % ^ ^ 3 ^3 , a fact 
which accounts for the presence of the phallus and the male head 
on a woman's body, and proves that Mut was believed to possess 
both the male and female attributes of reproduction. 

We have already seen that the originally obscure god Amen 
was, chiefly through the force of political circumstances, made to 

1 Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 136. 

The Goddess MUT, the Lady of Thebes 



usurp the attributes and powers of the older gods of Egypt, aud 
we can see by such figures of the goddess as those described above 
that Mut was, in like fashion, identified with the older goddesses 
of the land with whom, originally, she had nothing in common. 
Thus the head of the lioness which projects from one shoulder 
indicates that she was identified with Sekhet or Bast, and the 
vulture heads prove that her cult was grafted on to that of 
Nekhebet, and the double crowns show that she united in herself 
all the attributes of all the goddesses of the South and North. 


Thus we find her name united with the names of other goddesses, 
e.g., Mut-Temt, Mut-Uatchet-Bast, Mut-Sekhet-Bast-Menhit, and 
among her aspects she included those of Isis, and Iusaaset. 
Locally she usurped the position of Ament, M c ~~ i ° J) , the old 

female counterpart of Amen and of Apet, (1 D Q J) , the personifi- 
cation of the ancient settlement Apt, from which is derived the 
name " Thebes " (Ta-apt) ; she was also identified with the 
goddess of Amentet, i.e., Hathor in one of her forms as lady of the 


Underworld ; and with the primeval goddess Ament, who formed 
one of the four goddesses of the company of the gods of Hermo- 
polis, which was adopted in its entirety by the priests of Amen 
for their gods ; and with the predynastic goddess Ta-urt, 

~!k ^»Bi» or ^ PI ' 1°^' ^ or ' ^ PT ' fl°^) ; and ' in short ' 

with every goddess who could in any way be regarded as a " mother- 
goddess." The centre of the worship of Mut was the quarter of 
Thebes which was called Asher, or Ashrel, or Asnrelt, 1 and which 
probably derived its name from the large sacred lake which existed 

there ; the temple of the goddess, Q A\ ^, Het-Mut, with its 
sanctuary, A\ TL , was situated a little to the south of the 

great temple of Amen-Ra. From the inscriptions which have 
been found on the ruins of her temple we find that she was styled 
" Mut, the great lady of Ashert, the lady of heaven, the queen of the 

gods," 53 ^ ^ 4« = J ^ _ ^ | T , aad that 
she was thought to have existed with Nu in primeval time, 

aaaaaa pa q 

AA/WSA <k^v J } ^'. "" • She was, moreover, called 

AAAAM nnn W\AA>\ 



" Mut, who giveth birth, but was herself not born of any," 

*V\ ffj (I ,_n_ fn I II. Here also Ave find her associated with 

several goddesses, 3 and referred to as the " lady of the life of the 

two lands," T ^37-¥-|T, and "lady of the house of Ptah, lady of 

heaven, queen of the two lands," etc. 

The great temple of Mut at Thebes was built by Amen-hetep 
III., about B.C. 1450, and was approached from the temple of 
Amen-Ra by an avenue of sphinxes ; the southern half of the 

1 The forms of the name given by Brugsch (Diet. Geog., p. 73) are 

"*"*, U _ -S£=& aa >aa, 

SZ1 <=* 

2 Champollion, Notices, ii., p. 207. 


TA-URT (THOUERIS), the Associate of HATHOR. 


building overlooked a semi-circular lake on which the sacred 
procession of boats took place, and at intervals, both inside and 
outside the outer wall of the temple enclosure were placed statues 
of the goddess Mut, in the form of Sekhet, in black basalt. 
Another famous sanctuary of Mut was situated in the city of 

Pa-khen-Ament, •£*< (1 ^, the ITaxra/aowis of Ptolemy 

(iv. 5, § 50), and the capital of the nome, $LSl_®, Sma-Behutet, 

the Diospolites of Lower Egypt. This city was also called 

"Thebes of the North," ^^@, or the "City of the North," 

^% to distinguish it from Thebes, the great city of Amen 

which is always referred to as the " City," par excellence. From 
the Egyptian word nut, "city," is derived the Biblical form "No," 
and the "No Amon" of Nahum iii. 8, which "was situate among 
" the rivers, that had the waters round about it, whose rampart 
" was the sea, and her wall was from the sea," can hardly be any 
other than the city of Amen and Mut in the Delta. Among other 

shrines of Mut must be mentioned Bekhen, J ^ ^ , a town in 

the Delta, which was probably situated in the sixth nome of 

Lower Egypt, the Khas, rv/vo 24J-, of the Egyptians, and the 


Gynaecopolites of the Greeks. Dr. Brugsch pointed out that the 
deities worshipped at Bekhen were " the Bull Osiris," Amen-Ra, 
Mut, and Khensu, and he considered x it probable that the city lay 

near the capital of the nome which was called Khasut, ^ 11 "v\ ^, 

by the Egyptians and Xoi's by the Greeks. Another shrine of Nut 

was situated at 'An, Hr , by which we are probably to under- 

stand the region in which ' HpaxovnoK^, or Heroopolis, lay. The 
district of An, ^according to Dr. Brugsch, formed the neutral 
border between the South and the North, and a text quoted by 
him concerning it, says, "When Horus and Set were dividing 
"the country they took up their places one on one side of the 
" boundary and the other on the other, and they agreed that the 

1 Diet. Qeog., p. 202. 


" country of An should form the frontier of the country on one 
" side of it, and that it should be the frontier of the other also." x 

From what has been said above it appears that Mut was 
originally the female counterpart of Nu, and that she was one of 
the very few goddesses of whom it is declared that she was " never 
born," i.e., that she was self-produced. Her association with Nu 
suggests that she must be identified with or partake of some of 
the characteristics of a remarkable goddess who is mentioned 
in the Pyramid Texts (Unas, line 181) under the name of 

ra ,^\ /w\AAA _ 

Mut, ^\ v\ ZZXt , a variant spelling of which is Mauit, 2 
f\ a a \\ M o J). Her name occurs in a passage in which a 

prayer is made on behalf of Unas that " he may see," and following 
is the petition, " Ra, be good to him on this day since yester- 
" day " (sic) ; 3 after this come the words, " Unas hath had union 
" with the goddess Mut, 4 Unas hath drawn unto himself the flame 
" of Isis, Unas hath united himself to the lotus," etc. 5 The only 
mention of Mut in the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead 
is found in a hymn to Osiris, 6 which forms the clxxxiiird Chapter; 
the deceased is made to say to the god, " Thou risest up like an 
" exalted being upon thy standard, and thy beauties exalt the 
" face of man and make long his footstep[s]. I have given unto 
" thee the sovereignty of thy father Seb, and the goddess Mut, thy 

D a 

30X =5? 

r-vv — i 

Did. Geog., p. 118. 

3 Becueil de Travaux, torn, iii., p. 197, note 1. 

± nvwv\ pa i—i n a $ — 


4 If ^^^^^^^^^^^^^fl'^ "^ 11 ' 1 ^^^^' 

Mdit, are the same goddess as A\ ^ , it would seem that her name was read as 
Mut, under the Early Empire. 



6 Papyrus of Hunefer, Brit. Mus., No. 9,901, sheet 3. 


M mother, who gave birth to the gods, brought thee forth as the 
" first-born of five gods, and created thy beauties and fashioned 
" thy members." The papyrus which contains this passage was 
written during the reign of Seti I., about B.C. 1370, and it is 
evident that at that period Mut was identified with Nut, and that 
she was made to be the female counterpart of Seb. 

The third member of the great triad of Thebes was Khensu, 

1 vJ) wno was declared to be the son of Amen-Ra and Mut, 

A/WWA I —21 i — ' 

and who was worshipped with great honour at Thebes. According 
to Dr. Brugsch, 1 the name " Khensu " is derived from the root 

khens, ® M-A, "to travel, to move about, to run," and the like, 

/WW\A ' 

and Signor Lanzone 3 renders the name by " il fugatore, il per- 
secutor " ; for both groups of meanings there is authority in the 
texts, but the translations proposed by the former scholar represent 
the commonest meaning of the word. Khensu was, in fact, the 
"traveller," and as he was a form of Thoth and was identified by 
the Thebans with the Moon-god the epithet was appropriate. As 
far back as the time of Unas the motion of Thoth as the Moon-god 
in the sky was indicated by the word Jchens, for in line 194 we 
read, " Unas goeth round about heaven like Ra, and travelleth 
" through heaven like Thoth." 3 In the passage of the text of the 
same king (line 510) which describes how he hunted, and killed, 
and ate the gods, mention is made of the god " Khensu the 

slaughterer," ^ V ^cs I'oj, who "cut their throats for 

" the king, and drew out their intestines for him," and he is 
described as the " messenger whom he sent out to meet them." 4 
Khensu the slaughterer and the messenger can, then, be no other 
than Khensu the Moon-god of later times, and thus we see that, 
under the Early Empire, Khensu occupied a very important 
position in the mythology of the period as the " messenger " of the 
great gods, and the "traveller" who journeyed through the sky 

i Religion, p. 359. 2 Op. cit., p. 973. 

II — D 


under the form of the moon. We have already referred to the 
great antiquity of the section of the text of Unas in which the 
hunting of the gods by the king is described, and there is every 
reason to believe that the existence of Khensu was formulated in 
the minds of the Egyptians in very primitive times, and that his 
name is older than the dynastic period. We may note in passing 

that the other gods mentioned in the section are Aker, "v\ _ I , 

Tern, and Seb, all of whom are well known from texts of the 
dynastic period, and Tcheser-tep-f, Her-Thertu, and Sheshemu, 1 
who assist in marking, and snaring, and cutting up the gods. 
Among certain ancient Oriental nations the worship of the Moon 
always preceded that of the Sun, and there is reason for thinking 
that several of the oldest gods of Egypt were forms of the Moon in 
her various phases. In the theological system which the priests of 
Heliopolis succeeded in imposing upon the country some of these 
were preserved either by identification with the gods of the new 
scheme or by adoption, and comparatively fixed attributes were 
assigned to them. At a still later period, when the cult of Amen 
and Amen-Ra was common throughout the country, a further 
selection from the old gods was made, and some gods had positions 
apportioned to them in the company of the gods of Amen-Ra at 
Thebes. The priesthood of that city showed great astuteness in 
making Khensu, one of the most ancient forms of the Moon-god, to 
be the son of Amen-Ra, and in identifying him with the sons of 
the great cosmic gods Horus and Ra. 

The chief centre of the worship of Khensu in the latter part of 
the dynastic period was Thebes, where Rameses III. built the 

famous "House of Khensu in Thebes," ^ • \\*] ^ f ©, 

or "House of Khensu in Thebes, Nefer-hetep," C= ~~ =1 ~*»* ® 1 t\ 

T © A C n* ^" s ^ e S rea * deity of his temple he was styled 
" great god, lord of heaven," " Khensu in Thebes, (surnamed) 
" Nefer-hetep, Horus, lord of joy of heart in the Apts," and the texts 
show that shrines were built in his honour at Bekhent, J) ® ^ 

«£_) /VW\AA V9 } 

KHENSU in Thebes, Nefer-Hetep. 


in the Delta (?), at Shentu, 9 «»%©, at Nubit, 
(Ombos), at Behutet, ^ (Edfu), at Sma-Behutet, "T <=^>, and 

at Khemennu (Hermopolis). In the last-named place he was called 
" Khensu-Tehuti, the twice great, the lord of Khemennu," 1 a fact 
which proves that in the late dynastic times he was wholly 
identified with Thoth ; as Khensu-Tehuti he was also worshipped 
at Behutet, or Edfu. In Thebes his name was united with that of 

Rfi and of Shu, and we find such forms as Khensu-Ra, ® 1 ^ , 
and Khensu-Shu, ® I U @ | . The great temple of Khensu at 

/WW\A I I 

Thebes appears to have contained three shrines, which probably 
corresponded to three aspects of the god, and we thus have: — 
1. The Temple of Khensu. 2. The Temple of Khensu in Thebes, 
Nefer-lietep. 3. The Temple of Khensu, who worketh [his] plans in 

Thebes > ^i\\ %l - pxi k i ;•* The for - ° f 

the god Khensu-pa-khart, JJ^ ^ % D Jl)^, i.e., "Khensu the 
Babe," and Khensu-Hunnu, ®^ ^ {f%$> le -> " Khensu the 
Child," were probably worshipped in the main portion of the 
temple, for they were purely forms of the Moon-god, and they 
bore the same relation to him that Heru-pa-khart (Harpocrates) 
and H era- Hunnu bore to Horns the Great or to Rii. 

From a series of extracts quoted by Dr. Brugsch 3 from the 
inscriptions on the temple of Khensu at Thebes we find that he was 
the "lord of Maat," like Ptah, and the " moon by night " ; as the 
new moon he is likened to a mighty, or fiery bull, and as the full 
moon he is said to resemble an emasculated bull. As Khensu-pa- 
khart he caused to shine upon the earth the beautiful light of the 
crescent moon, and through his agency women conceived, cattle 
became fertile, the germ grew in the egg, and all nostrils and 
throats were filled with fresh air. He was the second great light 
in the heavens, and was the "first great [son] of Amen, the 
" beautiful youth, who maketh himself young in Thebes in the 

1 ® 1 Jt |=| EEo®. 

2 Brugsch, Did. Geog., p. 600. 3 Religion, p. 360 f. 


" form of Ra, the son of the goddess Nubit, ryi (|(| ^J, a child in 
" the morning, an old man in the evening, a youth at the beginning 
" of the year, who cometh as a child after he had become infirm, 
"and who reneweth his births like the Disk." 1 From this 
passage it appears that Khensu-pa-khart was both the spring 
sun, and the spring moon, and also the moon at the beginning of 
each month, in fact, the symbol of the renewed light of the sun 
and moon, and the source of generation and reproduction. In 
these aspects he was readily identified with many forms of the 
young Sun-god, whether Horus or Ra, and with some of the gods 
of reproduction, e.g., Amsu, or Min. As a Horus god he became 
the son of Osiris, the " Bull of Amentet," and of one of the forms of 

Isis, and as the " Bull of his mother," *-* ^^ AN *-=—, he was 

identified with Amsu-Ra, =s ^= - — a Jn , and was regarded as the 

brother of the Bull Osiris. As Dr. Brugsch pointed out, 2 the 
" two Bulls " mentioned in texts of the late period are Osiris and 
Khensu, and they represent the Sun and the Moon. 

The forms in which Khensu is depicted on the monuments are 
of considerable interest, and may be thus described. Whether 
standing or seated on a throne he has usually the body of a man 
with the head of a hawk ; sometimes, however, his head also is 
that of a man. He wears on his head the lunar disk in a crescent, 
O, or the solar disk with a uraeus, or the solar disk with the 
plumes and a uraeus. As u Khensu of Behutet, the great god, 
lord of heaven," he is seen seated on a throne and holding in 

his hands 1 and ■¥•. As Khensu Nefer-hetep he appears on the 

stele of Pai, J^ <g\ (1(1 ^j , in the form of a mummied man seated 

on a throne ; 3 over his forehead is the uraeus of royalty and by 
the side of his head is the lock of youth. Behind his neck hangs 

the mendt (w , and below his chin is the collar which is usually 

worn by Hathor ; in his hands are £\ , | , u , and j . On the 

stele behind his back are two pairs of ears and two pairs of eyes, 

1 Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 511. " Religion, p. 362. 

3 See Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 340. 

The dual God KHENSU standing upon Crocodiles. 


S> §> §> §> , and the deceased is made to address the god as 

"lord of the gods, Khensu-NEFER-HETEP-TEHUTi, lord of Annu 

" rest (i.e., Annu of the South), chief Mabi ( J M Jn\ , peace, 

" peace, gracious one, who art at peace, and who lovest 
" peace." As " Khensu, the mighty, who cometh forth from Nu," 

^^ s c^ he is provided with two hawks' heads, one 

facing to the right and the other to the left, and four wings, and 
he stands with each foot upon the head of a crocodile ; on his 
heads rest the lunar crescent and disk. In this form he represents 
both the sun at sunrise and the new moon, and the two crocodiles 
symbolize the two great powers of darkness over which he has 

triumphed. As " Khensu, the chronographer," ® 1 £=. J ^ 

I 8 (i H y ®« he wears the solar disk on his head and 

holds a stylus in his right hand, and as Khensu-Ra, ® 1 V T» 

/www T —11 I 

he wears the crown, /J . 

The phase of Khensu which appears to have been of the 
greatest interest to the Egyptians was that which was deified 
under the name of Khensu Nefer-hetep. This god not only ruled 
the month, but he was also supposed to possess absolute power 
over the evil spirits which infested earth, air, sea, and sky, and 
which made themselves hostile to man and attacked his body under 
the forms of pains, sicknesses, and diseases, and produced decay, 
and madness, and death. He it was, moreover, who made plants 
to grow, and fruit to ripen, and animals to conceive, and to men 
and women he was the god of love. We have no means of knowing 
what views the Egyptians held concerning the influence of the 
moon on the minds of human beings on the seventh, fourteenth, 
and twenty-first day of its age, but it is probable that, like the 
Arabs, they assigned to it different and special powers on each of 
these days. In the reign of Rameses III. a large temple was built 
at Thebes in honour of the Moon-god, and according to a tradition 
which his priests in very much later times caused to be inscribed 
upon a stone stele, the fame of his Theban representative was so 
wide-spread that it reached to a remote country called Bekhten, 
which was situated at a distance of a journey of seventeen months 


from Egypt. 1 According to this tradition a king of Egypt, 
who was probably Rameses II., was in the country of Nehern, 

HI £££ 0^4, i.e., a portion of Western Syria near the Euphrates, 

collecting tribute according to an annual custom, when the " prince 
of Bekhten " came with the other chiefs to salute his majesty and 
to bring a gift. The other chiefs brought gold, and lapis-lazuli, 
and turquoise, and precious woods, but the prince of Bekhten 
brought with his offerings his eldest daughter, who was exceed- 
ingly beautiful ; the king accepted the maiden, and took her to 
Egypt, where he made her the chief royal wife and gave her the 

Egyptian name of Ra-neferu (©JJJjL i- e -> the "beauties of Ra," 
the Sun-god. 

Some time after, that is to say, in the fifteenth year of the 
reign of the king of Egypt, the prince of Bekhten appeared in 
Thebes on the xxiind day of the second month of summer, and 
when he had been led into the presence he laid his offerings at the 
feet of the king, and did homage to him. As soon as he had the 
opportunity he explained the object of his visit to Egypt, and said 
that he had come on behalf of the young sister of Queen Ra-neferu, 
who was grievously sick, and he begged the king to send a 

• w Cjj , 

or Bent-enth-reshet, J V <=> n ^^ C/J Q . Thereupon the king 

summoned into his presence all the learned men of his court, 
and called upon them to choose from among their number a skilled 
physician that he might go to Bekhten and heal the Queen's young 
sister ; the royal scribe Tehuti-em-heb was recommended for this 
purpose, and the king at once sent him off with the envoy from 
Bekhten to that country. In due course he arrived there and 
found that the princess of Bekhten was under the influence of 

1 See Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, torn, ii., tav. 48 ; de Rouge, Journal 
Asiatique, 5 e serie, torn, viii., pp. 201-248; x., pp. 112-168; xi., pp. 509-572; 
xii., pp. 221-270 ; and my Egyptian Beading Booh, pp. xxvii. ff. and 40 ft. 

2 The meaning of this name appears to be " daughter of joy," or " daughter of 
pleasure," resliet being a well-known word for pleasure, joy, and the like ; the first 
part of the name bent must represent the Semitic word bath, J"I3, " daughter," from 

.run = run . 



some evil spirit, which he was powerless either to exorcise or to 
contend with in any way successfully. When the king of Bekhten 
saw that his daughter was in no way benefited by the Egyptian 
scribe, he despatched his envoy a second time to Egypt with the 
petition that the king would send a god to heal his daughter, and 
the envoy arrived in Thebes at the time when the king was 
celebrating the festival of Amen. 

As soon as the kin<r had heard what was wanted he went into 
the temple of Khensu Nefer-hetep, and said to the god, " my 
" fair Lord, I have come once again into thy presence [to entreat] 
" thee on behalf of the daughter of the Prince of Bekhten " ; and 
he entreated him to allow the god Khensu to go to Bekhten, and 
said, " Grant that thy magical (or, saving) power may go with 
" him, and let me send his divine Majesty into Bekhten to deliver 
" the daughter of the Prince of that land from the power of the 
" demon." The king of Egypt, of course, made his request to a 
statue of the god Khensu Nefer-hetep, and the text of the stele 
affords reason for believing that the statue was provided with a 
moveable head, for after each of the petitions of the king we have 

the words hen ur sep sen ' U ^r— a ^* © u, which mean that the 

god " nodded firmly twice " as a sign of his assent to the king's 
wishes. The head of the statue was worked by some mechanical 
contrivance which was in the hands of the priests, and there is 
little doubt that not only the head, but also the arms and hands 
of statues of the gods were made to move by means of cords or 
levers that were under the control of the high priest or priest in 
charge. When the god was unwilling to grant the request of the 
suppliant the head or limbs of his statue remained motionless. In 
the present case the king first asked Khensu-Nefer-hetep to send 
Khensu to Bekhten, and when the god had nodded his assent, he 
further asked him to bestow upon Khensu his sa <=mt°, i.e., his 
magical, or divine, or saving power. 

From this passage we learn that a god was able to transfer 
his power to work wonders from himself to a statue, and the text 
tells us that Khensu Nefer-hetep bestowed upon the statue of 
Khensu which was to go to Bekhten a fourfold portion of his 


/WWW 0?K *\ ** -j--|. 1 . 

power and spirit, ^s>- ^ °mt° **"* w 1 Q ^ II II- Jlow this 
was done is not stated, but it is tolerably certain that the statue of 
Khensu was brought near that of Khensu Nefer-hetep, and that 
the hands of the latter were made to move and to rest upon the 
head or shoulders of the former four times. That statues of gods 
were made to move their arms and hands on special occasions is 
well known, and in proof may be quoted the instance given in the 
Stele of the Nubian prince Nastasenen. Before this prince was 
crowned king:, we are told, he was one of those who were chosen 
by the priests of Amen, the great god of Napata, to appear in the 
Temple of the Holy Mountain in order that their god might tell 
them which was to be king of those of the royal family who 
were claimants of the throne of Nubia. On a certain day all the 
young princes assembled in the chamber wherein was the statue 
of the god, and as they passed before it the arms and hands of 
Amen-Ra extended themselves and took hold of the prince whom 
the god had chosen to be his representative upon the throne of 
Nubia, and he was forthwith acclaimed by the priests and generals 
of the soldiers, and in due course his coronation took place. It 
would be idle to assume that statues of gods with moveable heads 
and limbs were employed in this way in Nubia only, and we may 
be quite certain that the Nubian priests of Amen-Ra merely 
followed the customs connected with the election of kings which 
were current in Egypt. The better informed among the people 
must have known that the limbs of the statue were moved by 
mechanism worked by the priests, but the ignorant, who believed 
that the doubles of the gods animated their statues, would assume 
that it was they who moved the head and limbs of the statues 
and gave them a voice to speak. 1 

Returning to the narrative of the Stele we find that the king 
of Egypt despatched Khensu to Bekhten, where the god arrived 
after a journey of seventeen months. As soon as he had been 
welcomed to the country by the Prince of Bekhten and his 
generals and nobles the god went to the place where the princess 

1 Compare also Maspero, Annuaire, 1897, Paris, 1896, pp. 15 fE. ; and Le 
Double el les Statues Prophetiques, p. 88. 


was, and he found that Bent-reshet was possessed of an evil spirit ; 
but as soon as he had made use of his magical power the demon 
left her and she was healed straightway. Then that demon spoke 
to Khensu, and acknowledged his power, and having tendered to 
him his unqualified submission he offered to return to his own 
place; but he begged Khensu to ask the Prince of Bekhten to 
make a feast at which they both might be present, and he did so, 
and the god, and the demon, and the Prince spent a very happy 
day together. When the feast was concluded the demon returned 
to his own land, which he loved, according to his promise. As 
soon as the Prince recognized the power of Khensu he planned to 
keep him in Bekhten, and the god actually tarried there for three 
years, four months, and five days, but at length he departed 
from his shrine and returned to Egypt in the form of a hawk of 
gold. When the king saw what had happened, he spoke to the 
priest, and declared to him his determination to send back to 
Egypt the chariot of Khensu, and when he had loaded him with 
gifts and offerings of every kind the Egyptians set out from 
Bekhten and made the journey back to Thebes in safety. On his 
return Khensu took all the gifts which had been given to him by 
the Prince of Bekhten, and carried them to the temple of Khensu 
Nefer-hetep, where he laid them at the feet of the god. Such is 
the story which the priests of Khensu under the New Empire were 
wont to relate concerning their god " who could perform mighty 
" deeds and miracles, and vanquish the demons of darkness." * 


( 42 ) 


HAP § — ° T=r OR HAPI 8 — °^^ 

IT has already been said above that the god Osiris was probably 
in predynastic times a river-god, or a water-god, and that in 
course of time he became identified with Hap, or Hapi, the god of 
the Nile ; when such an identification took place we have no 
means of knowing, but that such was undoubtedly the case is 
apparent from large numbers of passages in texts of all periods. 
The meaning of the name of the Nile-god has not yet been 
satisfactorily explained, and the derivation proposed l for it by the 
priests in the late dynastic period in no way helps us ; it is certain 
that Hep, later Hap, is a very ancient name for the Nile and 
Nile-god, and it is probably the name which was given to the 
river by the predynastic inhabitants of Egypt. One of the oldest 
mentions of Hep is found in the text of Unas 2 (line 187), where it 

is said, " Keep watch, messengers of Qa (a 'v\ ^) , keep watch, 
" ye who have lain down, wake up, ye who are in Kenset, 
" ye aged ones, thou Great Terror ( y ess ^. ^\ ^^ , Setaa- 
" ue), who comest forth from Hep, thou Ap-uat (^Z^f^f), who 
" comest forth from the Asert Tree (J\ <==> \^), the mouth of Unas 
" is pure." It is important to note that Hep is mentioned in 
connexion with Kenset, ^^ ^ ; now Kenset here means the 
first nome of Egypt, in which were included the First Cataract 

1 Hd-pu, i.e., "this is the body"; see Brugsch, Religion, p. 638. 

2 See Teta, 1. 65. 




and its Islands Elephantine, Sahel, Philae, Senmut, etc., and thus 
it would seem as if the Nile-god Hep, and Ap-uat, " the opener of 
the ways," were even in the Vth Dynasty connected Avith the 
places in which in later times the Nile was thought to rise. In 
the lines which follow the extract given above there is an allusion 
to the food which Unas is to eat in the Underworld, and to the 
Sekhet-Aaru, or Elysian Fields, where he is to live, and it is clear 
that the Nile-god and Ap-uat were exhorted to send forth the 
waters of the river from Kenset in order that they might produce 
grain for the needs of the king. In another passage (Unas, line 43 1 ) 
the destroying power of Hep is referred to, and it is said that 
the houses of those who would steal away the king's food shall 

be given to the thieves (?), and their habitations to Great Hep, 

a ^ rp 3 n o □ 

Hep, or Hapi, is always depicted in the form of a man, but 
his breasts are those of a woman, and they are intended to indicate 
the powers of fertility and of nourishment possessed by the god. 
As the Egyptians divided their country into two parts, the South 
and the North, so they divided the river, and thus there came into 
being the god of the Nile of the South and the god of the Nile of 
the North. An attempt has been made to show that the Nile of 
the South was that portion of the river which flowed from the Sudan 
to Philae, but this is not the case, for the Egyptians believed that 

the Nile rose in the First Cataract, in the Qerti, <=> , or 

" Double Cavern," and the Nile of the South was to them that 
portion of the river which extended from Elephantine to a place 
some little distance north of the modern Asyiit. The god of the 

South Nile has upon his head a cluster of lotus plants, 

whilst he of the North Nile has a cluster of papyrus plants 

the former is called H ap-Reset, | d ¥ ^ , and the latter 

Hap-Meht, § o w **. When the two forms of Hep or Hapi 

are indicated in a single figure, the god holds in his hands the two 
plants, papyrus and lotus, or two vases, from which he was 
believed to pour out the two Niles. By a pretty device, in which 
the two Nile-gods are seen tying in a knot the stems of the lotus 


and papyrus round X, the emblem of union, the Egyptians 
symbolized the union of the South and North, and a slight 
modification of the design, £|L, was cut upon the sides of the 
thrones of kings, from very early times, to indicate that the 
thrones of the South and North had been united, and that the 
rule of the sovereigns who sat upon such thrones extended over 
Upper and Lower Egypt. When once Hapi had been recognized 
as one of the greatest of the Egyptian gods he became rapidly 
identified with all the great primeval, creative gods, and finally he 
was declared to be, not only the maker of the universe, but the 
creator of everything from which both it and all things therein 
sprang. At a very early period he absorbed the attributes of Nu, 

<w ~n . the primeval watery mass from which Ra, the Sun- 

god, emerged on the first day of the creation ; and as a natural 
result he was held to be the father of all beings and things, which 
were believed to be the results of his handiwork and his offspring. 
When we consider the great importance which the Nile possessed 
for Egypt and her inhabitants it is easy to understand how the 
Nile-god Hapi held a unique position among the gods of the 
country, and how he came to be regarded as a being as great as, 
if not greater than Ra himself. The light and heat of Ra brought 
life to all men, and animals, and to every created thing, but 
without the waters of Hapi every living being would perish. 

There was, moreover, something very mysterious about Hapi, 
which made him to be regarded as of a different nature from Ra, 
for whilst the movement of the Sun-god was apparent to all men, 
and his places of rising and setting were known to all men, the 
source of the waters of the Nile-god was unknown. The Egyp- 
tians, it is true, at one period of their history, believed that the 
Nile rose out of the ground between two mountains ! which lay 
between the Island of Elephantine and the Island of Philae, but 
they had no exact idea where and how the Inundation took place, 

1 Herodotus calls these mountains Kpw<£i and Mw^i, which have, by some, 

j/] Q n [ i /www 
been derived from Qer-Hapi, ■=[] Q jj n £££, and Mu-Hapi, ™~™ 
q t=t 

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and the rise and fall of the river were undoubtedly a genuine 
mystery to them. The profound reverence and adoration which 
they paid to the Nile are well expressed in the following extract 
from a hymn to the Nile, as found in a papyrus of the XVIIIth 
or XlXth Dynasty, it reads: — "Homage to thee, Hapi, thou 
" appearest in this land, and thou comest in peace to make Egypt 
" to live. Thou art the Hidden One, and the guide of the dark- 
" ness on the day when it is thy pleasure to lead the same. Thou 
"art the Waterer (or Fructifier) of the fields which Ra hath 
" created, thou givest life unto all animals, thou makest all the 
" land to drink unceasingly as thou descenclest on thy way from 
" heaven. Thou art the friend of bread and of Tchabu (jSNj 1 @ J\ , 
" i.e., the god of drink), thou makest to increase and be strong 
"Nepra D (1 1 | jj, i.e., the god of corn), thou makest pros- 
perous every workshop, Ptah, thou lord of fish; when the 
" Inundation riseth, the water-fowl do not alight upon the fields 
" that are sown with wheat. Thou art the creator of barley, and 
" thou makest the temples to endure, for millions of years repose 
" of thy fingers hath been an abomination to thee. Thou art the 
" lord of the poor and needy. If thou wert overthrown in the 
" heavens the gods would fall upon their faces, and men would 
" perish. He causeth the whole earth to be opened by the cattle, 

" and princes and peasants lie down and rest Thy form is 

" that of Khnemu. When thou shinest upon the earth l shouts of 
"joy ascend, for all people are joyful, and every mighty man 
" receiveth food, and every tooth is provided with food. Thou art 
" the bringer of food, thou art the mighty one of meat and drink, 
" thou art the creator of all good things, the lord of divine meat 

tw ( (1(1(S; l Jfl) i pleasant and choice. . . . Thou makest the 

" herb to grow for the cattle, and thou takest heed unto what is 
" sacrificed unto every god. The choicest incense is that which 
" followeth thee, thou art the lord of the two lands. Thou fillest 
" the storehouses, thou heapest high with corn the granaries, and 
" thou takest heed to the affairs of the poor and needy. Thou 

1 The form of Khnemu here referred to is Kbnemu-Ra. 



" makest the herb and green things to grow that the desires 
" of all may be satisfied, and thou art not reduced thereby. Thou 
" makest thy strength to be a shield for man." 

The following passage is of particular interest, for it proves 
that the writer of the hymn felt how hopeless it was to attempt to 
describe such a mighty and mysterious god as the Nile. " He 
" cannot be sculptured in stone, he is not seen in the images on 
" which are set the crowns of the South and the North and the 
" uraei, neither works nor offerings can be made to him. He 
" cannot be brought forth from his secret abodes, for the place 
" wherein he is cannot be known. He is not to be found in 
" inscribed shrines, there is no habitation which is large enough 
" to contain him, and thou canst not make images of him in thy 

" heart His name in the Tuat is unknown, the God doth 

" not make manifest his forms, and idle are imaginings concerning 
" them." 1 From this passage it is clear that the Egyptians paid 
peculiar honour to Hapi, and that he was indeed regarded as the 

" Father of the gods," ° | , and " the creator of things which 

exist," __ SK m , and that the epithet of "Vivifier," l-f m , 

§£' LI AWW 111 I 1 '»*' 

was especially suitable to him. It must be noted too that in one 
aspect Hapi was identified with Osiris, and this being so Isis 
became his female counterpart, and it is probable that, when 
offerings were made to Osiris, i.e., Osiris- Apis, or Serapis, in late 
dynastic times, when every sanctuary of this double god was called 

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The hieratic text is published by Birch, Select Papyri, pll. xx. ff. ; see also Maspero, 
Hymne au Nil, Paris, 1868 ; and my First Steps in Egyptian, p. 204. 


a "Serapeum," Hapi was held to be included among the forms 
of the god. From a number of passages found chiefly in com- 
paratively late texts we learn that the festival of the annual rise 
of the Nile was celebrated throughout Egypt with very great 
solemnity, and statues of the Nile-god were carried about through 
the towns and villages that men might honour him and pray to 
him. When the inundation was abundant the rejoicings which 
took place after the performance of the religious ceremonies 
connected with it were carried out on a scale of great magnificence, 
and all classes kept holiday. The ancient Egyptian festival 
has its equivalent among the Muhammadans in that which is 
celebrated by them about June 17, and is called Lelet al-Nukta, 
i.e., Night of the Drop, because it is believed that on that night 
a miraculous drop falls from heaven into the Nile and makes 
it to rise. 

It has been said above that Osiris was identified with Hapi, 
and this being so, Isis was regarded as the female counterpart of 
Hapi, but there is little doubt that in very early dynastic times 
other goddesses were assigned to him as wives or sisters. Thus 
of Hapi of the South the female counterpart was undoubtedly 
Nekhebet, but then this goddess was only a form of Isis in 
dynastic times, whatever she may have been in the predynastic 
period. In the north of Egypt the ancient goddess Uatch-uea, 
nJL :fe M ^ J= - r ^ appears to have been the equivalent of 

Nekhebet in the South. But Hapi was also identified with Nu, 
the great primeval water abyss from which all things sprang, 
and as such his female counterpart was Nut, or one of her many 
forms. The oldest form of this goddess appears to be Mut, 

^^E£, or Muit, $^41°' or Mauit, ^^ (](]-$, 
who is mentioned in the text of Unas (line 181). The text 
generally shows that the deceased king is identified with H api the 
Nile-god, and he thus became master of the Nile-goddesses of the 
South and North, for it is said, " Ra, be thou good to Unas this 
" day as yesterday. Unas has been united to the goddess Mut, 
" and he hath breathed the breath of Isis, and he hath been joined 
" to the goddess Nekhebet, and he hath been the husband of the 



" Beautiful One," 


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(SOD kW 1^ I* — O m ^ i* 1^ 

°L=~ /" M 61 <ww\a n -e\ f\ ^\ /www k_^_j 


The mention of Mut, Isis, and Nekhebet in this 

connexion proves that all these three goddesses were intimately 
related, and it is clear that even when the text of Unas was 
written the ancient goddesses Mut and Nekhebet were identified 
with Isis. We should expect Uatchet to appear in connexion 
with Nekhebet, but this goddess must have been absorbed in Isis 
long before the copies of the Pyramid Texts which we have were 

( -19 ) 


Qk^l- SATET - XI' AND ANC * ET > Tzlk 

KHNEMU, the first member of the great triad of Abu, or 
Elephantine, is one of the oldest gods of Egypt, and we 
find him mentioned in the text of Unas in such a way as to show 
that even at the remote period of the reign of that king his cult 
was very old. The views which the Egyptians held concerning 
this god changed somewhat in the course of their long history, but 
tne texts show that Khnemu always held an exalted position 
among the ancient gods of their country, and Ave know from 
Gnostic gems and papyri that he was a god of great importance in 
the eyes of certain semi- Christian sects for some two or three 
centuries after the birth of Christ. It is probable that Khnemu 
was one of the gods of the predynastic Egyptians who lived 
immediately before the archaic period, for his symbol was the 
flat-horned ram, and that animal appears to have been introduced 
into Egypt from the East ; he disappears from the monuments 
before the period of the Xllth Dynasty. In the text of Unas the 
name of Khnemu is found in a section which contains twenty-five 
short paragraphs, the greater number of which must certainly date 
from a period far older than the reign of this king, for the forms of 
the words and the language are very archaic, and few of the names 
of the serpents which are addressed in them occur in later texts. 
Khnemu is represented on the monuments in the form of a ram- 
headed man who usually holds in his hands the sceptre jL and the 
I emblem of life, ■¥-. He wears the White Crown, to which are 
sometimes attached plumes, uraei, a disk, etc. ; in one example 
II — E 


quoted by Lanzone x he has the head of a hawk, which indicates 
that he possessed a solar aspect. As a water-god he is seen with 
outstretched hands over which flows water, and he is sometimes 
seen with a jug, Q, above his horns, which indicates his name. 
The name of Khnemu is connected with the root lchnem, Pj ¥\ V,, 
"to join, to unite," and with khnem, ^t^ym " to build"; 
astronomically the name refers to the " conjunction " of the sun 
and moon at stated seasons of the year, 2 and we know from the 
texts of all periods that Khnemu was the " builder" of gods and 
men. He it was who, according to the statements which were 
made by his priests at Elephantine, the chief seat of his worship, 
made the first egg from which sprang the sun, and he made the 
gods, and fashioned the first man upon a potter's wheel, and he 
continued to " build up " their bodies and maintain their life. 

The portion of Egypt in which the worship of Khnemu was 
supreme extended from Thebes to Philae, but the principal 
sanctuaries of the god were at the two ends of the First Cataract, 
i.e., on Elephantine on the north and on Philae and the adjoining 
islands on the south. He was the god par excellence of the First 
Cataract, throughout which, with his female counterpart Satet and 
the local Nubian goddess Anqet, he was worshipped from the 
earliest dynasties ; the goddess Satet was identified as a form of 

the star Sept, A ■ ^ J] , of Elephantine and of Menhet, lady of 

Latopolis. An examination of the texts makes it clear that 
Khnemu was originally a water or river-god, and that in very 
early times he was regarded as the god of the Nile and of the 

annual Nile-flood, and as such he bore the name of Qebh, fOJ), 

and appeared as the ram-headed god, *W . In the passages quoted 

by Signor Lanzone 3 and Dr. Brugsch 4 he is called the " builder of 
" men and the maker of the gods and the Father who was in the 

" beginning," VM ^ v& ^^ ^\ | , — TtTtT a; " maker of 

" things which are, creator of things which shall be, the source 

1 Op. cit., pi. 336, No. 4. 2 Brugsch, Beligion, p. 290. 

3 Dizionario, p. 957. 4 Beligion. p. 291. 


" of things which exist, Father of fathers, and Mother of mothers," 


-wtfS— m „OT« '^-."-'.T.; "Father of 

H II /T* /WWVA I I I fl WWW ^~^ III III 

" the fathers of the gods and goddesses, lord of created things from 
" himself, maker of heaven, and earth, and the Tuat, and water, 
" and mountains : " *^L_ *«mm 3 ^|^| ^37 O ^rii 

(g) Aw™ r^v i, and "raiser up of heaven upon its four pillars and 

" supporter of the same in the firmament," <=> -C) NK * 

Khnemu united within himself the attributes of the four great 
gods Ra, Shu, Qeb or Seb, and Osiris, and in this aspect he is 
represented in pictures with four rams' heads upon a human body ; 
according to Dr. Brugsch these symbolize fire, air, earth, and 
water. When depicted with four heads Khnemu was the type of 
the great primeval creative force, and was called Sheft-hat, 

*l=_ «=^ # The first ram's head was the head of Ra, and symbolized 
o in c ' J 

Khnemu of Elephantine ; the second was the head of Shu, and 
symbolized Khnemu of Latopolis ; the third was the head of Seb, 
and symbolized Khnemu of Het-urt; and the fourth was the head 
of Osiris, and symbolized Khnemu as lord of Hypselis. As 
Sheft-hat Khnemu was the lord of Hermopolis Magna and of 
Thmuis, and possessed all the attributes which have been 
enumerated above. From another text we learn that the four 
rams also symbolized the life of Ra, the life of Shu, the life of Seb, 
and the life of Osiris, and that the ram of Ra gave him sovereignty 
over the South and North, and identified him with the Ram of 

Mendes, Ba-neb-Tettu, "5^ ^37 ||^. 

The principal shrines of Khnemu-Ra were situated at Sunnu, 

flj§£©, the modern Syene, on the Island of Abu, ^i^, 1 the 

modern Elephantine, and on the Island of Senmut, ^ 

the modern Biggeh, which marked the frontier of Ta-kens, 

1 , or Nubia. He appears in these as the lord of all the 

1 0r ? O J ^ @ - The Islancl was also called A J (? © > " Q eb, . iet -" 


South of Egypt, and is associated with Isis, the great goddess of 
the South, and in fact is to the South of Egypt exactly what Ptah- 
Tanen, who was associated with Nephthys, was to the Delta and 
the North of Egypt. To him was ascribed every attribute of Ra, 
and thus he is described as the god who existed before anything 
else was, who made himself, and who was the creative power 
which made and which sustains all things. When the cult of 
Khnemu-Ra became general in the south his priests increased the 

importance of their god by identifying him with Nu, ^^ 3 , 

the great primeval god of the watery abyss, and from being the 
local river-god of the Nile in the First Cataract he became the god 
Hap-ur, l^T^i ^||, or the Nile of heaven; in the 
latter aspect he was said to dwell in the Island of Senmut. 

The views which were held about Khnemu-Ra as god of the 
earthly Nile are best illustrated by the famous inscription which 
was discovered on a rock on the Island of Sahal in 1890 by the 
late Mr. Charles Wilbour. According to it, in the xviiith year of 
king Tcheser fw 7 ^1, who has been identified with the third 
king of the Illrd Dynasty, the whole of the region of the South, 
and the Island of Elephantine, and the district of Nubia were 
ruled by the high official Mater, m o ^^ v& . The king sent a 

despatch to Mater informing him that he was in great grief by 
reason of the reports which were brought to him into the palace 
as he sat upon his throne, and because for seven years there had 
been no satisfactory inundation of the Nile. As the result of this 
grain of every kind was very scarce, vegetables and garden 
produce of every kind could not be found, and in fact the people 
had very little food to eat, and they were in such need that men 
were robbing their neighbours. Men wished to walk out, but 
could not do so for want of strength ; children were crying for food, 
young men collapsed through lack of food, and the spirits of the 
aged were crushed to the earth, and they laid themselves down on 
the ground to die. In this terrible trouble king Tcheser remem- 
bered the god I-em-hetep, (1 J\ / , the son of Ptah of the 

South Wall, who, it would seem, had once delivered Egypt from a 


similar calamity, but as his help was no longer forthcoming 
Tcheser asked his governor Mater to tell him where the Nile rose, 
and what god or goddess was its tutelary deity. In answer to 
this despatch Mater made his way immediately to the kino-, and 
gave him information on the matters about which he had asked 
questions. He told him that the Nile flood came forth from the 
Island of Elephantine whereon stood the first city that ever 
existed ; out of it rose the Sun when he went forth to bestow 
life upon man, and therefore it is also called " Doubly Sweet Life," 
1 1 "J" ® • The spot on the island out of which the river rose was 
the double cavern (?) Qerti, <~> ^ , which was likened to two 

1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 1 - — -m LJ 

breasts, ~^ V ? f rom which all good things poured forth ; this 
double cavern was, in fact, the " couch of the Nile," ^= < p=^ D 
£== (^ ^_% ar >d f rom it the Nile-god watched until the season 
of inundation drew nigh, and then he rushed forth like a vigorous 
young man, and filled the whole country. 1 At Elephantine he 
rose to a height of twenty-eight cubits, but at Diospolis Parva in 
the Delta he only rose seven cubits. The guardian of this flood 
was Khnemu, and it was he who kept the doors that held it in, 
and who drew back the bolts at the proper time. Mater next 
went on to describe the temple of Khnemu at Elephantine, and 
told his royal master that the other gods in it were Sept (Sothis), 
Anuqet, Hapi, Shu, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Horus, Isis, and Nephthys, 
and after this he enumerated the various products that were found 
in the neighbourhood, and from which offerings ought to be made 
to Khnemu. When the king heard these words he offered up 
sacrifices to the god, and in due course went into his temple to 
make supplication before him ; finally Khnemu appeared before 
him, and said, " I am Khnemu the Creator. My hands rest upon 
" thee to protect thy person, and to make sound thy body. I 
" gave thee thine heart. ... I am he who created himself. I am 
the primeval watery abyss, and I am Nile who riseth at his will 

>WWV\ f ^ H j| a r\ 

1 His inundation is thus described J\ / J\ U (I 


" to give health for me to those who toil. I am the guide and 
" director of all men, the Almighty, the father of the gods, 
" Shu, the mighty possessor of the earth." Finally the god 
promised that the Nile should rise every year, as in olden time, 
and described the good which should come upon the land when he 
had made an end of the famine. When Khnemu ceased to speak 
king Tcheser remembered that the god had complained that no 
one took the trouble to repair his shrine, even though stone lay 
near in abundance, and he immediately issued a decree in which 
it was ordered that certain lands on each side of the Nile near 
Elephantine should be set apart for the endowment of the temple 
of Khnemu, and that a certain tax should be levied upon every 
product of the neighbourhood, and devoted to the maintenance of 
the priesthood of the god ; the original text of the decree was 
written upon wood, and as this was not lasting, the king ordered 
that a copy of it should be cut upon a stone stele which should be 
set in a prominent place. 1 It is nowhere said that the god kept 
his promise to Tcheser, but we may assume that he did. The 
form of the narrative of the Seven Years' Famine summarized 
above is not older than the Ptolemaic period, but the subject 
matter belongs to a much older time, and very probably represents 
a tradition which dates from the Early Empire. 

We have seen that the spirit, or soul, of Khnemu pervaded all 
things, and that the god whose symbol was a ram was the creator 
of men and gods, and in connexion with this must be noted 
the fact that, together with Ptah, he built up the edifice of the 
material universe according to the plans which he had made under 
the guidance and direction of Thoth. As the architect of the 
universe he possessed seven forms which are often alluded to in 
texts ; they are sometimes represented in pictures, and their names 
are as follows : — 

1 jk X D A 3 ' Khnemu Nehep, " Khnemu the Creator." 
\lf 1 1 \\ 5} , Khnemu Khenti-taui, " Khnemu, governor of 

the two lands." 

1 For the hieroglyphic text see Brugscb, Die biblisclten sieben Julire der 
Hiingersnoth, Leipzig, 1891. 

The Goddess SATI. 



® ^ [= ® =l2 ^ = ^J' Khnemu Sekhbt ashsep-f, " Khnemu, 
weaver of his light." 

| ^ uru ^-^, Khnemu Khenti per-ankh, "Khnemu, 
Governor of the House of Life." 

= T^Cw' Khnemu Neb-ta-Ankhtet, "Khnemu, lord of 
the Land of Life." 

r)TK If ■¥- Q jf|. Khnemu Khenti netchemtchem ankhet, 
" Khnemu, G-overnor of the House of Sweet Life." 
^W Jj 5, Khnemu Neb, "Khnemu, Lord." 

Sati > s3|j' or Satet ' ^C^ or > T"~$\' was &e Prin- 
cipal female counterpart of Khnemu, and was worshipped with 
him at Elephantine, where she was a sister goddess of Anqet. Her 

name appears to be connected with the root sat, ]T" , "to 

shoot, to eject, to pour out, to throw," and the like, and sat is 
also used in connexion with the scattering abroad and sowing of 
seed, and with the sprinkling of water ; thus at any rate at one 
period she must have been regarded as the goddess of the inunda- 
tion, who poured out and spread over the land the life-giving 
waters of the Nile, and as the goddess of fertility. She sometimes 
carries in her hands a bow and arrows, a fact which suggests that 
in her earliest form she was a goddess of the chase ; according to 
Dr. Brugsch, she was identified by the Greeks with their goddess 
Hera. 2 In many pictures of the goddess we see her wearing the 
crown of the South and a pair of horns, which prove that she was 

a form of Ast-Sept, j| A ^ -^ J) , or Isis-Sothis. At the time 

when the temple of Dendera was built she was identified with the 

local goddess Isis-Hathor of Dendera, with A:\jent, (1 " ^J), 

of Thebes, and Menat, awaa W of Heliopolis, and Renpit of 

1 This goddess must not be confounded with the Satet, ? "* J] ? who is 

represented in the form of a woman, and bears upon her head the Utchat ^^^ , 
ami was a local Alexandrian form of Isis; see Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 1124. 

2 Religion, p. 299. 


Memphis, the goddess of the year, etc. In the text of Pepi I. 
Sati is mentioned (line 297) under the form Sethat, |l s=> (j ^*, 
and we see from the context that in that early period the goddess 
possessed a temple at Elephantine. The dweller in Tep, „ ^, 
is said to have aided the king, who "has censed himself and 
" performed his ceremonies of purification with a vessel of wine, 
" which hath come from the vine of the god. 1 . . . Seb stretcheth 
" out his hand to Pepi and guideth him through the gates 
" of heaven, a god in his beautiful place, a god in his place, 

" 1 Ibv fP 'I *"^~ 1 frk ll ' °> anc ^ behold Sethat washeth 
" him with the water which is in her four vases in Abu " (Elephan- 
tine). The mention of Tep shows that there was some connexion 
between the goddess of the city of Per-Uatchet and the goddess of 
Elephantine long before the period of the Vlth Dynasty. In the 
preface to the cxxvth Chapter of the Booh of the Dead the 
deceased enumerates the various sacred places which he has 
visited, and says, " I have been in the waters of the stream, and I 
" have made offerings of incense. I have guided myself to the 
" Shentet Tree of the [divine] children, and I have been in Abu 

" (Elephantine) in the Temple of Satet," || ° p A . This is 

the only mention of Sati, or Satet, in the Theban Recension of the 
Booh of the Dead, but it is of great importance as showing that 
the temple of the goddess at Abu was regarded as one of the 
principal holy places in Egypt. It has already been said that 

Sati was connected by the Egyptians with the star Sept, A J) » 

wherein dwelt the soul of Isis, and from this point of view Sati 
was a form of Isis, and became in consequence a female counter- 
part of Osiris ; this fact will account for the mention of Sati in the 
Booh of the Dead. The centre of the worship of Sati appears to 
have been the Island of Sahal, J^~, which lies about two miles to 
the south of Elephantine, in the First Cataract. 

- ~ I I Y>\ aa/w\a '|66l I 
J ^ ^ I I I 

The Goddess ANQET. 


Anqet, aa^a n 9 was the third member of the triad of 

Elephantine, which consisted of Khnemu, Sati, and Anqet, and 
she seems to have possessed many of the attributes of her sister- 
goddess Sati. In pictures Anqet is represented in the form of a 

woman who holds in her hands the sceptre T, and the emblem of 
"life," •¥-; she wears on her head a crown of feathers which are 
arranged in such a way as to suggest a savage origin. She 
appears to have been originally a goddess of some island in the 
First Cataract, but in early dynastic times she was associated with 
Khnemu and Sati, and her worship was common throughout 
Northern Nubia ; later the centre of her worship was" at SAhal, 
and she was regarded as a goddess of that island, and was called 

"lady of Satet," ^37 ^^ Nebt Satet. Her temple there seems 
to have been named " Amen-heri-ab," (1 <=> 3 T, but it is clear 

I AftAAAA \\ U vi> 

from the appearance of Amen's name in its title that it cannot be 
older than the XVIIIth Dynasty. At Philae another temple 
was built in her honour, and it bore the name of " Pa-mer," 

£3-2, and it seems that from this island southwards 
she was identified with Nephthys. In very early times Osiris, 
Isis, and Nephthys were associated in a triad, and as Osiris was a 
form of Khnemu, and Khnemu a form of Osiris, and Isis and Sati 
were sister goddesses, it followed as a matter of course that Anqet 
should be identified with Nephthys. According to Dr. Brugsch, 1 

the name "Anqet" is derived from the root anq, (I • , " to 

surround, to embrace," and the like, and has reference to the 
goddess as the personification of the waters of the Nile which 
embrace, and nourish, and fructify the fields. Among the pictures 
of Anqet reproduced by Signor Lanzone 2 is one in which the 
goddess is seen seated in a shrine with a table of offerings before 
her ; the shrine is placed in a boat, at each end of which is an 
aegis of a goddess, who wears on her head a disk and horns, ^4y . 
and is probably Isis ; the boat floats on a stream from which runs 
a small arm. The goddess is styled "Anqet, lady of Satet (i.e., 

1 Beligion, p. 302. 2 Dizionario, pi. xliv. ff. 


" the Island of Sahal), lady of heaven, mistress of all the gods," 

r^^^^^'^i^in^ 7 ^!- in an ° ther p ictnre 

she is seen suckling a young king whose neck she embraces with her 
left arm, and in a text which accompanies another representation 
she is described as the " giver of life, and of all power, and of all 

" health, and of all joy of heart," ^ ^ ^7 [1 ~J | ^ <A ^ . 

We have now to consider two very important forms of 
Khnemu, that is to say, 1. Khnemu who, under the form of Her- 
shef, was worshipped at Herakleopolis Magna, and 2. Khnemu 
who, under the form of Osiris, was worshipped at Mencles. 

1. Khnemu as Her-shef, ^ n3 J, or Her-sheft, 

JJ , was worshipped at Suten-henen, or Henen-su, 
I m /w»™ or Het-Henen-su, J I ^) AAAA ^, under the 

T AWVAA K O © • III LT=1 T AWAA JT <=> ©' 

form of a horned, ram-headed man, and wore the White Crown 
with plumes, a disk, and uraei attached. The Greeks trans- 
scribed the name Her-shef by s ' Apaacf)^, and as Plutarch says 
that it means " strength, bravery," it is clear that in his time the 
latter portion of it, shef or sheft, was derived from shef, or shift, 
JJ, "^^^ | j "strength, power, bravery," and the like. 
On the other hand two variant forms of the name of the god 

are: — Her-she-f. v «^^, i.e., " He who is on his lake," and 

Heri-sha-f, ^ ^ ^j\ ° °, i.e., "He who is on his sand." 

The first form would connect the god with Lake Moeris, and the 
second refers to him as an aspect or phase of Osiris, who bears this 
title in Chapter cxli., line 109, and Chapter cxlii., line 24, of the 
Booh of the Dead. In Chapter xlii., line 14, the god Aa-shefit, 
< 7^ > n (1 (1 ^ 2L Jn , is mentioned, and it is probable that he also is 

to be identified with Osiris. Henen-su, the centre of the worship 
of Khnemu under the form of Her-shefi, is often referred to in the 
Booh of the Dead, and a number of important mythological events 
are said to have taken place there. Thus it was here that Ra rose 
for the first time when the heavens and the earth were created 
(xvii. 7-9), and it was this rising which formed the first great act 

HERU-SHEFIT. the Lord of Suten-Henen 


of creation, because as soon as Ra rose he separated the earth from 
the sky. Osiris was here crowned lord of the universe, and here 
his son Horus assumed the throne of his father left vacant by the 
death of Osiris. When Ra ordered the goddess Sekhet to go forth 
and destroy mankind because they had mocked him and had spoken 
lightly of his age, she started on her journey from Henen-su. To 
this place also returned Set after his defeat by Horus, who had 
wounded him severely, and Osiris was believed to have taken a 
spade and covered over with earth the blood * which dropped from 
him and his fiends, and to have buried the bodies of those whom 
Horus had slain. It is this act which is alluded to by the deceased 
when he says (Chapter i., line 30), " I have grasped the spade on 
" the day of digging the earth in Suten-lienen (or Henen-su)." 
Elsewhere (xvii. 49) we have an allusion to the " day of the union 

of the two earths," IT *K\ , smut taui, which is explained 

by the stronger expression, " the completing of the two earths," 

fofo c ' , temt taui. The text which follows says that it 

refers to " the mingling of earth with earth in the coffin of Osiris, 
" who is the Soul that dwelleth in Henen-su, and the giver of 
,; meat and drink, and the destroyer of wrong, and the guide of 
" the everlasting paths, i.e., Ra himself." An entirely different 
matter in connexion with the two earths is mentioned in line 121), 
where there is an allusion to " Shu, the strengthener of the two 

" lands in Henen-su," A A X R\ 3 ' ^^ u\> <= 

A/WVAA A/WVAA ^ A I —21 i — I ' • • • ' S —21 

% ^™ , and there is little doubt that the words refer to the 

part which Shu played at the Creation, when he held up with his 
arms and hands the sky which Ra had made to separate it from 
the earth. 

At Henen-su lived the Great Benxu, J m% tj^wj □ _y> QQ 

- a (Chapter cxxv. 18), and in the neighbourhood dwelt the 

' w ■ 

awful "Ckusher of Bones," [l^^^ — ° E i, Set-qesu, who is 
mentioned in the Negative Confession, and in this place the souls 
of the beatified found a place of rest in the realm of Osiris in this 

1 Naville, Heracleopolis, p. 8. 


place (cxxxvii.A, 25). Near Henen-su were the two great mytho- 
logical lakes called Heh, ^i ! , and Uatch-urA, ^ ^ (| ^ S ; 
the variant forms of the first of these are : — Semu - heh, 
P ^5^ tjk ^ -^ jf 1 ' ' an ^ U tet -heh, ^\ ^ ^ W\ i . The sanctuary 

AAAAAA ^ ^ > *=»/V 

of Osiris at Henen-su was called Nareref, "^ Jy> nm , or 

" An-rut-f," _n_ y\ , i.e., " the place where nothing groweth," 

and it was entered by a door on the south side called Re-stau, 

~^~ ' ' ' (Chapter xvii. 52) ; in some portion of the sanctuary 

was the Aat-en-shet, '^ |1 , or " region of fire," and near it 

was the torture chamber named " Sheni," X (1(1 . This 

chamber was guarded by a god with the face of a greyhound 
and the eyebrows of a man, and he sat watching at the " Elbow," 

a \ \ , of the " Lake of Fire " for the dead who passed that way, 

and as he remained himself unseen he was able to seize upon them 
and tear out their hearts and devour them. The texts show that 
there was great difference of opinion about the name of this 

monster, which is given as Mates, ^g^ e=^ ^>^ , and Beba, 
and Heri-sep-f 

\\ □© 
These facts, which are derived chiefly from the xviith Chapter 

of the Booh of the Bead, prove that Henen-su, or Herakleopolis, 
possessed a system of theology of its own, and that this system 
must be very ancient, but whether it is older than that of Helio- 
polis it is impossible, at present, to say definitely. What is 
certain, however, is that the great local god Her-shef was 
sufficiently important to be regarded as a form of the great ram- 
god Khnemu. It must be noted also that Her-shef was a solar 
god, and that as such many of the titles of Ra were bestowed upon 
him ; it is said that he lit up the world with his beams, that his 
right eye was the sun and his left eye the moon, that his soul was 
the light, and that the north wind which gave life to all came 
forth from his nostrils. He is said, moreover, like Ra, to be 
" One." 1 In a figure of the god reproduced by Lanzone 2 he has 

1 Religion, p. 304. " Dizionario, p. 552. 

The Goddess ANIT. 


four heads ; one is the head of a bull, one that of a ram, and two 
are the heads of hawks. Above these are the characteristic horns 
of Khnemu which are surmounted by two plumes and four knives. 
These four heads represent the four gods who formed Khnemu of 
Henen-su, i.e., Ra, Shu, Seb, and Osiris, and thus he might be 
identified with Ra-Tem of Heliopolis, or Amen-Ra of Thebes, and 
either of these compound gods might be worshipped as one of his 

The female counterpart of Her-shef possesses various names, 
and as she was identified with various goddesses this is not to be 
wondered at ; her chief attributes were those of Hathor and 

Isis, and her local name was Atet, J), or Mersekhnet, 

3=r|lff fij . Many of her attributes, however, were those of 

Net (Neith), ^^ J), and Meh-urt, and Heqet, and Anit, | M\ °; 

as the last named goddess she was the sister of Ka-hetep, i.e., 
Osiris. According to a text quoted by Dr. Brugsch, 1 Atet, the 
local goddess of Henen-su, in the form of a cat slew Apep, the 
great serpent of darkness. From this it is clear that she was a 
female counterpart of Ra, who, as we knew from the xviith 
Chapter of the Booh of the Dead, took the form of a cat, and slew 
Apep, the prince of darkness, who had taken the form of a monster 

serpent. The text says, " I am the Cat (Mau, y\ tSr) , which 

" fought (?) hard by the Persea Tree (Ashet, (1 e * = ^ A), in Annu, on 

"the night when the foes of Neb-er-tcher 2 ( wf) were 

" destroyed." The explanation of this statement which follows the 
question, " Who then is this ? " is " The male Cat is Ra himself, 
" and he is called ' Mau ' by reason of the words of the god Sa, 3 

" who said about him, ' [Who] is like (man, 2 Q y> - )> un ^o him?' 
"and thus his name became 'Mau' (i.e., Cat)." The fight here 
referred to is the first battle which the god of light waged against 

1 Diet. Geog. t p. 399. 

3 A form of Osiris, both as the lord of the universe, and as lord of his 
re-united body. 

3 The god of Reason, or Intelligence. 


the fiends of darkness at Annu, after which he rose in the form of 
the sun upon this world. 

Finally, in connexion with the city Henen-su we must note 
that there existed in the temple there a shrine which was dedicated 
to the goddess Neheb-kau ^^ t\ ? J *tM WL 3 , who was 

worshipped there in the form of a huge serpent. She was one of 
the Forty-two Assessors of the Hall of Maati (Negative Confession, 
line 40), and in the Papyrus of Nu (cxlix. 5) the deceased says 
that she has " stablishecl his head for him ; " elsewhere she seems 
to be mentioned as a form of Nut, and to be the female counter- 
part of the serpent god Nau. 1 She was a goddess who provided 
for the dead meat and drink, not the material offerings of earth, 

but the divine tchefaut food, ^ | *|\ \\ <=> <l^ 3 i , or |) ^=^ , or 

tcheftchef, ^^% "^ "%v , which may be compared to the nectar 

and ambrosia on which the gods of Olympus lived, and which grew 
in the portion of the Sekhet-Aaru, or Elysian Fields, called 

Tchefet, ^3 ^/V © . What this food was cannot be said, but the 
word tchef or tcheftchef is connected with tcheftchef, 1^10) 
"to shed light," and tchef etch ^ ^ 0, the "pupil of the eye" 

of Ra, i.e., the "Eye of Horus," ' " V^, which is mentioned so 

often in the Pyramid Texts, and it must then either be a celestial 
food made of light, or some product of the mythological Olive 

Tree, ^* w, Baqet, which grew in Annu (Unas, line 170). 

In any case Neheb-kau was a very ancient goddess who was 
connected with the Elysian Fields of the Egyptians, and she is 
often depicted in the form of a serpent with human legs and arms, 
and sometimes with wings also, and she carries in her hands one 
or two vases containing food for the deceased. In the text of 
Unas (line 599) she is referred to in the following passage : — 
" Homage to thee, Horus, in the domains of Horus ! Homage 
" to thee, Set, in the domains of Set ! Homage to thee, thou 


Aat x., 1. 6. 


" god Aar (l\ ^j\ -^^) , in Sekhet - Aarer 

>/ \ | ^ nifil ril , nl ii 11 1 iM ril n 

"11^21)1)1)1)!)' Homa ° e to thee ' Ne tetthab Q ^(jo), 
" daughter of these four gods who are in the Great House. Even 
" when the command of Unas goeth not forth, uncover yourselves 
" in order that Unas may see you as Horus seeth Isis, as Nehebu- 
" kau (>www A J ^\ ULi 3^j seeth Serqet, as Sebek seeth Net 

" (Neith), and as Set seeth Netetthab." 

Among the greatest of the festivals at Henen-su were those 
in honour of Neheb-kau which, according to Dr. Brugsch, 1 were 
celebrated on the first of Tybi, that is to say, nine days after the 

"Festival of Ploughing the Earth," Khebs-ta, © JO ^^7, 

when men began to plough the land after the subsidence of the 
waters of the Inundation. Under the heading " Osiris " reference 
is made to the performance of the ceremony of " ploughing the 
earth," which gave the name to the festival, but it may be noted 
in passing that it appears to have had a double signification, i.e., 
it commemorated the burial of Osiris, and it symbolized the 
ploughing of the land throughout the country preparatory to 
sowing the seed for the next year's crop. Other festivals 
were those of Bast, Avhich were celebrated in the spring of the 
Egyptian year, and those of the " hanging out of the heavens," 
K^y ° ^3[P , i.e., the supposed reconstituting of the heavens 
each year in the spring. Finally, in connexion with Henen-su 
may be mentioned the God Heneb, 2 8 ViX B|M , for whom in 

r> /wwv\ *£u 

the Saite period the official Heru planted two vineyards ; of the 
attributes of this god we know nothing, but it is probable that he 
was supposed to preside over grain and other products of the land. 
In several passages of the Booh of the Dead we have the word 

heribet | ^t L , " corn-lands, provisions," and the like, and 
in Chapter clxxx. line 29, a god called Henbi, « Ml J \ M ■ jj. 

is mentioned, and he appears to be identical with the Heneb of 
the stele of Heru. 

1 liel'ujion, p. 305. - Bragsch, Diet. Gt'og., pp. 85:2, 1364. 


Coming now to the second great form of Khnemu, viz., that 
under which he was worshipped at Mendes, we find that at a very 
early date he was identified with the great god of that city, and 
was known as Ba-neb-Tettu, "^ ^37 j j? @, i.e., the Ram, lord 
of Tettu. Now as the word for " soul " in Egyptian was Ba, and 
as a name of the ram was also Ba, the title Ba-neb-Tettu was 
sometimes held to mean the " Soul, the lord Tettu," and this was 
the name at Mendes of the local form of Khnemu, whose symbol 
there, as elsewhere, was a ram. Ba-neb-Tettu, whose name was 
corrupted by the Greeks into MeVSr??, and Tamai al-Amdid : by 
the Arabs, was said to be the " living soul of Ra, the holy Sekhem 

"who dwelleth within Hat-mehit, v-^-i,," and the "life of Ra," 

■V- a^vnaa a and he was worshipped throughout the sixteenth 

nome from the earliest times. He was regarded as the virile 
principle in gods and men, and is styled, " King of the South and 
" North, the Ram, the virile male, the holy phallus, which stirreth 
" up the passions of love, the Ram of rams, whose gifts are brought 
" forth by the earth after it hath been flooded by the Nile, the 
" Soul, the life of Ra, who is united with Shu and Tefnut, the One 
" god, who is mighty in strength, who riseth in the heavens with 
" four heads, who lighteth up the heavens and the earth (like Ra), 
" who appeareth in the form of the Nile like (Osiris), who vivifieth 
" the earth (like Seb), and who formeth the breath of life for all 
" men, the chief of the gods, the lord of heaven and the king of 
"the gods." 2 Ba-neb-Tettu was originally a local form of Ra, 
but he subsequently was made to include within himself not only 
the Soul of Ra, but the Souls of Osiris, and Seb, and Shu. These 
four Souls are reproduced by Signor Lanzone, 3 and appear in the 
form of four rams, the horns of each being surmounted by a 
uraeus ; they are described as " The Soul of Seb, lord of Het- 

1 aj>-^\ ^3. As a matter of fact the first portion of this name represents 
©/xout?, the Greek name of one portion of the ancient city of Tettu, and the second 
— " al-Amdid " — is a corruption of Ba-neb-Tettu, which became Ba-neb-Tet, then 
Ba-n-Tet, and finally Man-Tet, Mendes. 

2 See Brugsch, Religion, p. 309. 3 Dizionario, pi. 68. 


\aI\MSv\ A* 

k r ~ 


— — — 


" teft ; the Soul of Osiris, lord of Ta-sent ; the Soul of 

" Shu, lord of Anit ; and the Soul of Ra, dweller in " 

In allusion to these Souls the Ram of Mendes is sometimes 
described as the Ram with " Four faces (or, heads) on one neck," 

99 _^ J 0" 

The female counterpart of Ba-neb-Tettu was Hat-mehit, 

e ==^ 00 \| Qhc!$' anc ^ ^ er son ky the g ^ was Heru-pa-khart, 
the dweller within Tettu, vv □ S)?| ft u. This goddess is 

always represented as a woman, who bears on her head the fish, 
< ^)\, which is the symbol of the nome, *-«-il. She is described as 


the dweller in Atemet, **"* (j Q ] and she was in some 

way connected with Punt, but the centre of her worship in Egypt 
was the city of Mendes, of which [she is called the " Mother ; " she 
was, of course, a form both of Isis and Hathor, and as such was 
called " the Eye of Rfi, the lady of heaven, and the mistress of the 
gods." In late dynastic times, when Ba-neb-Tettu was especially 
regarded as the Soul of Osiris, and when the other aspects of the 
god were not considered of so much importance, Hat-Mehit was 
wholly identified with Isis, and her son " Harpocrates, the 
dweller in Mendes," became to all intents and purposes " Horus, 
the son of Isis," by Osiris. Thus we see that the local god of 
Mendes, who was originally a form of Ra, the Sun-god by day, 
was merged into Osiris, the Sun-god by night ; the priests, how- 
ever, were careful to preserve the peculiar characteristics of their 
god, i.e., virility and the power to create, and to recreate, and they 
did so by declaring that the phallus and the lower part of the 

backbone, - — •— >^ , of Osiris were preserved in the temple of 

the city which bore the name of Per-khet, ^ ^ , i.e., the 

" House of the staircase." The Ram of Mendes was then a form 

of " Osiris as the Generator," jl ^ %> 1^ f"^ > as ne i s called 

1 Piehl in Recneil, torn, ii., p. 30; de Rouge, Gcog. Ancienne, p. 114. 

II — F 


in Chapters cxli. and cxlii. of the Book of the Dead, and the 
popularity of his cult in the Delta was probably due to the 
elaborate phallic ceremonies which were celebrated at Mendes and 
in the neighbourhood annually. 

Before the close of the Ptolemaic period, however, some 
calamity seems to have fallen upon Mendes, and her sanctuary 
was forsaken and her god forgotten ; on the other hand, the 
portion of the city which was known by the name Thmuis, 
Gfxovis, survived, and was sufficiently important in Christian 
times to possess a bishop of its own. The Copts called 
the place -ejutoveujc, or ^Baki ojuioyi, and a Bishop of 
Thmoui was present both at the Council of Nice and the Council 
of Ephesus. 1 

Finally, we have to note that Khnemu as a form of Shu, i.e., 
as a personification of the wind, and atmosphere, and the supporter 
of heaven, and the light of the Sun and Moon, was worshipped at 
several places in Upper Egypt and in Heliopolis under the form of 
a ram ; the centre of his worship at this last-named place was 
Het-Benben, or the " House of the Obelisk." At Latopolis he 
absorbed the attributes of Tern, and he was identified with Nu, the 
maker of the universe and creator of the gods ; similarly, he was 
regarded as a form of Ptah and of Ptah-Tanen, and his female 
counterparts were Menhit, Sekhet, and Tefnut. In a hymn which 
is inscribed on the walls of the temple of Esna he is called, " The 
" prop of heaven who hath spread out the same with his hands," and 
the sky is said to rest upon his head whilst the earth beareth up his 
feet. He is the creator of heaven and earth and of all that therein 
is, and the maker of whatsoever is ; he formed the company of the 
gods, and he made man upon his potter's wheel. He is the One 
god, the source from which sprang the regions on high, the 
primeval architect, the maker of the stars, the creator of the gods, 
who was never born, and the begetter or maker of his own being, 
whom no man can understand or comprehend. Many other 
passages in the inscriptions at Esna ascribe to him naturally all 
the powers and attributes 2 of Ptah. Among several interesting 

1 Amelinean, La GeograpMe de I'HJgypte, p. 501. 

2 For the enumeration of several of them see Brugsch, Religion, p. 504. 


addresses to the god may be mentioned that wherein it is said, 
" Thou hast raised up heaven to be a dwelling-place for thy soul, 
"and thou didst make the great deep that it might serve as a 
" hiding-place for thy body." Finally, it may be noted that as 
Khnemu-Shu absorbed the attributes of Nu, Ra, Ptab, Thoth, etc., 
so also several great goddesses, besides those already mentioned, 
were identified with his female counterparts, e.g., Nut, Net (Neith), 
Nebuut, etc. 

( 68 ) 



N connexion with the Sun-gods of Egypt and with their 
various forms which were worshipped in that country must 
be considered the meagre facts which we possess concerning Aten, 
who appears to have represented both the god or spirit of the sun, 
and the solar disk itself. The origin of this god is wholly obscure, 
and nearly all that is known about him under the Middle Empire 
is that he was some small provincial form of the Sun-god which 
was worshipped in one of the little towns in the neighbourhood of 
Heliopolis, and it is possible that a temple was built in his honour 
in Heliopolis itself. It is idle to attempt to describe the attributes 
which were originally ascribed to him under the Middle or Early 
Empire, because the texts which were written before the XVIIIth 
Dynasty give us no information on the subject. Under the 
XVIIIth Dynasty, and especially during the reigns of Amen- 
hetep III. and his son Amen-hetep IV., he was made to usurp all 
the titles and attributes of the ancient solar gods of Egypt, Ra, 
Ra-Heru-khuti, Horus, etc., but it does not follow that they 
originally belonged to him. In the Theban Recension of the 
Booh of the Dead, which is based upon the Heliopolitan, we 
find Aten mentioned by the deceased thus : — " Thou, Ra, 
" shinest from the horizon of heaven, and Aten is adored when he 
" resteth (or setteth) upon this mountain to give life to the two 
"lands." 1 Hunefer says to Ra, "Hail, Aten, thou lord of beams 
" of light, [when] thou shinest all faces (i.e., everybody) live ; " 

1 See my Chapters of Coming Forth by Day (Translation), p. 7 ; for the 
passages which follow see the Vocabulary, s.v. aten, p. 48. 


Nekht says to Ra, " thou beautiful being, thou dost renew 
" thyself and make thyself young again under the form of Aten ; " 
Ani says to Ra, "Thou turnest thy face towards the Underworld, 
" and thou makest the earth to shine like fine copper. The dead 
" rise up to see thee, they breathe the air and they look upon thv 
" face when Aten shineth in the horizon ; " " .... I have come 
" before thee that I may be with thee to behold thy Aten daily; " 
" thou who art in thine Egg, who shinest from thy Aten," etc. 

These passages show that Aten, at the time when the hymns 
from which they are taken were composed, was regarded as the 
material body of the sun wherein dwelt the god Ra, and that he 
represented merely the solar disk and was the visible emblem of 
the great Sun-god. In later times, owing to protection afforded 
to him by Amen-hetep III., the great warrior and hunter of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty, other views were promulgated concerning Aten, 
and he became the cause of one of the greatest religious and social 
revolutions which ever convulsed Egypt. After the expulsion of 
the Hyksos, Amen, the local god of Thebes, as the god of the 
victorious princes of that city, became the head of the company of 
the gods of Egypt, and the early kings of the XVIIIth Dynasty 
endowed his shrine with possessions, and gave gifts to his priest- 
hood with a lavish hand. In spite of this, however, some of these 
kings maintained an affection for the forms of the Sun-god which 
were worshipped at Heliopolis, and Thothmes IV., it will be 
remembered, dug out the Sphinx from the sand which had buried 
him and his temple, and restored the worship of Ra-Harmachis, 
and he was not the only monarch who viewed with dismay the 
great and growing power of the priests of Amen-Ra, the " king of 
the gods" at Thebes. 

Amen-hetep III., the son of Thothmes IV., held the same 
views as his father in this respect, and he was, apparently, urged to 

give effect to them by his wife Thi, f J \\ ()(H , the daughter of Iuaa, 

M % ~^\ , and Thuau, s=> v\ ft v\ J) , who was a foreigner and 
who was in no way connected with the royal house of Egypt. 
Having married this lady, he gave her as dowry the frontier city 
of Tcharu, — 3^ v\ ) ©, and her natural ability, coupled with the 



favour of her husband, made her chief of all the royal wives, and a 
great power in the affairs of the government of the country. It 
has been thought by some that she was a native of the country near 
Heliopolis, and it is possible that she herself was a votary of Aten, 
but be that as it may, she appears to have supported the king in 
his determination to encourage the worship of this god. At an 
early period in his reign he built a temple in honour of Aten at 
Memphis, and later he built one at Thebes, quite close to the great 
sanctuary of Amen-Ra, the priests of whom were, of course, power- 

less to resist the will of such an active and able king. 

Soon after 

The beams of Aten illumining the names of Khu-en-Aten and his family. 

his marriage with Thi, Amen-hetep III. dug, in his wife's city of, a lake, which was about 6000 feet long by 1000 feet broad, 1 
and on the day of the festival when the water was allowed to flow 
into it, he sailed over it in a boat called " Aten-neferu," (j "^ T IT, 
i.e., the " Beauties of Aten ; " the name of the boat is a clear proof 
of his devotion to the god Aten. Amen-hetep IV., the son of 
Amen-hetep III. by the foreign lady Thi, not only held the 
religious views of his father, but held them very strongly, and his 

1 (T\ ^^ "~-a 
its breadth 600 cubits." 

« U ^=— s>~- £> <o<a, i.e., "its length 3600 cubits, 


life shows that he must have been from his youth up an adherent 
of the worship of Aten ; it is supposed, and with much probability, 
that the intensity of his love for Aten and his hatred for Amen-Ra 
were due to his mother's influence. 

Amen-hetep IV. succeeded his father without difficulty, even 
though his mother was not a member of the royal family of Egypt, 
and for the first few years of his reign he followed the example of 
the earlier kings of his dynasty, and lived at Thebes, where he no 
doubt ruled according to his mother's wishes ; he offered up 
sacrifices to Amen-Ra at the appointed seasons, and was, outwardly 
at least, a loyal servant of this god, whose name formed a part 
of his name as " son of the Sun." We may note in passing, that 
he had adopted on his accession to the throne the title " Hio-h- 
" priest of Ra-Heru-khuti, the exalted one in the horizon, in his 
"name of Shu who is in Aten," c ] y u mmm t\§ ^jf , — <£h , — 

.s *— _§^ [3 _p O xv £=■ (j "g*, which is a clear proof that 

he was not only a worshipper of Ra-Harmachis, another of the 
forms of the Sun-god of Heliopolis, but also that he endorsed the 
views and held the opinions of the old College of Priests at 
Heliopolis, which made Shu to be the creator of the gods, and 
which assigned the disk (Aten) to him for a dwelling-place. 
Amen-hetep' s titles as lord of the shrines of the cities of Nekhebet 
and Uatchet, 1 and as the Horus of gold 2 also prove his devotion 
to a Sun-god of the South whose attributes were the same as the 
Sun-god of Heliopolis. During the early years of his reign at 

Thebes he built a massive Benben, J "vww J } m honour of 

Rii-Harmachis at Thebes, and it is probable that he took the 
opportunity of restoring or enlarging the temple of Aten which 
had been built by his father ; at the same time we find that he 
worshipped both Amen and Aten, the former in his official position 
as king, and the latter in his private capacity. It was, however, 




impossible for the priests of Amen-Ra to tolerate the presence of 
the new god Aten and his worship in Thebes, and the relations 
between the king and that powerful body soon became strained. 
On the one hand the king asserted the superiority of Aten over 
every god, and on the other the priests declared that Amen-Ra 
was the king of the gods. As, however, Amen-Ra was the centre 
of the social life of Thebes, and his priests and their relatives 
included in their number the best and greatest families of the 
capital city, it came to pass that the king found himself and the 
worship of Aten wholly unsupported by the great mass of its 
population, whose sympathies were with the old religion of Thebes, 
and by those who gained their living in connexion with the 
worship of Amen-Ra. The king soon realized that residence in 
Thebes was becoming impossible, and in the fifth year of his reign 
he began to build a new capital on the east bank of the Nile, near 
a place which is marked to-day by the Arab villages of Haggi 
Kandil and Tell el- Amarna ; he planned that it should include 
a great temple to Aten, a palace for the king, and houses for 
all those who were attached to the worship of Aten and were 
prepared to follow their king there. 

Whilst the new capital was building the dispute between the 
king and the priests of Amen-Ra became more severe, and matters 
were much aggravated by Amen-hetep IV. when he promulgated 
the edict for obliterating the name of Amen and his figure from 
every monument in Egypt. At length the king left Thebes and 
took up his abode in his new capital, which he called " Khut- 

Aten," ^ a^a, i.e., " Horizon of Aten," and as a si«:n of the 

entire severance of his connexion with the traditions of his house 
in respect of Amen-Ra he discarded his name " Amen-hetep " and 

called himself Khut-en-Aten (^>J — (j ~g*l, i.e., "Glory of 

Aten," or, " Spirit of Aten." At the same time he changed his 
Horus name of " Exalted One of the double plumes " to " Mighty 
Bull, beloved of Aten " (or, lover of Aten), and he adopted as lord 
of the shrines of Nekhebet and Uatchet the title of " Mighty one 
of sovereignty in Khut-Aten," and as the Horus of gold he styled 
himself, " Exalter of the name of Aten." The temple of Aten at 



Khut-Aten was, like that at Heliopolis, called Het Benben, 
M ^ J] AAAAAA J ■ a name which probably means "House of 

the Obelisk ; " it was begun on a very large scale, but was never 
finished. It contained many altars whereon incense was burnt 
and offerings were laid, but no sacrifices of any kind were offered 
up on them. The high-priest of Aten assumed the title of the 

high-priest of Ra at Heliopolis, Ur-maau, ^* ~p "v\ >> ^j ? 

and in many respects the new worship was carried on at Khut- 
Aten by means of many of the old forms and ceremonies of the 
Heliopolitan priesthood ; 
on stated occasions the 
king himself officiated. 
The worship of Aten as 
understood by Amen- 
hetep IV. was, however, 
a very different thing 
from the ancient wor- 
ship of Aten, for whereas 
that was tolerant the 
new worship was not. 
It is clear from the re- 
liefs which have been 
found in the city of 
Khut-Aten that Aten 
was regarded as the giver 
of life, and the source of all life on this earth, and that his symbols 
were the heat and light of the sun which vivified and nourished 
all creation. Aten was also the one physical body of the Sun, and 
the creed of Aten ascribed to the god a monotheistic character or 
oneness, of which it denied the existence in any other god. This 
being so, the new religion could neither absorb nor be absorbed by 
any other; similarly, Aten could neither absorb nor be absorbed by 
the other gods of Egypt, because he had nothing in common 
with them. Attempts have been made to prove that the Aten 
worship resembled that of the monotheistic worship of the 
Hebrews, and to show that Aten is only another form of the name 

Amcn-hetep IV. and his Wife adoring Aten. 



Adon, i.e., the Phoenician god i*TN, whom the Greeks knew as 
"a Sams ; but as far as can be seen now the worship of Aten was 
something like a glorified materialism, which had to be expounded 
by priests, who performed ceremonies similar to those which 
belonged to the old Heliopolitan sun-worship, without any con- 
nexion whatsoever with the worship of Yahweh, and a being of 
the character of Adon, the local god of Byblos, had no place in it 
anywhere. In so far as it rejected all other gods, the Aten 
religion was monotheistic, but to judge by the texts which describe 
the power and works of Aten, it contained no doctrines on the 
unity or oneness of Aten similar to those which are found in the 

Amen-hetep IV. seated on his throne beneath the Disk. 

hymns to Ra, and none of the beautiful ideas about the future life, 
with which we are familiar from the hymns and other compositions 
in the Book of the Dead. 

The chief source of our knowledge of the attributes ascribed 
to Aten is obtained from the hymns to this god which Amen- 
hetep IV. caused to be inscribed on his monuments, and from 
one of them which has twice been published in recent years l we 

1 First by Bouriant in Memoires cle la Mission, torn, i., pp. 2ff., and later, with 
numerous corrections of Bouriant' s text and a running commentary by Mr. Breasted, 
in Be Hymnis in Solem sub rege Amenopliide IV. conceptis, Berlin (no date). 


obtain the following extracts. The hymn is prefaced by these 
words : — 

" 1. A hymn of praise to Heru-khuti (Harmachis), who 
" springeth up joyfully in the horizon in his name of ' Shu who is 
" in the Disk,' and who liveth for ever and for ever, Aten the 
" Living One, the Great One, he who is [celebrated] in the thirty 

" year festival, the lord of the orbit (0 "^1 of the sun, the lord 

" of the sun, the lord of heaven, the lord of earth, the lord of the 
" House of Aten in the city of Khut-Aten, 2. by the king of the 
" South and of the North, who liveth by Maat, the Lord of the Two 

" Lands, f Nefer-kheperu-Ra-ua-en-RajL 1 the son of the Sun, who 

" liveth by Maat, the lord of crowns, f Khu-en-Aten J, 2 who is great 

" in the duration of his life, 3. and by his great royal wife, his darling, 

" the Lady of the Two Lands, f Nefert-iti, Nefer-neferu-Aten V 

'* the living one, the strong one for ever." The hymn proper 
begins after the words, " He (i.e., the king) saith, 4. ' Thy rising is 
" ' beautiful in the horizon of heaven, 5. thou Aten, who hadst 
" ' thine existence in primeval time. 6. When thou risest in the 
" ' eastern horizon thou fillest every land with thy beauties, 7. thou 
" ' art beautiful to see, and art great, and art like crystal, and art 
" ' high above the earth. 8. Thy beams of light embrace the lands, 
" ' even every land which thou hast made. 9. Thou art as Ra, 
" ' and thou bringest [thyself] unto each of them, 10. and thou 
" ' bindest them with thy love. 11. Thou art remote, but thy beams 
" ' are upon the earth. 12. So long as thou art in the heavens day 
"' shall follow in thy footsteps. 13. When thou settest in the 
u ' western horizon the earth is in darkness, and is like a being that 
"'is dead. 14. They lie down and sleep in their habitations, 
" ' 15. their heads are covered up, and their nostrils are stopped, 
" ' and no man can see his neighbour, 16. and all their goods and 

1 These titles mean something like, " Beauty of the creations of Ra, tbe only 
one of Ra." 

- I.e., " Glory of Aten." 

3 The proper name is Nefert-iti, and her title means " Beauty of the beanties 
of Aten." 


" ' possessions may be carried away from under their heads without 
" ' their knowing it. 17. Every lion cometh forth from his den, 
" ' 18. and serpents of every kind bite; 19. the night becometh 
" ' blacker and blacker, 20. and the earth is silent because he who 
" ' hath made them hath sunk to rest in his horizon. 

"21. When thou risest in the horizon the earth lightens, and 
" when thy beams shine forth it is day. 22. Darkness taketh to 
" flight as soon as thy light bursteth out, and the Two Lands keep 
" festival daily. 23. Then [men] wake up and stand upon their 
" feet because thou hast raised them up, 24. they wash themselves, 
" and they array themselves in their apparel, 25. and they lift up 
" to thee their hands with hymns of praise because thou hast risen. 
" 26. [Over] all the earth they perform their work. 27. All beasts 
" and cattle repose in their pastures, 28. and the trees and the 
" green herb put forth their leaves and flowers. 29. The birds 
" fly out of their nests, and their wings praise thy Ka as they fly 
" forth. 30. The sheep and goats of every kind skip about on 
" their legs, 31. and feathered fowl and the birds of the air also 
" live [because] thou hast risen for them. 32. The boats float 
" down and sail up the river likewise, 33. for thy path is opened 
" when thou risest. 34. The fish in the stream leap up towards 
" thy face, 35. and thy beams shine through the Avaters of the 
" great sea. 

" 36. Thou makest male seed to enter into women, and thou 
" causest the liquid seed to become a human being. 37. Thou 
" makest the man child to live in the body of his mother. 
" 38. Thou makest him to keep silent so that he cry not, 39. and 
" thou art a nurse to him in the womb. 40. Thou givest breath 
" that it may vivify every part of his being. 41. When he goeth 
" forth from the belly, on the day wherein he is born, 42. thou 
" openest his mouth that he may speak, 43. and thou providest 
" for him whatsoever is necessary. 44. When the chick is in the 
" the egg, and is making a sound within the shell, 45. thou givest 
" it air inside it so that it may keep alive. 46. Thou bringest it 
" to perfection so that it may split the eggshell, 47. and it cometh 
" forth from the egg to proclaim that it is a perfect chick, 
" 48. and as soon as it hath come forth therefrom it runneth 



" about on its feet. 49. How many are the things which thou 
" hast created ! 

" 50. There were in the face of the One God, and his 

" had rest. 51. Thou didst create the earth at thy will 

" when thou didst exist by thyself, 52. and men and women, and 
" beasts and cattle, and flocks of animals of every kind, 53. and 
11 every thing which is upon the earth and which goeth about on 
" its feet, 54. and everything which is in the air above and which 
" flieth about with wings, 55. and the land of Syria and Nubia, 

Amen-hetep IV. and his Wife and Daughter. 

" and Egypt. 56. Thou settest every man in his place, 57. and 
" thou makest for them whatsoever they need. 58. Thou pro- 
" videst for every man that which he should have in his storehouse, 
" and thou computest the measure of his life. 59. They speak in 
" tongues which are different [from each other], 60. and their 
" dispositions (or characteristics) are according to their skins. 
" 61. Thou who canst discern hast made the difference between 
" the dwellers in the desert to be discerned. 

" Q2. Thou hast made Hapi (i.e., the Nile) in the Tuat, 63. and 


" thou bringest him on according to thy will to make rational 
" beings to live, 64. inasmuch as thou hast made them for thyself, 
"65. thou who art the lord of all of them, and who dost remain 
" with them. 66. Thou art the lord of every (?) land, and thou 
"shinest upon them, 67. thou art Aten of the day, and art 
" revered in every foreign land (?), 68. and thou makest their 
" lives. 69. Thou makest Hapi in heaven to come down to them, 
" 70. and he maketh his rushing waters to flow over the hills like 
"the great green sea. 71. and they spread themselves abroad 
" and water the fields of the people in their villages. 72. Thy 
" plans (or, counsels) are doubly beneficent. 73. Thou art the 
" Lord of eternity, and thou thyself art the Nile in heaven, and 
" all foreign peoples and all the beasts on all the hills 74. go about 
"on their feet [through thee]. 75. Hapi (i.e., the Nile) cometh 
" from the Tuat to Egypt, 76. and thou givest sustenance to its 
" people and to every garden, and 77. [when] thou hast risen they 
" live for thee. 

" 78. Thou hast made the seasons of the year so that they 
" may cause the things which thou hast made to bring forth, 
" 79. the winter season bringeth them cold, and the summer 
" season fiery heat. 80. Thou hast created the heavens which are 
" far extending that thou mayest rise therein and mayest be able 
" to look upon all which thou didst create when thou didst exist 
" by thyself, 81. and thou dost rise in thy creations as the living 
" Aten, 82. and thou dost rise, and dost shine, and dost depart on 
" thy path, and dost return. 83. Thou didst create [the forms] 
" of created things in thyself when thou didst exist alone. 84. 
" Cities, towns, villages and hamlets, roads and river[s], 85. from 
" these every eye looketh upon thee, 86. for thou art the Aten of 
" the day and art above the earth. 87. Thou journeyest through 

" that which existeth in thine Eye. 88 89. 

" Thou art in my heart, 90. and none knoweth thee except thy 

" son f Nefer-kheperu-Ra-ua-en-Ra J, 91. and thou makest him to 

" be wise and understanding through thy counsels and through 
" thy strength. 92. The earth is in thy hand, inasmuch as thou 
" hast made them (i.e., those in it). 93. When thou risest man- 


" kind live ; and when thou settest they die. 94. As lono- as thou 
" art in the sky they live in thee, 95. and the eyes of all are upon 
" thy beauties until thou settest, 96. and they set aside their 
" work of every kind when thou settest in the west. 97. Thou 

" risest and thou makest to grow for the kino-. 

"98 from the time when thou didst lay the foundations 

" of the earth, 99. and thou didst raise them up for thy son who 
" proceeded from thy members." [Here follow two lines wherein 
the names and titles of the king are repeated.] 

The above version of the hymn to Aten will serve to illustrate 
the views held by the king and his followers about this god, and 
may be compared with the hymns to Ra, which are quoted in the 
section on the forms of the Sun-god, when it will be seen that 
many of the most important characteristics of hymns to sun-gods 
are wanting. There is no mention of enemies or of the fiends, Apep, 
Sebau, and Nak, who were overcome by Ra when he rose in the 
eastern horizon ; no reference is made to Khepera, or to the 
services which Thoth and Maat were believed to render to him 
daily ; and the frequent allusions to the Matet and Sektet Boats 
in which Ra was thought to make his journey over the sky are 
wholly omitted. The old myths which had grown up about Ra 
are ignored, and the priests of Aten proclaimed with no uncertain 
voice the unity of their god in terms which provoked the priests 
of Amen to wrath. Aten had existed for ever, they said, he was 
beautiful, glorious, and self-existent, he had created the sun and 
his path, and heaven, and earth, and every living being and thing 
therein, and he maintained the life in man and beast, and fed all 
creatures according to his plans, and he determined the duration 
of their life. Everything came from Aten, and everything 
depended upon him ; he was, moreover, everlasting. From the 
absence of any mention of the " gods " or of the well-known great 
gods of Egypt it is evident that they wished to give a monotheistic 
character to the worship of Aten, and it was, manifestly, this 
characteristic of it which made the king and his god detested at 
Thebes ; it accounts for the fact that Amen-hetep IV. felt it to be 
necessary to build a new capital for himself and his god, and 
supplies us with the reason why he did not settle in one of the 


ancient religious centres of his kingdom. We should expect that, 
as he styled himself the high-priest of Heru-khuti (i.e., Harmachis), 
he would have taken up his abode in Memphis or Heliopolis, 
where this god was greatly honoured, but as he did not, we are 
driven to conclude that there was in the worship of Aten and in 
the doctrines of his priests something which could neither brook 
nor tolerate the presence of another god, still less of other 
gods, and that that something must have been of the nature of 

Now although the hymn quoted above gives us an idea of the 
views held by Amen-hetep IV. and his adherents concerning 
Aten, it is impossible to gather from it any very precise imforma- 
tion about the details of the belief or doctrine of Aten, but it is 
clear that in practice the religion was of a sensuous character, and 
eminently materialistic. Incense was burnt freely several times 
in the day, and the hymns sung to Aten were accompanied by the 
sounds of the music of harps and other instruments, and the people 
vied with each other in bringing gifts of fruit, and flowers, and 
garden produce to lay on the altars which were never drenched 
with the blood of animals offered up for sacrifice. The worship of 
Aten was of a joyous character, and the surroundings among 
which it was carried on were bright and cheerful. The mural 
decorations in the temple were different from those of the older 
temples of Egypt, for they were less severe and less conventional, 
and they were painted in lively colours; in fact, the artists 
employed by Amen-hetep IV. threw off many of the old trammels 
of their profession, and indulged themselves in new designs, new 
forms, new colours, and new treatment of the subjects which they 
wished to represent. We may see from the remains of their wall 
decorations that the artists of the city of Khut-Aten made one 
great step in advance, that is to say, they introduced shading into 
their painting, and it is greatly to be regretted that it was retraced 
later ; it was only during the reign of Amen-hetep IV. that the 
Egyptian artist ever showed that he understood the effects of light 
and shade in his work. The texts and inscriptions which were 
placed upon the walls relate to the glory and majesty and 
beneficence of Aten, and everywhere are seen representations of 


the visible emblem of the god. The form in which he is depicted 
is that of the solar disk, from which proceed rays, the ends of 

which terminate in hands wherein are the emblems of life, ■¥•> 

and sovereignty, 0; in the bas-reliefs and frescoes we see these 
human-handed rays shining upon the king, and his queen and 
family, and upon the cartouches containing the names of himself 
and of his queen Nefert-ith. The simple interpretation of such 
scenes is that the sun is the source of all life and of everything 
which supports it upon earth, but it is probable that the so-called 
Aten heresy was in some way founded upon the views which the 
Atenites held about this method of representing their god. Be 
this as it may, Amen-hetep IV. loved to be depicted with the 
human-handed rays falling upon him, and whatever his doctrines 
of Aten were he preached them with all the enthusiasm of an 
Oriental fanatic, and on special occasions he himself officiated as 
high-priest of the cult. The wisdom of his policy is open to 
doubt, but there is no reason for regarding him as anything but 
an earnest and honest propagandist of a new creed. 

Now, as the king changed his religion and his name, so he 
also caused his own form and figure when represented in bas- 
reliefs to be changed. In the earlier monuments of his reign he is 
depicted as possessing the typical features of his father and of 
others of his ancestors, but at Tell el-Amarna his physical 
characteristics are entirely different. Here he is portrayed with 
a very high, narrow, and receding forehead, a large, sharp, 
aquiline nose, a thin, weak mouth, and a large projecting chin, 
and his head is set upon a long and extremely slender neck ; 
his chest is rounded, his stomach inflated, his thighs are large and 
broad, and in many respects his figure resembles that of a woman. 
It is impossible that such representations of the king would 
be permitted to appear in bas-reliefs in his city unless he 
approved of them, and it is clear that he did approve, and 
that his officials understood that he approved of this treatment 
of his person at the hands of sculptors and artists, for some 
of the high officials were themselves represented in the same 
manner. Still, some of the drawings of the king must be 
II — G 


regarded as caricatures, but whether intentional or otherwise 
cannot be said. 

For a few years Amen-hetep IV. led a life of great happiness 
and enjoyment in his new capital, and his whole time seems to 
have been passed in adorning it with handsome buildings, fine 
sculptures, and large gardens filled Avith trees and plants of every 
kind ; he appears to have bestowed gifts Avith a lavish hand upon 
his favourites, who it must be admitted, were his officials who 
seconded his wishes and gave effect to them. Life at Khut-Aten 
was joyous, and there is no evidence that men troubled 
themselves with thoughts about death or the kingdom of Osiris ; 
if they did, they made no mention of them in their hymns and 

On the other hand Amen-hetep IV. did not, or could not, 

abolish the characteristic funeral customs and beliefs of his 

country, and the tombs of the adherents of Aten bear witness to 

the fact. The king caused a tomb to be hewn out of the rock in 

the mountains near the town, on its eastern side, and it contained, 

when discovered in 1892 by the natives, the things which are 

usually found in tombs of men of high rank. The sarcophagus 

was broken in pieces, but scattered about the mummy-chamber 

and along the corridor which led to it were numbers of objects and 

fragments of objects made of the beautiful purple and blue glazed 

faience which is so characteristic of the reign of Amen-hetep IV. 

The body of the king must have been mummified, and on it must 

have been laid the same classes of amulets that are found on the 

royal mummies at Thebes. Portions of several granite ushabtiu 

figures were also found, a fact which shows that those who buried 

the king assumed he would enjoy a somewhat material life in 

Sekhet-hetepet and Sekhet-Aarru in the kingdom of Osiris. That 

Amen-hetep IV. thought little about his death and burial is proved 

by the state of his tomb, which shows that he made no attempt to 

prepare it for the reception of his body when the need should 

arise. This is the more strange because he had caused his eldest 

daughter A ten-merit, f\ ^^ "^x. (1 (1 <=> Jj , to be buried in it, and 

he must have known from sad experience what great preparations 


had to be made, and what complicated ceremonies had to be per- 
formed when a royal personage was laid to rest. The tombs of 
the adherents of Aten are very disappointing in many ways, 
though they possess an interest peculiar to themselves. From the 
scenes painted on their walls it is possible to obtain an idea of the 
class of buildings which existed in the city of Khut-Aten, and of 
the arrangements of its streets and gardens, and of the free manner 
in which the various members of the royal family moved about 
among the people. The king's tomb was never finished, and the 
remains of the greater number of the paintings on its walls show 
that they were executed not for him but for his eldest daughter, 
who has already been mentioned ; the chief subject chosen for 
illustration is the worship of Aten, and both the scenes and the 
texts accompanying them represented that the god was adored by 
every nation in the world. 

It is, unfortunately, not known how old the king was when he 
died, but he must have been a comparatively young man, and his 
reign could not have been so long as twenty years. In the ten or 
twelve years of it which he lived at Khut-Aten he devoted himself 
entirely to the building of his new capital and the development of 
the cult of Aten, and meanwhile the general condition of Egypt 
was going from bad to worse, the governors of Egyptian possessions 
in Syria and Palestine were quarrelling among themselves, strong 
and resolute rebels had risen up in many parts of these countries, 
and over and above all this the infuriated jDriesthood of Anien-Ra 
were watching for an opportunity to restore the national god to his 
proper place, and to set upon the throne a king who would 
forward the interests of their brotherhood. This opportunity came 
with the death of Amen-hetep IV., when Tut-ankh-Amen, a son of 
Amen-hetep III. by a concubine, ascended the throne ; he married 
a daughter of Amen-hetep IV., who was called Ankh-s- en-pa- Aten, 
but she changed her name into Ankh-s-en-Amen, and both the new 
king and queen were worshippers of the great god of Thebes. 
Tut-ankh-Amen at once began to restore the name and figure of 
Amen which his father-in-law had cut out from the monuments, 
and began to build at Thebes ; very soon after his accession he 
came ito terms with the priests of Amen, and in due course 


removed his court to the old capital. On the death of Tut-ankh- 
Amen, a "superintendent of the whole stud of Pharaoh" of the 
name of Ai ascended the throne by virtue of his marriage with 
Thi, who was in some way related to the family of Amen-hetep IV. ; 
before Ai became king he was a follower of Aten, and built him- 
self a tomb at Khut-Aten, which was ornamented after the manner 
of those of the adherents of this god, but as soon as he had taken 
up his abode at Thebes and begun to reign over Egypt he built 
another tomb in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes. 

The decoration of the sarcophagus which he placed in the 
latter tomb makes it quite certain that when he made it he had 
rejected the cult of Aten, and that he was, at all events outwardly, 
a loyal follower of the god Amen-Ra. On the death of Ai several 
pretenders to the throne rose up in Egypt, and a period of anarchy 
followed. Of the details of the history of this period nothing is 
known, and the only certain fact about it is that the power of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty was broken, and that its downfall was certain. 
During the reigns of Tut-ankh-Amen and Ai the prosperity of the 
city Khut-Aten declined rapidly, and as soon as the period of 
anarchy which followed their reigns began its population left it, 
little by little, and its downfall was assured ; the artists and work- 
men of all kinds who had obtained work there under Amen-hetep 
found their occupation gone, and they departed to Thebes and the 
other cities whence they had come. Under the reign of Heru-em- 
heb the decay of the city advanced and it became generally 
deserted, and very soon after men came from far and near to carry 
off, for building purposes, the beautiful white limestone blocks 
which were in the temple and houses. Heru-em-heb was the 
nominee of the priests of Amen-Ra, and he used all his power and 
influence to stamp out every trace of the worship of Aten, and 
succeeded. Thus Amen-Ra conquered Aten, Thebes once more 
became the capital of Egypt, the priests of Amen regained their 
ascendancy, and in less than twenty-five years after the death of 
Amen-hetep IV. his city was deserted, the sanctuary of his god 
was desecrated, his followers were scattered, and his enemies were 
in undisputed possession of the country. 

( 85 ) 



A PERUSAL of the Pyramid Texts reveals the fact that the 
priests of Heliopolis believed in the existence of three 
companies of gods, and that to each company they assigned at 
least nine gods ; in certain cases a company contained eleven, 
twelve, or more gods. In the text of Unas (line 222 if.) we find 
a series of addresses to Ra-Tem, wherein are mentioned Set 

and Nephthys, ^J? ^ , Osiris, Isis, and Her-hepes, E , JJ , 

* | , Thoth, Anubis, and Usert, ^%, ~^' I ' anc ^ 

Horns, which seems to show that one company of gods, of which the 
dual god Ra-Tem was the head, consisted of Set, Nephthys, Her- 
hepes, Osiris, Isis, Thoth, Anubis, Usert, and Horus, i.e., in all ten 
gods. In the next section but one of the same king's text (line 240 f.) 
the Great Company of the gods of Heliopolis are declared to be : — 

I.Tem, ^. 2. Shu, Poa^. 3. Tefnut, gfL. 4. Seb, 1g*J. 
5. Nut, °. 6. Isis, i . 7. Set, >$_j. 8. Nephthys, 

9. Thoth, a >^. 10. Horus, v^. Here again we have ten gods 

assigned to the divine company, but curiously enough the name of 
Osiris, one of the most important of the gods, is omitted. Follow- 
ing these ten names comes an address to the " Great Company of 

the Gods," c ^^, which clearly refers to the gods 

whose names we have mentioned. In the text of Pepi II. 
(line 665), the gods who are declared to form " the Great Company 
of the gods who are in Annu" are: — 1. Tem. 2. Shu. 3. Tefnut. 

4. Seb. 5. Nut. 6. Osiris. 7. Isis. 8. Set, [1 c , and 9. 


Nephthys, ^] , and they are called the " offspring of Tern, who 
" made wide his heart when he gave them birth in your name of 
" ' Nine.' ' 51 A few lines lower down the king makes a petition to 
the " Great Company of the gods who are in Annu," and he 
includes in it the names of Tem, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, 
Osiris-Khent-Amenti, Set of Ombos, Heru of Edfu, 2 Ra, Khent- 
Maati, 3 and Uatchet ; thus the Great Company of the gods of 
Heliopolis may contain either nine or twelve gods. In several 
passages in the Pyramid Texts two groups or companies of gods, 
eighteen in number, are mentioned ; thus in the text of 
Mer-en-Ra, line 453, allusion is made to the "very great 
" eighteen gods who are at the head of the Souls of Annu," but 
these, clearly, include the Great Company and the Little Company, 
who are addressed on behalf of the deceased in the text of Unas, 
lines 251, 252. 

The triple Company to which allusion is sometimes made, 

nmninmrnmnmrn < t ^> «- ^ *- *-- 

bably supposed to include the Great Company of the gods of 
heaven, the Little Company of the gods of earth, and the Company 
of the gods of the Underworld, but from many passages it is 
evident that the Great and Little Companies represented to the 
Egyptian, for all practical purposes, the whole of the gods whom 
he attempted to worship. The priests of the provincial cities and 
towns adopted by degrees the more important of the views of the 
Heliopolitan priesthood concerning the Egyptian cosmogony and 
theogony, and as they were able to identify their local gods with 
Temu, or Ra-Tem, the head of the Heliopolitan Company of gods, 
and with the members of his company to whom their attributes 
were most akin, no serious opposition appears to have been offered 
by them to the tenets of the great religious centre of Heliopolis. 
The priests of this city were prudent enough to include as forms of 
the gods of their divine companies the great ancient gods and 
goddesses of the South and the North, as well as a number of 




lesser gods whose worship was quite local, and in this way they 
succeeded in causing their doctrines to be accepted throughout the 
length and breadth of Egypt, and there is no doubt that the great 
theological system of Thebes under the Middle and New Empires 
was based entirely upon that of Heliopolis. We have now to 
describe the attributes of the gods of the Great Company, which 
for convenience may be assumed to consist of the folio win «■ : — 
Tern, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys. 

1. Tem * ac , or 

Tem was a form of the Sun-god, and was the great local god 
of Annu, and the head of the company of gods of that place. His 

name is connected with the root tem, ^^ t\ • , or temem, 

tar _M* _B^ } ' " to ^ e com pl e W " to make an end of," and he 
was regarded as the form of the Sun-god which brought the day to 
an end, i.e., as the evening or night sun. He is always depicted 
in the human form. The attributes of the god have been already 
described in the section which treats of the forms of the Sun- 
god Ra. 

2.S H n,p m ^,orp^,orP!jy,orQ[y. 

3. Tefnut, f- |. 

Shu and his female counterpart Tefnut may be considered 
together, because they are usually mentioned together, at all events 
in the texts of the later periods. The name Shu appears to be 
derived from the root shu, G@jR, "dry, parched, withered, 
empty," and the like, and the name Tefnut must be connected 

C± jJ~rfD /WWW ^^j-^j /WW\A 

with the root tef, f a^ww ? or teftef, ^^ww, "to spit, 

be moist," and the like ; thus Shu was a god who was connected 
with the heat and dryness of sunlight and with the dry atmosphere 
which exists between the earth and the sky, and Tefnut was a 
personification of the moisture of the sky, and made herself 


manifest in various forms. The oldest legend about the origin of 
the gods is contained in the text of Pepi I., wherein it is said 
(line 465) that once upon a time Tern went to the city of Annu and 
that he there produced from his own body by the irregular means 
of masturbation his two children Shu and Tefhut. In this crude 
form the myth is probably of Libyan origin, and it suggests that its 
inventors were in a semi-savage, or perhaps wholly savage, state 
when it was first promulgated. In later times, as we have already 
seen, the Egyptians appear to have rejected certain of the details 
of the myth, or to have felt some difficulty in believing that Shu 
and Tefhut were begotten and conceived and brought forth by 

Tern, and they therefore assumed that his shadow, Ti, hhaibit, 

acted the part of wife to him ; another view was that the goddess 
Iusaaset was his wife. 1 

The old ideas about the origin of the twin gods, however, 
maintained their position in the minds of the Egyptians, and we 
find them categorically expressed in some of the hymns addressed 
to Amen-Ra, who under the New Empire was identified with Tern, 
just as at an earlier period Ra was identified with the same god. 
In two hymns quoted by Brugsch 2 we have the following : — 
" Amen-Ra, the gods have gone forth from thee. What flowed 
" forth from thee became Shu, and that which was emitted by thee 
" became Tefhut ; thou didst create the nine gods at the beginning 
" of all things, and thou wast the Lion-god of the Twin Lion-gods," 

Q _2i£ J] fiZj i J\ nj . The Twin Lion-gods are, of course, 

Shu and Tefnut, who are mentioned in the Booh of the Dead in 
several passages. 4 In the second hymn to Amen-Ra it is said, 

1 In the passage referred to the opening words are, " Tern came to take 
pleasure in himself," J\ I \h f^\ iu s«, and M. Maspero thinks that the name 

of the goddess Iusaaset, J\ v\ <>-=- M , may be derived from them. See 

La Mythologies Hgyptienne, p. 247. 

2 Religion, p. 422. 3 Brugsch, Beise, pi. 26, 1. 26. 

h (1(1 <jj y see the list of passages given in my Vocabulary to the Boole of 
the Dead, pp. 197, 198. 

The God SHU. 


" Thou art the One God, who didst form thyself into two gods, 
" thou art the creator of the Egg, and thou didst produce thy 
" Twin-Gods." In connexion with the production of Shu and 
Tefnut Dr. Brugsch refers to the well-known origin of the gods of 
Taste and Feeling, Hu, 8 v\ ^ Jn, and Sa, sb *\\ Jn, who are 
said to have sprung into being from the drops of blood which fell 
from the phallus of Ra, and to have taken up their places among 
the gods who were in the train of Ra, and who were with Temu 
every day. 1 (Booh of Hip Dead, xvii. 62). 

Shu is represented in the form of a man who wears upon his 
head one feather, f) , or two, [1] , or four, tHjj. ; the phonetic value 
of the sign \\ is shu, and the use of it as the symbol of the god's 
name seems to indicate some desire on the part of the Egyptians to 
connect the word shu, or shdu, "feather," with shu, "light, empty 
space, dryness," etc. As the god of the space which exists 
between the earth and the sky, Shu was represented under the 
form of a god who held up the sky with his two hands, one 
supporting it at the place of sunrise, and the other at the place of 
sunset, and several porcelain figures exist in which he is seen 
kneeling upon one knee, in the act of lifting up with his two 
hands the sky with the solar disk in it. When Shu wears no 
feather he bears upon his head the figure of the hind-quarter of a 
lion Jg), peh; in mythological scenes we find him both seated and 
standing, aud he usually holds in one hand the sceptre j, and in 

the other •¥■ . In a picture given by Lanzone 2 he grasps in his 
left hand a scorpion, a serpent, and a hawk-headed sceptre. The 
goddess Tefnut is represented in the form of a woman, who wears 
upon her head the solar disk encircled by a serpent, and holds in 
her hands the sceptre I, and -r; she, however, often appears with 
the head of a lioness, which is surmounted by a uraeus, and she is 
sometimes depicted in the form of a lioness. 


4 ' l— J Xk*s* "** ■ — ' W^fcX I) /vwvv\ i v<w 0\r" n 

*^-_ 1 I Jl J\ Jfi^ A A^AAA JL ° 

■ Op. tit., pi. 386. 

90 SHU 

An examination of the texts shows that Shu was a god of 
lio-ht, or light personified, who made himself manifest in the beams 
of the sun by day, and in the light of the moon by night, and his 

home was the disk (J\ ^A of the sun. Viewed in this connexion 
it is easy to understand the scene in which the god appears rising 
up from behind the earth with the solar disk upon his head, and 
his hands supporting that upon which it rests. In a text at Edfu 
published by Bergmann, 1 the creator of Shu is called Tauith, 
" "J 3 , and to him the king who caused the words to be inscribed 

is made to say, " Thou hast emitted (! /"^ dshesh) Shu, and 

" he hath come forth from thy mouth. ... He hath become a 
" god, and he hath brought for thee every good thing ; he hath 
" toiled for thee, and he hath emitted for thee in his name of Shu, 
" the royal double. He hath laboured for thee in these things, 
" and he beareth up for thee heaven upon his head in his name 
" of Shu, and Tauith giveth the strength of the body of heaven 
"in his name of Ptah. He beareth up II fj ^ or ^hee 

" heaven with his hands in his name of Shu, the body of the 
" sky." 2 It must be noted that the same word dshesh, [ ^^ i> 
is used to express both the idea of " pouring out " and of 
"supporting," and it is difficult to reconcile these totally different 
meanings unless we remember that it is that which Tern, or 
Ra-Teni, has poured out which supports the heavens wherein 
shines the Sun-god. That which Tern, or Ra-Tem, has poured 
out is the light, and light was declared to be the prop of the sky. 

1 Hieroglyphische Inschriften, Vienna, 1879, pi. 42, 11. 1-4, 10, 11. 



/ CZ^i 

y li j^^ms** 


*©<--=S(y®®-— VU*-^fl*> 

«K= f=, <=Z ? 


-WW^ \ A}} (JJXO 

XO ^ ~wwv ^^ D c^ji 

The Goddess TEFNUT. 

SHU 91 

From a number of passages examined by Dr. Brugsch 1 we find 
that Shu was a personification of the rays which came forth from 
the eyes of Ra, and that he was the soul of the god Khnemu, the 
great god of Elephantine and of the First Cataract ; he also 
represented the burning, fiery heat of the sun at noon, and the sun 
in the height of summer. 

In another aspect his abode was the region between the earth 
and the sky, and he was a personification of the wind of the North ; 
Dr. Brugsch went so far as to identify him with the " spiritual 
Pneuma in a higher sense," and thought that he might be regarded 
as the vital principle of all living beings. He was certainly, like 
his father Tem, thought to be the cool wind of the North, and the 
dead were grateful to him for his breezes. Shu was, in fact, the 
god of the space which is filled with the atmosphere, even as Ra 
was the god of heaven, and Seb the god of the earth, and Osiris 
the god of the Underworld. From the Booh of the Dead (xvii. 16) 
we learn that Shu and Tefnut were supposed to possess but one 
soul between them, but that the two halves of it were identified 
with the soul of Osiris and the soul of Ra, which together formed 
the great double soul which dwelt in Tattu. The gate of Tchesert 
in the Underworld was called the "gate of the pillars of Shu" 
(xvii. 56), and Shu and Tefnut laid the foundations of the house 
in which the deceased was supposed to dwell. From the xviiith 
Chapter of the Book of the Dead we find that the princes of 
Heliopolis were Tem, Shu, Tefnut, Osiris, and Thoth, and that Ra, 
Osiris, Shu, and Bebi were the princes of the portion of the 
Underworld which was known by the name of Anrut-f. We 

may note in passing that Bebi, J J mm J), or Baba, J (1 J (1 Jj, 
or J^_ jjj , or Baba, J ^ ^ J ^ ^ ^ , or Babai, 

J ^7^ 1^ JI "%* !^ QQ $\ ' was *^ e nrst_Dorn son °f Osiris. 

According to Dr. Brugsch, Baba was personified in the form of 
some Typhonic mythological animal, and was the god who presided 
over the phallus ; the blood which fell from his nose grew up into 
plants which subsequently changed into cedars. Dr. Pleyte has 

1 Beligion, p. 4:'d. 

92 SHU 

rightly identified Bebi or Baba with the Befiwv or Befitova of 
Plutarch (De Iside, § 62) and with the Bdfiw; of Hellanicus. 1 
Bebon was a name of Typhon, i.e., Set, and that he was represented 
by an animal is proved by the hieroglyphic form of his name, 

which is determined by the skin of an animal, J <^s J ^^ W . 

In Chapter xxiii. the deceased prays that his " mouth may be 
unclosed by Shu with the iron knife wherewith he opened the 
mouth of the gods." From Chapters xxxiii. and xxxv. we learn 
that Shu was believed to possess power over serpents, and he it 
was who made the deceased to stand up by the Ladder which 
would take him to heaven (xcviii. 4). That souls needed a ladder 
whereby to mount from earth to heaven was a very ancient belief 
in Egypt. The four pillars which held up the sky at the four 
cardinal points were called the "pillars of Shu" (cix. 5, ex. 13), 
and Shu was the breath of the god Ra (exxx. 4). The deceased 
was nourished with the food of Shu, i.e., he lived upon light ; and 
in the Roman period Shu was merged in Ra, the god of light. 
The part played in Egyptian mythology by Tefhut is not easily 
defined, and but little is known about her. In the text of Unas 
(line 453) she is mentioned together with the two Maat goddesses, 

^^j \ (1 , and with Shu, but curiously enough, she seems to appear 

as the female counterpart of a god called Tefen, *^. . The 

passage reads, " Tefen and Tefnet have weighed Unas, and the 
" Maat goddesses have hearkened, and Shu hath borne witness," 
etc. In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead she is 
mentioned a few times in connexion with Shu (Chapters xvii., 
exxx., etc.), and she is one of the group of gods who form the 
divine company and the " body and soul of Ra " (cxl. 7), but she 
performs no service for the deceased beyond providing him with 
breath. She was originally a goddess of gentle rain and soft 
wind, but at a comparatively late period of Egyptian history she 
was identified with Nehemauit at Hermopolis, with Menhit at 
Latopolis, with Sekhet in Memphis, and with Apsit in Nubia. 

Unlike most of the gods of Egypt, Shu and Tefnut do not appear 

1 Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1865, p. 55. 

SHU 93 

to have have had set apart for them any special city or district, 
but at the same time titles were given to certain cities which pre- 
supposed some connexion between them and these gods. Thus 
Dendera was called Per-Shu, c ~ =1 R @ T , i.e., " House of Shu," and 
Apollinopolis Magna was called Hinu-en-Shu-nefer, m (](j Q 

Y ($£$ J, and Edfu was the "Seat of Shu," jj(5^©, and 

Memphis bore the name of " Palace of Shu," Jrtl ° © R % 1 . x 

/WWW I I I Jl 

Similarly, one portion of Dendera was known as the " House of 
Tefnut," or the " Aat of Tefnut," ^=^_r^^, i^m^ ga or 

r» av Whether there were statues of Shu and 
Tefnut in these cities cannot be said, but it is very probable that 
they were worshipped in their sanctuaries under the forms of lions, 
and in this connexion it is worthy of note that Aelian records 
{Be Nat. Animal, xii. § 7) that the people of Heliopolis worshipped 
lions in the temple of Helios. 

It has already been mentioned that Shu was the sky-bearer 
par excellence, and we may note in passing the interesting myth 
which the Egyptians possessed about him in this capacity, and the 
explanation which they gave of his occupying this position. 
According to the text which is found in the tomb of Seti I. in the 
Valley of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes, in very remote times, 
when Ra ruled over gods and men and had his throne established 
in the city of Suten-henen, or Henen-su, mankind began to utter 
seditious words against him, and the great god determined to 
destroy them. He summoned Hathor, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, and Nut 
into his presence, and having told them what men, who had pro- 
ceeded from his eye, had been saying about him, he asked them 
for their advice, and promised that he would not slay the rebels 
until he had heard what the " first-born god " and the " ancestor 
gods " had to say on the matter. In answer to this the first-born 

god Nu, 1 J (1 t\ fl %> f% & , advised him to let his daughter 

Hathor, "the eye of Ra," go forth and slay men ; Ra accepted the 
advice straightway, and Hathor went forth and slew all mankind, 

1 Brugscb, Did. Gdog., p. 776. 

94 SEB 

and when she returned Ra was well pleased with her. Soon after 
this he hecame wearied with the earth, and the goddess Nut 
having been turned into a cow he mounted upon her back and 
remained there, but before long the cow began to shake and to 
tremble because she was very high above the earth, and when she 
complained to Ra about it he commanded Shu to be a support to 
her, and to hold her up in the sky. In the picture of the cow 
which accompanies the text we see her body resting upon the head 
and the two raised hands and arms of the god. When Shu had 
taken up his place beneath the cow and was bearing up her body, 
the heavens above and the earth beneath came into being, and the 
four legs of the cow became the four props of heaven at the four 
cardinal points ; and thus it came to pass that the god Seb and 
his female counterpart Nut began their existence. 

Seb, ^.J^.or^J^, or vj|, or *"], or V|. 

Seb was the son of Shu and Tefnut, and Avas the brother and 
husband of Nut, and the father of Osiris and Isis, Set and 
Nephthys, and some say of one of the Horus gods ; according to 
the late Dr. Brugsch his name should be read Geb or Keb, or 
Gebb, or Kebb, and in very early times this undoubtedly seems to 
have been the correct form of the god's name. He is usually 
represented in the form of a man who bears upon his head either 

the white crown Q , or the crown of the North, to which is added 

the Atef crown, ^T, or a goose, ^*> of the peculiar species 

called seb. This bird was sacred to him because he was believed 
to have made his way through the air in its form. Seb was the 
god of the earth, and the earth formed his body and was called the 
" house of Seb," just as the air was called the " house of Shu," and 
the heaven the " house of Ra," and the Underworld the " house of 
Osiris." As the god of the surface of the earth from which spring- 
up trees, and plants, and herbs, and grain he played a very 
prominent part in the mythology of the Underworld, and as the 
god of the earth beneath the surface of the ground he had 
authority over the tombs wherein the dead were laid. In hymns 


SEB 95 

and other compositions he is often styled the erpdt, o 

i.e., the hereditary, tribal chief of the gods, and he plays a very 
important part in the Book of the Dead. Thus he is one of the 
company of the gods who watch the weighing of the heart of the 
deceased in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, and on his brow rested 
the secret gates which were close by the Balance of Ra, and which 
were guarded by the god himself (xii. 2). 

The soul of Seb was called Smam-ue, fl Ih^ 7 t\ ^Zh 3 ^* 

(xvii. 116). The righteous who were provided with the necessary 
words of power were enabled to make their escape from the earth 
wherein their bodies were laid, but the wicked were held fast by 
Seb (xix. 14); Sekhet and Anpu were great helpers of the 
deceased, but it was Seb whom he asked to open wide his two jaws 
for him, whom he begged to open his eyes, and loose his legs which 
were bandaged (xxvi. 1). And of him the deceased said, "My 
"father is Seb, and my mother is Nut" (xxxi. 5). Like Shu the 
god Seb was appealed to by the deceased for help against serpents 
(xxxiii. 2), and he was never tired of boasting that his cakes were 
" on the earth with the god Seb " (liii. 4), and that the gods had 
declared that he was " to live upon the bread of Seb " (lxviii. 9). In 
a burst of joy, Nu, the overseer of the house of the overseer of the 
seal, is made to say, " The doors of heaven are opened for me, the 
" doors of earth are opened for me, the bars and bolts of Seb are 
" opened for me " (lxviii. 2), and " I exchange speech with Seb 
"(lxxviii. 12), I am decreed to be the divine heir of Seb, the 
" lord of the earth, and to be the protector therein. The 
" god Seb refresheth me, and he maketh his risings to be mine " 
(lxxx. 11,12). 

The religious texts show that there was no special city or 
district set apart for the god Seb, but a portion of the temple 
estates in Apollinopolis Magna was called the " Aat of Seb," 

■^ J \v\ ' an( ^ a name °f Dendera was "the home of the children 

of Seb," ^ IT] (]() ^ ffl P J ^ J ^ • The chief seat of the god 

appears to have been at Heliopolis, where he and his female 
counterpart Nut produced the great Egg whereout sprang the Sun- 

96 SEB 

god under the form of a phoenix. 1 Because of his connexion with 

this Egg Seb is sometimes called the " Great Cackler," Kenken-ur, 

S Z3 "^» % § Thus the deceased says, " Hail, thou god Tern, 

/WW\A /W\*AA < ^-— — ^ A— 1 

" grant unto me the sweet breath which dwelleth in thy nostrils. 
" I embrace that great throne which is in the city of Hermopolis, 
" and I keep watch over the Egg of the Great Cackler (or, 
" according to another reading, I am the Egg which is in the 
" Great Cackler, and I watch and guard that mighty thing which 
" hath come into being wherewith the god Seb hath opened the 
" earth), I germinate as it germinateth ; I live as it liveth ; and 
"[my] breath is [its] breath" (Booh of the Dead, Chapters liv., 
" lvi., lix.). 

The name of the phoenix in Egyptian is "Bennu," J ~ ■ 
and this bird played a very prominent part in Egyptian mythology, 
but the texts do not bear out the extraordinary assertions which 
have been made about it by classical writers. According to the 
story which Herodotus heard at Heliopolis (ii. 73), the bird visited 
that place once every five hundred years, on its father's death ; 
when it was live hundred, or fourteen hundred and sixty-one 
years old, it burnt itself to death. It was supposed to resemble 
an eagle, and to have red and gold feathers, and to come from 
Arabia ; before its death it built a nest to which it gave the power of 
producing a new phoenix, though some thought that a worm crept 
out of its body before it died, and that from it the heat of the sun 
developed a new phoenix. Others thought that it died after a life 
of seven thousand and six years, and another view was that the 
new phoenix rose from the burnt and decomposing remains of his 
old body, and that he took these to Heliopolis where he burnt 
them. 2 All these fabulous stories are the result of misunder- 
standings of the Egyptian myth which declared that the renewed 
morning sun rose in the form of a Bennu, and of the belief which 
declared that this bird was the soul of Ra and also the living- 
symbol of Osiris, and that it came forth from the very heart of the 

1 Bragsch, Religion, p. 577. 

2 See Luciart, Be Mort. Pers., xxvii. ; Philostratus, Vit. Apollon., iii. 49 ; 
Tzetzes, Chi liar, v. 397 ; Pliny, Hist. Nat., x. 2 ; Poruponius Mela, iii. 8. 


SEB 97 

od. The sanctuary of the Bennu was the sanctuary of Ra. and 
Osiris, and was called Het Benben, Q J Lvw^ J i.e., the 

" House of the Obelisk," and remembering this it is easy to under- 
stand the passages in the Booh of the Dead, " I go in like the 
" Hawk, and I come forth like the Bennu, the Morning Star (i.e., 
" the planet Venus) of Ra " (xiii. 2) ; "I am the Bennu which is in 
" Heliopolis" (xvii. 27), and the scholion on this passage expressly 
informs us that the Bennu is Osiris. Elsewhere the deceased 
says, " I am the Bennu, the soul of Ra, and the guide of the gods 
" in the Tuat ; (xxix.c 1) ; let it be so done unto me that I may 
" enter in like a hawk, and that I may come forth like Bennu, 
"the Morning Star" (cxxii. 6). On a hypocephalus quoted by 
Prof. Wiedemann, 1 the deceased is made to say, " I am in the form 
" of the Bennu, which cometh forth from Het-Benbenet in Annu," 
and from many passages we learn that the Bennu, the Soul of Ra, 
which appeared each morning under the form of the rising sun, 
was supposed to shine upon the world from the top of the famous 
Persea tree wherein he renewed himself. We may note that a 
Chapter of the Book of the Dead (lxxxii.) was written with the 
special object of enabling the deceased to transform himself into a 
Bennu bird if he felt disposed to do so ; in it he identifies himself 
with the god Khepera, and with Horus, the vanquisher of Set, 
and with Khensu. 

It has already been said that Seb was the god of the earth, 
and the Heliopolitans declared that he represented the very 
ground upon which their city stood, meaning that Heliopolis was 
the birthplace of the company of the gods, aud in fact that the work 
of creation began there. In several papyri we find pictures of the 
first act of creation which took place as soon as the Sun-god, by 
whatsoever name he may be called, appeared in the sky, and sent 
forth his rays from the heights of heaven upon the earth, and in 
these Seb always occupies a very prominent position. He is seen 
lying upon the ground with one hand stretched out upon it, and 
the other extended towards heaven, which position seems to be 
referred to in the text of Pepi I., lines 338, 339, wherein we read, 

i Aeg. Zeit., 1878, p. 93. 
II — II 



" Seb throws out his [one] hand to heaven and his [one] hand 

" towards the earth, 


By his side stands the god Shu, who supports on his 

upraised hands the heavens which are depicted in the form of a 
woman, whose body is bespangled with stars ; this woman is the 
goddess Nut, who is supposed to have been lifted up from the 
embrace of Seb by Shu when he insinuated himself between their 
bodies and so formed the earth and the sky. This was the act of 
Shu which brought into being his heir Seb, and his consort Nut, 
and it was the heirship of this god which the kings of Egypt 
boasted they had received when they sat upon their thrones. 

Seb was the hereditary tribal chief of the gods, and his throne 

represented the sovereignty 
both of heaven and of earth; 
as a creative god he was 


^Tngrr^ V 

Seb and Nut. 

identified with Tern, and 
so, as Dr. Brugsch pointed 
out, became the " father of 
his father." As an elemen- 
tary god he represented the 
earth, as Ra did fire, and 
Shu air, and Osiris water. 
In some respects the attri- 
butes of Nut were assigned 
to him, for he is sometimes called the lord of the watery abyss, and 
the dweller in the watery mass of the sky, and the lord of the Under- 
world. He is also described as one of the porters of heaven's gate, 
who draws back the bolts, and opens the door in order that the light 
of Ril may stream upon the world, and when he set himself in 
motion his movements produced thunder in heaven and quaking 
upon earth. He was akin in some way to the two Akeru gods, 
^\ ^o £££ 3 i , who were represented as a lion with a head 

at each end of its body ; this body was a personification of the 
passage in the earth through which the sun passed during the 
hours of night from the place where he set in the evening to that 
where he rose the next morning. The mouths of the lions formed 



the entrance into and the exit from this passage, and as the head 
of one lion symbolized the evening and the west, and the other 
symbolized the morning and the east, in later days each lion's 
head was provided with a separate body, and the one was called 

Sef, I , i.e., "Yesterday," and the other was called Tuau, 

* 1^ V ^' *' e *' "To-day" (Book of the Dead, xvii., lines 14, 15). 
Though he was god of the earth Seb also acted as a guide to the 
deceased in heaven, and he provided him with meat and drink ; 
numerous passages in the Booh of the Bead refer to the gifts which 
he bestowed upon Osiris his son, and the deceased prayed fervently 
that he would bestow upon him the same protection and help 
which he had bestowed upon Osiris. 

Shu supporting the boat of the Sun-god beneath the sky-goddess Nut. 

In two passages in the Booh of the Dead (Chapter xxxi. 3 of 
the Saite Recension ; and Chapter lxix. 7, Theban Recension) we 
appear to have an allusion to a myth concerning Seb which is 
otherwise unknown. In the former the deceased says, " I, even I, 
" am Osiris, who shut in his father Seb together with his mother 
" Nut on the day of the great slaughter. My father is Seb and my 
"mother is Nut"; and in the latter he says, "I, even I, am Osiris, 
" who shut in his father together with his mother on the day of 
"making the great slaughter," and the text adds, "now, the father 
" is Seb, and the mother is Nut." The word used for " slaughter " 

100 NUT 

is shdt, a ^k , and there is no doubt whatsoever about its 

meaning, and according to Dr. Brugsch 1 we are to understand 
an act of self-mutilation on the part of Ra, the father of Osiris, 
similar to that which is referred to in the Book of the Dead. 
Chapter xvii., line 61. According to this passage the gods Ammiu, 

-JL- \\ \\ \\ f=a *n i , sprang from the drops of blood 2 which fell 

from Ra after the process of mutilation, and Dr. Brugsch compared 

the action of Osiris in shutting in, ^ " g , his father Seb with 

the punishment which Kronos inflicted upon his father Uranus 
because he threw the Cyclopes into Tartarus, and the Ammiu gods 
had an origin somewhat similar to that of the Erinnyes. 

Nut, D ~, or®", or ®®, or « 


The goddess Nut was the daughter of Shu and Tefnut, and 
the wife of Seb, the Earth-god, and the mother of Osiris and Isis, 
and Set and Nephthys ; she was the personification of the heavens 
and the sky, and of the region wherein the clouds formed, and in 
fact of every portion of the region in which the sun rose, and 
travelled from east to west. As a goddess of the late historical 
period in Egypt Nut seems to have absorbed the attributes of a 
number of goddesses who possessed attributes somewhat similar to 
those of herself, and the identities of several old nature goddesses 
were merged in her. In the Pyramid Texts (e.g., Unas, line 452) 
Nut appears as the regular female counterpart of Seb, who is 

described as the "Bull of Nut," " ^a ", i.e., he was either 

the father, or husband, or son of the goddess ; her name is some- 
times written without f==* s the determinative for sky, e.g., in 
Pepi I., line 242, where it is said, "Nut hath brought forth 
her daughter Venus," f I ff| 1 1 (j ««w O "fe^ R cs jO . ^ Properly 

1 Religion, p. 581. 


Id ^¥M=^!^ ^l^^t^ 

i i i 



speaking, Nut, 

a o 

is the personification of the Day-sky, i.e., of 

the sky which rests upon the two mountains of Bakhau and Manu, 
that is, the Mountain of Sunrise and the Mountain of Sunset, but 
the Pyramid Texts prove that the Egyptians conceived the 
existence of a personification of the Night-sky, and it seems as if 

Nut giving birth to the Sun, the rays of which fall ou Hathor in the horizon. 

this goddess and her male counterpart were entirely different 
beings from Seb and Nut, and had different names. In the text 
of Unas (line 557) we find mentioned the two gods Nau and Naut, 

I A. „ ^ , , who are, however, regarded as one god 

102 NUT 

and are addressed accordingly. Thus it is said, "Thy cake is to 
" thee, Nau and Naut, even as one who uniteth the gods and who 
"maketh the gods to refresh themselves beneath their shadow." 
In this passage it is certainly right to assume that Naut represents 
the Night-sky because of the determinative of the name t=d, 
which is the sky, or heaven, inverted. In another passage (Teta, 
line 218) we read of the "star Nekhekh of Naut" (or Nut), 

/WWW ^?\ /WVWA h 15? 

^^* □ Y^ ©°, i.e., the "star Nekhekh in the Night-sky ; on 

the other hand too much stress must not be laid upon the 

determinative, because in the word 1 1 c ^ v\ f=q, which seems 

to mean the " firmament strewn with stars," l the determinative is 
that of the Day-sky. 

At a very early period, however, the difference between the 
Day-sky and the Night-sky was forgotten, at least in speaking, 
and it is chiefly from good funeral texts that we learn that 
a distinction between them was made in writing. In the 
Papyrus of Ani 2 are several examples of the name Nut written 

/WWW /WWW Qj. 

° © , or * — 1 )L , and the latter form is several times found in 

r — i ' e>l@ lift' 

the Papyrus of Nu, which dates from the first half of the period of 
the XVIIIth Dynasty; whenever one or other of these forms is 
found in good papyri it is the Night-sky which is referred to in 
the text. We have already seen in the paragraphs on the god 
Nu that he had a female counterpart called Nut, who represented 
the great watery abyss out of which all things came, and who 
formed the celestial Nile whereon the Sun sailed in his boats ; this 
watery path was divided into two parts, that whereon the Sun 
sailed by day, and that over which he passed during the night. 
The goddess Nut, whom the texts describe as the wife of Seb, is 
for all practical purposes the same being as Nut, the wife of Nu ; 
this fact is proved by her titles, which are, " Nut, the mighty one, 
" the great lady, the daughter of Ra " ; " Nut, the lady of heaven, 
" the mistress of the gods " ; " Nut, the great lady, who gave birth 
" to the gods " ; " Nut, who gave birth to the gods, the lady of 

1 Maspero, Becueil, torn, v., p. 25. 

2 See my Vocabulary to the Booh of the Dead, p. 159. 

NUT, the Mother of the Gods. 



" heaven, the mistress of the Two Lands." 1 The shrines of the 
goddess were not very numerous, but there was a Per- Nut, 

a ^ J) , in Memphis, and a Het-Nut, cj , in the Delta, and 
three portions of the temple territory in Dendera were called 
respectively Ant-en-Nut, Per-mest-en-Nut, and Per-netch- 

Nut-ina-Shu, || 

MA/VW 7T ^ 


D ^ ^ 





. 2 The 

goddess is usually represented in the form of a 
woman who bears upon her head a vase of water, 
0, which has the phonetic value Nil, and which 
indicates both her name and her nature ; 3 she 
sometimes wears on her head the horns and disk of 
the goddess Hathor, and holds in her hands a 
papyrus sceptre and the symbol of "life." She 
once appears in the form of the amulet of the 

buckle, ft, from the top of which projects her 

head, and she is provided with human arms, 
hands, and feet ; sometimes she appears in the 
form which is usually identified as that of Hathor, 
that is as a woman standing in a sycamore tree 

and pouring out water from a vase, (v, for the 

souls of the dead who come to her. 
more tree of Nut," „ /$ < 



D ^ 


mentioned in Chapter lix. of the Booh of the Dead, 
and in the vignette we see the goddess standing 
in it. 

On a mummy-case at Turin the goddess 
appears in the form of a woman standing on the 

* ■* , 
.« + *+♦ 

♦ * • » ■» « , 

♦ « i ♦ * 

« * 

! ° ~ ^fc* 


o ^ 

f=^ ^ II 


° Q ^ 


2 Brugsch, Diet. Geog., p. 366. 

3 For a good collection of figures of the goddess see Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 150 ff. 



emblem of gold, f^. Above her head is the solar disk 
with uraei, and she is accompanied by the symbols of Ne- 
khebet, Uatchet, and Hathor as goddess of the West; by her 
feet stand two snake-headed goddesses of the sky, each of whom 
wears the feather (J on her head. The goddess herself wears the 
vulture crown with uraei, and above are the uraei of the South 
and North and the hawk of Horus wearing the white crown. 
Below her is the sycamore tree, her emblem, and in it sits the 
great Cat of Ra who is cutting off the head of Apep, the god of 
darkness and evil. In the form in which she appears in this 
picture Nut has absorbed the attributes of all the great goddesses, 
and she is the type of the great mother of the gods and of the 

On coffins and in many papyri we find her depicted in the 

form of a woman whose 
body is bent round in 
such a way as to form a 
semi-circle ; in this atti- 
tude she represents the 
sky or heaven, and her 
legs and arms represent 
the four pillars on which 
the sky was supposed to 
rest and mark the position 
of the cardinal points. 
She is supported in her position by Shu, the son of Ra, who 
is supposed to have lifted her up from the embrace of Seb, 
and this last-named god is seen lying on the ground, with one hand 
raised to heaven and the other touching the earth. On each side 
of Shu is a hawk; the one represents the rising and the other the 
setting sun. According to one myth Nut gave birth to her son 
the Sun-god daily, and passing over her body he arrived at her 
mouth, into which he disappeared, and passing through her body 
he was re-born the following morning. Another myth declared 
that the sun sailed up the legs and over the back of the goddess in 
the Atet, or Matet Boat until noon, when he entered the Sektet 
boat and- continued his journey until sunset. In the accompanying 

Seb and Nut. 

The Goddess NUT holding a Tablet on which stands 

NUT 105 

picture we see Ra in his boat with Shu and Tefnut (?) sailing 
up through the watery abyss behind the legs of Nut, in the Atet 
Boat, and sailing down the arms of the goddess in the Sektet Boat 
into the Tuat or Underworld ; the whole of the body and limbs of 
the goddess are bespangled with stars. In another remarkable 
picture we see a second body of a woman, which is also bent round 
in such a way as to form a semi-circle, within that of Nut, 
and within this second body is the body of a man which is 
bent round in such a way as to form an almost complete circle. 
Some explain this scene by saying that the outer body of a woman 
is the heaven over which Ra travels, and that the inner body is 
the heaven over which the Moon makes her way at night, whilst 
the male body within them is the almost circular valley of the 
Tuat ; others, however, say that the two women are merely personi- 
fications of the Day and Night skies, and this view is, no doubt, 
the correct one. The raising up of Nut from the embrace of Seb 
represented, as we have before said, the first act of creation, and 
the great creative power which brought it about having separated 
the earth from the waters which were above it, and set the sun 
between the earth and the sky, was now able to make the gods, 
and human beings, animals, etc. The Egyptians were very fond of 
representations of this scene, and they had many variants of it, as 
may be seen from the collection of reproductions given by 
Lanzone. 1 In some of these we find Shu holding up the Boat of 
Ra under the body of Nut, in others we see the two boats of Ra 
placed side by side on her back, the god in one boat being 
Khepera, and the god in the other being Osiris. Shu is some- 
times accompanied by Thoth, and sometimes by Khnemu ; in one 
instance Seb has a serpent's head, and in another the goose, which 
is his symbol, is seen standing near his feet with its beak open in 
the act of cackling. The Egyptian artists were not always con- 
sistent in some of their details of the scene, for at one time the 
region wherein is the head of Nut is described as the east, ¥> an( ^ 
at another as the west, ft ; at one time Seb lies with his head to the 
east, and at another to the west. Finally, the goddess once 

1 Op. cit., pll. luOff. 

106 NUT 

appears holding up in her hands a tablet, on which stands a 
youthful male figure who is probably intended to represent 
Harpocrates, or one of the many Horus gods ; in this example she 
is regarded as the Sky-mother who has produced her son, the 
Sun-god. According to another myth Nut was transformed into 
a huge cow, the legs of which were held in position by the Four 
Children of Horus, whilst her body was supported by Shu, as the 
body of Nut when in the form of a woman was borne up by 
this god. 

From a large number of passages found in texts of all periods 
we learn that, from first to last, Nut was always regarded as a 
friend and protector of the dead, and the deceased appealed to her 
for food, and help, and protection just as a son appeals to his 
mother. In the text of Teta (line 175), it is said to the deceased, 
" Nut hath set thee as a god to Set in thy name of ' god,' and thy 
" mother Nut hath spread herself out over thee in her name of 

,- , MAMA <<r\ 3-? pa r-1 

" ' Coverer of the sky,' " ^ ^ NK O ^L 1 — 


□ n ^k n §k <===> n ■~^~ | □ ° 

and in line 268 we have, " Nephthys hath united again for thee 
" thy members in her name of Sesheta, M r^v n ""^X ^ sjk , the lady 
" of the buildings through which thou hast passed, and thy mother 
" Nut in her name of Qersut, A M ^\ ^ , hath granted that she 

" shall embrace thee in her name Qersu, A fl ^K , and that she 

" shall introduce thee in her name of ' Door.' " In the text of 
Pepi I. (line 256) it is said, " Pepi hath come forth from Pe with 
" the spirits of Pe, and he is arrayed in the apparel of Horus, and 
" in the dress of Thoth, and Isis is before him and Nephthys is 
" behind him ; Ap-uat hath opened unto him a way, and Shu 
" lifteth him up, and the souls of Annu make him ascend the 
" steps and set him before Nut who stretcheth out her hand to 
"him." In the Book of the Dead are several allusions to Nut and 
to the meat and drink which she provides for the deceased, and a 
chapter (lix.) is found which was specially composed to enable him 
to " snuff the air, and to have dominion over the waters in the 

The Goddess MUT pouring out Water from the Sycamore 
Tree over the deceased and His Soul. 

NUT 107 

" Underworld." The text reads : — " Hail, thou sycamore of the 
" goddess Nut ! Grant thou to me of the water and of the air 
" which dwell in thee. I embrace the throne which is in Unnu 
" (Hermopolis), and I watch and guard the egg of the Great 
" Cackler. 1 It groweth, I grow ; it liveth, I live ; it snuffeth the 
"air, I snuff the air." To make sure that the recital of these 
words should have the proper result they were accompanied by a 
vignette, in which the goddess is seen standing in a tree, out of 
which she reaches to the deceased with one hand a table covered 
with bread and other articles of food ; with the other she sprinkles 
water upon him from a libation vase as he kneels at the foot of 
a tree. 

The sycamore of Nut was situated at Heliopolis, and is often 
mentioned in mythological texts. According to the Book of the 
Dead (cix. 4) there were two turquoise-coloured sycamores at 
Heliopolis, and the Suu-god passed out between them each morning 
when he began his journey across the sky, and " strode forward 

"over the supports of Shu (i.e., the four pillars, I T, which bore 

" up the sky) towards the gate of the East through which Ra 
" rose." The sycamore of Nut was probably one of these, but in 
any case Apep, the personification of darkness and evil, was slain 
at its foot by the Great Cat Ra, and the branches of this tree 
became a place of refuge for weary souls during the fiery heats of 
noonday in the summer time. Here they were refreshed with 
that food whereon the goddess herself lived, and here they 
participated in the life of the divine beings who were her offspring 
and associates. Since the mythological tree of Nut stood at 
Heliopolis and was a sycamore it may well have served as the 
archetype of the sycamore tree under which tradition asserts that 
the Virgin Mary sat and rested during her flight to Egypt, and 
there seems to be little doubt that many of the details about her 
wanderings in the Delta, which are recorded in the Apocryphal 
Gospels and in writings of a similar class, are borrowed from the 
old mythology of Egypt. Associated with the sycamore of Nut 

1 I.e., the Egg out of which sprang the Sun, which was produced by Seb and 

108 NUT 

were the plants among which the Great Cackler Seb laid the Egg 
of the Sun, and these may well be identified with the famous 
balsam trees, from which was expressed the oil which was so 
highly prized by the Christians of Egypt and Abyssinia, and which 
was used by them in their ceremony of baptism ; these trees were 
always watered with water drawn from the famous 'Ain Shems 
(a name really meaning the " Eye of the Sun "), i.e., the well of 
water which is fed by a spring in the immediate neighbourhood, 
and is commonly called the " Fountain of the Sun." We may 
note in passing another legend, which was popular among the 
Copts, to the effect that the Virgin Mary once hid herself and her 
Son from their enemies in the trunk of the sycamore at Heliopolis, 
and that it is based upon an ancient Egyptian myth recorded by 
Plutarch which declared that Isis hid the body of Osiris in a tree 

In the later times of Egyptian history the priests of Dendera 
asserted that the home of Nut was in their city, and in an inscrip- 
tion on their temple * they recorded that it was the birthplace, 

, of Isis, and that it contained the birth- chamber, 

' ' ® i wherein Nut brought forth the goddess in the form of 

a dark-skinned child, whom she called " Khnemet-ankhet, the lady 

of love," fj ^ nr O ^^ t=t , on the fourth of the five epagomenal 

days. When Nut saw her child, she exclaimed, "As nHl, i.e., 

behold), I have become thy mother," and this was the origin of 
the name Ast, or Isis. In Thebes Nut was identified with Isis, 

the god-mother, A\ <=> vv , the lady of Dendera, the dweller in 

Ant, the goddess Nubt, i* to< M w k was bc-ra in Per-Nubt, and 

gave birth to her brother Osiris in Thebes, and to her son Horus 

(the Elder) in Qesqeset, 2 •> an d to her sister Nephthys in 

Het-Seshesh, I ^; and in the same city she was regarded as a 

1 Brugsch, Astronomische unci Astrologische Inschriften Altaegyptisclier Denk- 
mdler, Leipzig, 1883, p. 101. 

2 Brugsch, Diet. G6og., p. 865. 


NUT 109 

form of the goddess Apet, (J ° HI , or An, (j ° II , i.e., the hippo- 
potamus goddess Ta-ubt, o "^\ 5fe 1, an( * also of the local 
city goddess Apet, \\ ^ (2 ^ J ? an d s0 she became a form 

of Hathor. The identification of Nut with Api the hippo- 
potamus goddess is very ancient, for in the text of Unas 
(line 487 ff.) we read, " Come Shu, come Shu, come Shu, for 
'Unas is born on the thighs of Isis, and he hath sunk down 
' on the thighs of Nephthys, having been brought forth. 
'Temu, thou father of Unas, grant that Unas himself may be 
' set among the number of the gods who are perfect, and 
' have understanding, and are indestructible ; x Api, mother 
' of Unas, 2 give thou thy breast to this Unas in order that he 
1 may convey it to his mouth, and that he may suck milk there- 
' from." Another form of Nut was Heqet, fi ° JJ , a goddess 

who was, strictly speaking, the female counterpart of Sebek-Ra of 
Koni Ombo. 

As the children of Nut were not all brought forth in one 
place so they were not all born on the same day ; her five children, 
i.e., Osiris, Horus, Set, Isis, and Nephthys, were born on the five 
epagomenal days of the year, or as they are called in Egyptian, " the 

five days over the year," ® j Q . On the first, Sf^, took 

J J ' mil e in I i ' ® □' 

place the birth of Osiris, tfj M J ft , on the second, ® , was born 
Heru-ur, fl [1 ~ fl ^ f| , on the third, ® , was born Set, f|] fl ~ |5) 
^j, on the fourth, ©, was born Isis, | [1 ~ JS) jj~(^, and on 
the fifth, ( , was born Nephthys, | [1 §) ^ Q ^ j^- The 

first, third, and fifth of the epagomenal days were unlucky, Q£x, 
the second is not described as either lucky or unlucky, but the 
fourth is said to be a "beautiful festival of heaven and earth," 




<Z£? T V F "V The part which Nut played in the Egyptian 
Underworld was a very prominent one, and from numerous 
passages in the Book of the Bead we can see that without her 
favour life would be impossible for those who have left this world, 
and have begun their journey through the Tuat. The care and 
protection which Nut exhibited towards her son Osiris caused her 
to be regarded as a tender and pitiful mother, and every pious 
Egyptian prayed that she might do for him even as she had done 
for Osiris, and hoped that through her he might shine in heaven 
like the star Sept (A^, Sothis), when it shines in the sky just 

before sunrise. 

The favour of Nut gave the deceased the power to rise in a 
renewed body, even as Ra rose from the Egg which was produced 
by Seb and Nut, and it enabled him to journey with the Sun-god 
each day from sunrise to sunset, and to pass through the dreary 
habitations of the Tuat in safety. So far back as the time of 
Men-kau-Ra (Mycerinus) the Egyptians delighted to inscribe on 
the cover of the coffins of their dead a portion of the following 
extract : — 

I W I /\ AA/WVi 

peshesh-nes mut-lc 

Spread eth herself thy mother 



over thee 


her name 

D ^ 

At 1 

en shet- r pet ertd-s un-nek em 

of coverer of heaven, she maketh thee to be as 


a god 


««=- k 

thine enemy 



ren-k en neter 

thy name of god, 

1 Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 481. 

NUT 111 

ekl 1 ■=»$ k-* 2 ^^Vk™P 

Ichnem-s thu ma lihet neb tut em ren-s 

she withdraweth thee from thing every evil in her name 

sk-M^ ¥* — fc- ^ A-D- 

Khnemet tu neb urt thut Urd dm 

of " Defender from every evil, great lady ; and from Ura whom 


she hath brought forth ; " 

and whenever it was possible they painted on them figures of the 
goddess, who was represented with her protecting wings stretched 
out over the deceased, and with the emblems of celestial water and 
air in her hands. They believed that the dead were safely under 
the protection of the goddess when a picture of her was painted 
on the cover of the coffin above them, and they rarely forgot to 
suggest her presence in one form or the other. 

The following passages from the text of Pepi I. (line 100 if.) 
illustrate other aspects of the goddess : — " Hail, Nut, in whose 
" head appear the Two Eyes (i.e., Sun and Moon), thou hast taken 
" possession of Horus and art his Urt-hekau (i.e., mighty one of 
" words of power), thou hast taken possession of Set and art his 
"Urt-hekau. Behold, Nut, who didst decree that thou shouldst 
" be born in thy name of Pet-Annu (i.e., Sky of Heliopolis), decree 
" thou that this Pepi shall live, and that he may not perish. 
" Nut, who hast risen as a queen that thou mayest take posses- 
" sion of the gods and of their doubles, and their flesh and their 
" divine food, and of everything whatsoever which they have, grant 
" thou that he may be without opposition, and that he may live, 
" and let thy life, Nut, be the life of Pepi. Thy mother cometh 
"to thee and thou mo vest not. Nut cometh to thee and thou 
" mo vest not. The Great Protectress cometh to thee and thou 

1 See text of Teta, 11. 175, 279 ; Pepi I., 11. 60, 103. 

112 NUT 

" movest not, but as soon as she hath bestowed her protection upon 
" thee thou dost move, for she hath given thee thy head, she hath 
" brought to thee thy bones, she hath collected thy flesh, she hath 
" brought thee thy heart in thy body, thou livest according to thy 
"precepts, thou speakest to those who are before thee, thou 
"protectest thy children from grief, thou purifiest thyself with the 
"purifications of all the gods, and they come to thee with their 
" doubles." 

( 113 ) 


OSIRIS, j^, AS-AR, OR jg, ^, 

FROM the hieroglyphic texts of all periods of the dynastic 
history of Egypt we learn that the god of the dead, par 
excellence, was the god, whom the Egyptians called by a name 
which may be tentatively transcribed As-ar, or Us-ar, who is 
commonly known to us as " Osiris." The oldest and simplest form 

of the name is \\ , that is to say, it is written bv means of two 

hieroglyphics, the first of which represents a "throne" and the 
other an "eye," but the exact meaning attached to the combination 
of the two pictures by those who first used them to express the 
name of the god, and the signification of the name in the minds of 
those who invented it cannot be said. In the late dynastic period 
the first syllable of the name appears to have been pronounced 
Aus or Us, and by punning it was made to have the meaning of 
the word usr, " strength, might, power," and the like, and there 
is little doubt that the Egyptians at that time supposed the name 
of the god to mean something like the " strength of the Eye," i.e., 
the strength of the Sun-god Ra. This meaning may very well 
have suited their conception of the god Osiris, but it cannot be 
accepted as the correct signification of the name. For similar 
reasons the suggestion that the name As-ar is connected with the 
Egyptian word for "prince," or " chief," ser, cannot be entertained. 
It is probable that the second hieroglyphic in the name As-ar is to 

i Other forms are j Q ^ , Usr-Ra, ^ [1 <=> ^, User, -f] ^ ()(] 

Uasri, and M (§_ |l ^jj, Ausares. 

II — I 


be understood as referring to the great Eye of heaven, i.e., Ra, but 
the connexion of the first with it is not clear, and as we have no 
means of knowing what attributes were assigned to the god by his 
earliest worshippers the difficulty is hardly likely to be cleared up. 
The throne or seat, jj , is the first sign in the name of As-t, jj o , 
who is the female counterpart of Osiris, and it is very probable 
that originally the same conception underlay both names. It is 
useless to argue 1 that, because the dynastic Egyptians at a late 
period of their history substituted the disk of Ra, O, for the 
eye, -<s>-, in the name As-ar, and because they addressed to the 
o-od hymns in which they identified him as the source of light and 
as Ra, therefore As-ar was originally a solar god, especially when 
we remember the childish plays upon words which the priests 
resorted to whenever they attempted to find etymologies for the 
names of their gods. 

In comparatively late times Osiris was called Un-nefer, 

^J^ T 3 , in religious and mythological texts, and the priests (like 

/wwv\ U i — 1 

modern Egyptologists) tried to explain the name. The writer of a 

hymn quoted by Dr. Brugsch derived the word from un, ~Sk$ * 

" to open, to appear, to make manifest," and neferu, T *^~ v\ ■ i , 

" good things," and when he wrote, " Thy beauty (or goodness) 
" maketh itself manifest in thy person to rouse the gods to life in 
"thy name Un-nefer," it is clear that he was only making a play 
of words on the name "Un-nefer"; and again when he wrote, 
"Thou comest as the strength (usr) of Ra in thy name of As-ar," 
his object was rather to play with words on the name As-ar than 
to afford a trustworthy derivation of the name of Osiris. We may 
note in passing that modern derivations and explanations of the 
name Un-nefer are equally unsatisfactory. 2 The truth of the 
matter seems to be that the ancient Egyptians knew just as little 

1 See Brugsch, Religion, p. 81. 

2 According to one writer the name means " beautiful hare," and according to 
another the " Good Being " ; in one case un is connected with the verb un, " to be," 

and in the other with the god Un, -^* JH , or Unti, t$0% J] , who is mentioned 

in the Book of the Dead, Chapters xv. (Litany), 1 ; cxxxvi.A 7. 



about the original meaning of the name As-ar as we do, and that 
they had no better means of obtaining information about it than 
we have. 

Passing now to the consideration of the original characteristics 
and attributes of Osiris we find that the oldest religious texts 
known to us refer to him as the great god of the dead, and 
throughout them it is tacitly assumed that the reader will under- 
stand that he once possessed human form and lived upon earth, 
and that by means of some unusual power or powers he was able 
to bestow upon himself after his death a new life which he lived in 
a new body in a region over which he ruled as king, and into 
which he was believed to be willing to admit all such as had lived 
a good and correct life upon earth, and had been buried with 
appropriate ceremonies under the protection of certain amulets, 
and with the proper recital of certain " divine words " and words 
of power. The worship of Osiris is, however, very much older 
than these views, which, it is clear, could only belong to a people 
who had advanced to a comparatively high state of civilization and 
of mental development. 

The oldest authorities for the religious views of the ancient 
Egyptians are the " Pyramid Texts," which are known to us from 
copies made in the IVth, Vth and Vlth Dynasties, that is to say, 
in the period of their highest development ; even at this remote 
time the priests of Annu had composed a system of theology which 
was supported by the authority of the king and his high officials, 
and there is no doubt that it was based upon older systems of 
religious thought and belief. What these may have been it is 
useless to speculate, and all that is certain about the Heliopolitan 
system is that, whilst proclaiming the supremacy of their local 
god Tern or Ra-Tem, its priests took care to include in it as many 
of the ancient provincial gods as possible, and to adopt wherever 
they were able to do so the ancient beliefs and traditions concern- 
ing them. Among such gods Osiris held a very prominent place, 
in fact he was in respect of the dead and of the Underworld what 
Ra, or Ra-Tem was to the living and to this world, and in some 
passages he is referred to simply as " god," T, without the addition 
of any name. No other god of the Egyptians was ever mentioned 


or alluded to in this manner, and no other god at any time in 
Egypt ever occupied exactly the same exalted position in their 
minds, or was thought to possess his peculiar attributes. 

Up to the present no evidence has been deduced from the 
hieroglyphic texts which enables us to say specifically when Osiris 
began to be worshipped, or in what town or city his cult was first 
established, but the general information which we possess on this 
subject indicates that this god was adored as the great god of the 
dead by the dynastic Egyptians from first to last, and that the 
earliest dynastic centres of his worship were situated at Abydos 
in the South and at Tettu (Mendes) in the North ; in proof of 
these statements the following considerations are submitted. In a 
Rubric to one of the versions of the lxivth Chapter of the Theban 
Recension of the Book of the Bead it is said that the Chapter was 
" found " during the reign of Semti, 1 that is to say, the Chapter 
was revised, or edited, or re-written, or received some kind of 
literary treatment, during the reign of the fifth king of the 
1st Dynasty. If we look at the version of the Chapter to which 
this Rubric is appended we find this sentence : — " I am Yesterday, 
" and I am To-day ; and I have the power to be born a second time. 
" I the hidden Soul create the gods, and I give sepulchral meals to 
" the divine beings in Amenti and in heaven." Osiris is mentioned 
by name in connexion with " his city," and Tern, Khepera, 
Shu, the Urti goddesses, i.e., Isis and Nephthys, the goddess 
Aukert, the Chief of Re-stau, Hehi, the Bennu, and the 4,601,200 
spirits, who are twelve cubits high, are referred to, and we see that 
the whole of the religious and mythological systems of the 
Egyptians as made known to us by texts of later periods were in a 
well- developed state even in the 1st Dynasty. 

Confirmation of this fact is afforded by a small wooden plaque, 
in the British Museum, which was made for a " royal chancellor " 

called Hemaka, X Jp [_J , who flourished in the reign of Semti, the 

king in whose reign the lxivth Chapter of the Booh of the Dead 
was " found." On the right-hand side of the plaque is a scene in 
which the king is represented in the act of dancing before a deity, 

1 His name was formerly read Hesepti. 


who wears the crown of the South and is seated within a shrine 
set upon the top of some steps ; from various texts and scenes 
inscribed upon papyri and coffins, etc., of the New Empire we 
know that Osiris was called the " god on the top of the steps," and 
that he was depicted as a being seated in a shrine set on the top of 
a flight of steps, and there is no doubt that the god before whom 
Semti danced was Osiris. Immediately below the scene on the 
plaque described above is a representation of a ceremonial boat, 
and if we compare it with certain vignettes in the Boole of the Dead 
and elsewhere we cannot fail to identify it as the well-known 
Hennu Boat of the god Seker (Socharis). Now, in the Rubric of 
the Chapter already referred to, we are told that the Chapter was 
found " in the foundations of the shrine of Hennu," and thus the 
Chapter and the god Hennu, i.e., the god of the Hennu Boat, were 
in existence in the 1st Dynasty, and they were in some way 
specially connected with king Semti — if we are to believe an 
Egyptian tradition which was current under the XVIIIth Dynasty, 
about B.C. 1G00. Moreover, if the gods whom the Egyptians under 
the IV th and Vth Dynasties declared to belong to the company of 
Osiris existed under the 1st Dynasty, Osiris also must have existed, 
and the mention of the Underworld by the name of Amenti, or 
Amentet, presupposes the existence of its god and king, one of 
whose chief titles was Khenti-Amenti. It is important to note 
also that on the plaque of Hemaka Osiris wears the White Crown, 
or Crown of the South, a fact which suggests that at the time 
when it was made he was regarded as a god of the South, and to 
note that although in later times his cult was general throughout 
Egypt he was always represented with the White Crown on his 
head, and that it was one of his most characteristic attributes. 

The plaque of Hemaka proves that a centre of the Osiris cult 
existed at Abydos under the 1st Dynasty, but we are not justified 
in assuming that the god was first worshipped there, and when we 
remember the frequent allusions in the Pyramid Texts to Pe and 
Tep, the two divisions of the city of Per-Uatchet in the Delta, it is 
difficult not to think that even under the 1st Dynasty shrines 
had been built in honour of Osiris at several places in Egypt. 
Dynastic tradition asserted that the head of Osiris was buried at 


Abydos, and for this reason that city became of the first importance 
to worshippers of the god, but we know that the local god of the 
nome was An-Her, and that his cult was thrust out by that of 
Osiris, who was adored under the title of " Osiris Khent-Amenti ; " 
there must then have been a time when Osiris was brought to 
Abydos, and it is probable that he was introduced into that city 
from the North, for the following reasons. In the Pyramid Texts, 
which are the oldest exponents of the religious system which made 
Osiris the supreme god of the dead, we have frequent allusions to 
the food and drink which the deceased enjoys, and to the apparel 
wherein he is arrayed in the Underworld. We find that he wears 
white linen garments and sandals, that he sits by a lake in the 
Field of Peace with the gods, and partakes with them of the tree of 
life, ^ a*a^a ■¥• 9 and that he eats figs and grapes, and drinks 
oil and wine, and that he lives on the " bread of eternity," and 
the " beer of everlastingness, ' ^ Q ™^ XI ft =0= 

His bread was made of the wheat which Horus ate, and the four 
children of Horus, Mestha, Hfipi, Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf 
" appeased the hunger of his belly, and the thirst of his lips." He 
abhorred the hunger which he could not satisfy, and he loathed 
the thirst which he could not slake, and one of the greatest delights 
of his existence was the knowledge that he was " delivered from 
the power of those who would steal away his food." 

Another source of great joy was the power which he possessed 
of washing himself clean, and he and his double are represented as 
sitting down to eat bread together, each having washed himself 
clean ; yet another source of enjoyment was his journeying by 
water in a boat which was rowed by the mariners of the Sun-god 
Ra. All these and similar statements point clearly to the fact that 
the reward which Osiris bestowed after death upon his follower 
was a life which he led in a region where corn, and wine, and oil, 
and water were abundant, and where circumstances permitted him 
to wear white linen robes and white sandals, and where he was not 
required to do work of any kind, and where he was able to perforin 

1 See the Chapter " Doctrine of Eternal Life " in my Papyrus of Ani, London, 
1894, pp. lxxv.-lxxvii. 


his ablutions at will, and to repose whensoever it pleased him to 
do so. He possessed his own estate, or homestead, where he abode 
with his parents, and presumably with a wife, or wives, and 
family, and his heavenly life was to all intents and purposes 
nothing but a duplicate of his life upon earth. In several passages 
in the Pyramid Texts we also have allusions to a life in which his 
enjoyments and delights were of a more spiritual character, but it 
is evident that these represent the beliefs and doctrines of the 
priests of Ra, who declared that the blessed fed upon light, and 
were arrayed in light and became beings of light, and that the 
place wherein they lived was the boat of the Sun-god Ra, wherein 
they passed over heaven, and wherefrom their souls flew down 
to earth to visit the scenes of their former life. Thus, as far back 
as the period of the Vth Dynasty texts belonging to two distinct 
cults, i.e., the cult of Osiris and the cult of Ra, existed side by side, 
and no attempt appears to have been made to suppress either that 
of Osiris or that of Ra ; in other words, the priests of Heliopolis 
had the good sense to allow the beliefs which were connected with 
the cult of Osiris to find expression in the great Recension of 
religious texts which they promulgated about B.C. 3500. The cult 
of Osiris was very ancient, and was universal, and they saw that 
the cult of Ra would not take its place in the minds of the 
Egyptians for a very considerable time, if ever. 

From what has been said above it is quite clear that the 
followers of Osiris believed in a material heaven, and we have now 
to consider where that heaven Avas situated. In a passage in the 

text of Unas (line 1 9 1 if.) the Angels of Thoth, ^ V ^ ^ ^ ^ , 

and the Ancient Ones, ^ v^, and the Great Terrifier, 

I <zs^ \\ v\ ^=s , who cometh forth from the Nile, fi , Hap, 

and Ap-uat, \f S=^^£^3: d^, who cometh forth from the 

tree Asert, (1 <=> w , are called upon to witness that the mouth 
of the king is pure, because he eats and drinks nothing except that 
upon which the gods live. The text says, " Ye have taken Unas 
" with you, and he eateth what ye eat, he drinketh that which ye 
" drink, he liveth as ye live, he dwelleth as ye dwell, he is powerful 


" as ye are powerful, and he saileth about as ye sail about " ; thus 
the heaven where Unas lived after death was in some place where 
there were waters whereon he could sail in a boat. The text 
continues, "Unas hath netted [fowl and fish] with the net in 
" Aaru, Unas hath possession over the waters in Sekhet-hetep, 
" and his offerings of meat and drink are among the gods. The 
" water of Unas is as wine, even as it is for Ra, and Unas goeth 
" about heaven like Ra, and he traverseth heaven like Thoth." 
From this extract we see that the region where the heaven of Unas 
was situated is called Aaru, (I "%\ _^£ ])])])]) > * ne name having as 
a determinative a sign which is intended to represent a mass of 
waving reeds; in another place (line 412) the region is called 

Sekhet- Aar, H ® jjj]]] \\ <K\ _s^ , and is identical with the 
Sekhet-Aarru, DJJO ^ Q 1^ *ST ^ '^X i n ' anc * Sekhet- Aanru, 
1 1 Q " ^\ ™ lm ~ ^ , of the later Recensions of the Book of 
the Dead. From a number of other passages Ave find that Aaru or 
Sekhet- Aaru was divided into a number of districts, the chief of 
which was called Sekhet-hetepet, 000 "J, 1,e -> Viem oi 

Offerings," or Sekhet-hetep, (]]]]] Q =&=, i.e., "Field of Peace,' 

and was presided over by the god Sekhti-hetep, 000 

To the south of this region lay Sekhet- Sanehemu, 

Y~) Mv V ^^ ' ' *' e *' " Field °f ^ ne Grasshoppers," l and in 
it were the Lakes of the Tuat, c^> X , and the 

Lakes of the Jackals, L J — h— <k\ v\ -^ a . In the 

waters of Aaru, or Sekhet-Aaru, Ra purified himself (Pepi I., 
line 234), and it was here that the deceased also purified himself 
before he began his heavenly life ; here also dwelt the three classes 
of beings who are called Akhemu-seku, Akhemu-Betesh, and 
Akhemu-Sesh-emau, 2 that is to say, three classes of celestial bodies 

1 See Book of the Bead, cxxv. Pt. iii., 1. 19. 






ANI Ploughing and Reaping and* 

of TM 


»RIT. MUS. NO. 10470, SHEET 35).] 



or beings who were thought never to diminish, ojp melt away, 
or decay. 

All the evidence as to the position of the region Aaru shows 
that originally it was thought to be in the sky, but, on the other 
hand, there are indications that it was entered from certain places 
in the Delta, and among such was the region which contained the 
double city, Pe-Tep and Tettu, or Tatau. Thus in a passage in 
the text of Pepi I. (line 255) it is said, " Pepi hath gone forth from 
" Pe, and from being with the Souls of Pe, and as he is arrayed in 
" the apparel of Horus, and in the garment of Thoth, and as Isis is 
" before him and Nephthys is behind him, Apuat openeth a way 
" for him, and Shu beareth him up, and the Souls of Annu make 
"him to mount the steps that they may present him to Nut 
" who stretcheth out her hands to him, even as they did for 
" Osiris when he arrived in the other world. Hra-f-ha-f 

v*L_ w jjJk*^')' ^ e P* * iat k J ourne y e d on to Sekhet-Aar, 
" (P J HilH =» \ ^ o^> JSd J) , be hath come forth from Uart, 

" Vol w\ ^ ^ ) ' ana " s ^ nce ne * s * ne D0( ty which hath come forth 
"from God, and the uraeus which hath come forth from Ra, he 
" hath sailed on to Sekhet-Aar, having the four Spirits of Horus, 
"Hap, Amset, Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf, with him, two on each 
" side." This view of the position of Sekhet-Aaru is supported by 
several passages in the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead, 
and the pictures of the district, with its lakes and canals which 
form the vignettes to the cxth Chapter, indicate that it was 
situated to the north of Egypt. The name Sekhet-Aaru appears 
to mean "Field of Reeds" or "Field of Plants," and the idea 
conveyed by it was that of some very fertile region where farming- 
operations could be carried on with ease and success, and where it 
would be possible to possess a large, well-kept, and well-stocked 
homestead, situated at no great distance from the Nile, or from 
one of its main branches. In the text the deceased prays, " Let 
" me have the power to order my own fields in Tettu, and my own 
" growing crops in Annu. Let me live upon bread made of white 

1 I.e., " He whose face is behind him." 


"grain, and let my beer be made from red grain, and may the 
" persons of my father and mother be given unto me as guardians 
" of my door, and for the ordering of my homestead. Let me be 
" sound and strong, and let me have much room wherein to move, 
"and let me be able to sit wheresoever I please " (Chapter Hi.). 

In the neighbourhood of Tettu, then, the original Sekhet- 
Aaru was thought to be located, and in Tettu the reconstruction of 
the dismembered body of Osiris took place, and it was here that 
the solemn ceremony of setting up his backbone was performed 

each year. The city of Tettu, ft ft csi % S , or Tatau, 

here referred to was the capital of the ninth nome of Lower 
Egypt called Per-Asar-neb-Tettu, '"^ IRj ^7 ft e ^ ^, by the 
Egyptians, and Busiris by the Greeks. In a portion of it called 
Neb-sekert, ^37 P < 5 >[ J1 ] , was preserved, according to one 
tradition, the backbone, jj^, of Osiris; according to another his 
jaws were there preserved. 1 

From what has been said above it is clear that the cult of 
Osiris is certainly as old as the period of the 1st Dynasty, and that 
the oldest centre of his worship was situated in the Delta. Every- 
thing which the texts of all periods record concerning him goes to 
show that he was an indigenous god of North-east Africa, and that 
his home and origin were possibly Libyan. We have no means of 
finding out what were the earliest conceptions about Osiris, but it 
seems that he was originally a water spirit, or the god of some arm 
of the Nile, or portion of the main body of the Nile, and that 
he developed later into a great water-god ; Dr. Brugsch 2 and 
M. Maspero 3 both regarded him as a water-god, and rightly 
consider that he represented the creative and nutritive powers of 
the Nile stream in general and of the Inundation in particular. 

The natural opponent of Osiris was Set, Avho typified death 
and destruction, and who was the god par excellence of the desert ; 
and in various forms and told in different ways we have the 
narrative of the contest between the powers of life and death, and 

1 See de Rouge, Ge'og. Ancienne, p. 59. ~ Religion, pp. 190, 197. 

3 Histoire Ancienne, torn, i., p. 172. 


light and darkness, and decay and regeneration, which appears in 
the religious texts of every period. In fact, Set was the opponent 
in every way of Osiris who, in the words of Dr. Brugsch, typified 
the " unbroken rejuvenescence of immortal Nature according to 
" the Divine Will and according to eternal laws." 1 In the xviith 
Chapter of the Book of the Dead the deceased says, " I am 
"Yesterday (u sef); I know To-day (^ "v\ "v\ O tuau)" 

and in answer to the question which follows, " Who then is this ? " 
it is said, " Yesterday is Osiris, and To-day is Rti, on the day when 
" he shall destroy the enemies of Neb-er-tcher, and when he shall 
" establish as prince and ruler his son Horus" (lines 15-18). This 
passage proves that although Osiris was the type of that which is 
gone, or dead, or the past, he possessed a power of regeneration 
which expressed itself in the young Horus. In his aspect of a 
water-god Osiris was the personification of the falling Nile, or the 
Nile in winter, and of the night sun, and of the winter sun, but he 
was, nevertheless, the cause of the fertility of Egypt, which was 
personified as Isis, and was the father of the young Horus, who in 
due course grew into an Osiris, and produced by means of Isis a 
young Horus to take his place, becoming thus the " father of his 
father." 2 

Among a people like the Egyptians it would not be very long 
before the annual rise, and inundation, and fall of the Nile would 
be compared to the chief periods in the lives of men, and before 
the renewed rise of the Nile in the following year would be 
compared to man's immortality, which in Egypt was taken for 
granted from the earliest times ; and that this is exactly what 
happened the hieroglyphic texts supply abundant proof. Un- 
fortunately, however, we find nowhere in Egyptian works a 
connected narrative of the life, acts and deeds, and sufferings and 
death, and resurrection of Osiris, the man-god, but we possess a 
tolerably accurate account of them in Plutarch's De Iside et 
Osiride. 3 The mythological history of Isis and Osiris by this 

1 "Die ununterbrochene Verji'ingung der unsterblichen Nafcur nacb gottlicbem 
Willen und nacb ewigen Gresetzen," liel'ujion, p. 611. 
3 Brugsch, Religion, pp. 612, 613. 
3 Ed. Didot (Serijpta M or alia, torn, iii., pp. 427-469), § xii. ff. 


writer is so important that an English rendering of it by 
Mr. Squire is given at the end of this chapter, but it will be 
necessary here to summarize the main facts in it in order that 
they may be compared with the hieroglyphic texts which refer to 
the subject. According to these Osiris was the son of Rhea, the 
Egyptian Nut, the wife of Helios, the Egyptian Ra, by Kronos, 
the Egyptian Seb ; when Helios found that his wife was with 
child by Seb he declared that she should not be delivered of her 
child in any month or in any year. By a stratagem Hermes, the 
Egyptian Thoth, played at tables with Selene, and won from her 
the seventieth part of each day of the year, i.e., in all five days, 
which he added to the year. On the first of these five days Osiris 
was born, and a voice was heard to proclaim that the lord of 
creation was born. In due course he became king of Egypt and 
taught men husbandry, and established a code of laws, and made 
men worship the gods ; when Egypt had become peaceful and 
prosperous he set out to instruct the other nations of the world, 
and Isis ruled Egypt during his absence. On his return Typhon, 
the Egyptian Set, and his seventy-two comrades, made Osiris to 
lie down in a chest, which was immediately closed by them, and 
cast into the Nile, which carried it down to its Tanaitic mouths. 
When Isis heard what had befallen her husband she cut off a lock 
of her hair as a sign of grief, and then set out to find his dead 
body. At length she traced it to Byblos, whither it had been 
carried by the sea, and she found that the waves had gently laid 
it among the branches of a tamarisk tree, which had grown to a 
magnificent size, and had enclosed the chest within its trunk. 
The Byblos here referred to is not Byblos in Phoenicia, but the 
papyrus swamps of Egypt, which are called in Egyptian Athu, 

(1 c=^= 9 \\ Jf \X , a name meaning "papyrus plants;" the Greeks 

rendered the Egyptian word for " papyrus" by BvfiXos, and some 
copyist of the Greek text misunderstood the signification of the 
word in this passage, and rendered it by the name of the city of 

The king of the country, admiring the tree, had it cut down 
and made a pillar for the roof of his house ; it is this tree trunk 


which is referred to by the hieroglyphic sign u , tef, and which is 

continually used in the texts with reference to Osiris. It has 
been said to represent a mason's table, but the four cross-bars 
have nothing to do with such a thing, for they are intended 
to indicate the four branches of a roof-tree of a house which 
were turned to the four cardinal points. When Isis heard 
that the tree had been cut down, she went to the palace of 
the king, and through the good offices of the royal maidens 
she was made nurse to one of the king's sons. Instead of 
nursing the child in the ordinary way, Isis gave him her 
finger to suck, and each night she put him into the fire to 
consume his mortal parts, changing herself the while into a 
swallow and bemoaning her fate. On one occasion the queen 
saw her son in the flames, and cried out, and thus deprived 
him of immortality. Then Isis told the queen her story, and 
begged for the pillar which supported the roof. This she cut 
open, and took out the chest and her husband's body, and departed 
with them to Egypt ; having arrived there she hid the chest and 
set out in quest of her son Horus. 

One night, however, Typhon was out hunting by the light 
of the moon, and he found the chest, and recognizing the 
body, tore it into fourteen pieces, which he scattered up and 
down throughout the land. When Isis heard of this she 
took a boat made of papyrus * — a plant abhorred by crocodiles 
— and sailing about she gathered together the fragments of 
Osiris's body. Wheresoever she found one, she buried it and 
built a tomb over it. Meanwhile Horus had grown up, and 
being encouraged in the use of arms by Osiris, who returned 
from the other world, he went out to do battle with Typhon 
the murderer of his father. The fight lasted some days, and 
Typhon was made captive, and was given over to the custody 
of Isis who, however, set him free. Horus in his rage tore 
from her head the royal diadem, but Thoth gave her a helmet 
in the shape of a cow's head. In two other battles fought between 

1 Moses was laid in an ark of bulrushes, and was therefore believed to be safe 
from the attacks of crocodiles. 


Horus and Typhon Horus was the victor. The great battle 
between Horus and Typhon took place, we are told in the IVth 
Sallier Papyrus, on the 26th day of the month Thoth ; they first 
of all fought in the form of two men, but they afterwards changed 
themselves into two bears, and they passed three days and three 
nights in this form. 

From the above summary it is clear that in Plutarch's time 
the Egyptians believed that Osiris was the son of a god, that he 
lived a good life upon earth and ruled as a wise and just king, 
that he was slain by the malice of evil men, that his body was 
mutilated, and that his wife Isis collected his limbs which had 
been scattered throughout Egypt by Set, or Typhon, and that 
Osiris by some means obtained a new life in the next world, where 
he reigned as god and king. The hieroglyphic texts contain 
abundant testimony that the statements of Plutarch are sub- 
stantially correct, and from first to last Osiris was to the Egyptians 
the god-man who suffered, and died, and rose again, and reigned 
eternally in heaven. They believed that they would inherit 
eternal life, just as he had done, provided that what was done for 
him by the gods was done for them, and they made use of amulets, 
and magical texts of all kind, and performed ceremonies connected 
with sympathetic magic in order that they might compel Osiris 
and the gods who had brought about his resurrection (i.e., Thoth, 
the " lord of divine words, the scribe of the gods," and Isis, who 
made use of the words with which Thoth supplied her, and Horus 
and his companion gods who performed the symbolic ceremonies 
which were effectual in producing the reconstitution of the body 
of Osiris and its revivification) to act on their behalf even as they 
had acted for the god. The species of the amulets used were 
constant, and they appear to have been sixteen in number, viz., 
four figures of the children of Horus each with his characteristic 
head, four lapis-lazuli Tet pillars, two bulls, a figure of Horus, a 
figure of Thoth, two carnelian Tet pillars, and two lapis-lazuli 
utchats, ^^ jrp[p . 

According to Plutarch the number of portions into which Set 
tore the body of Osiris was fourteen, but the hieroglyphic texts 
give at times fourteen and at others sixteen ; the cities and 


sanctuaries wherein these were buried are :— 1. Ament in Koptos. 
2. Aa-fib in Elephantine. 3. An-rut-f in Herakleopolis Magna. 
4. Kusae. 5. Heliopolis. 6. At- Ament in Sma-behutet (Diospolis 
of Lower Egypt). 7. Letopolis. 8. Pa-Thuhen in Sa'is. 9. Meh- 
ta-f in Hermopolis of Lower Egypt. 10. Athribis. 11. Aq 
(Schedia). 12. Ab, in the Libyan Nome. 13. Het-sera in the city 
of Netert. 14. Apis. 1 In the late period of Egyptian history, i.e., 
in Graeco-Roman times, the sanctuaries of Osiris were forty-two in 
number ; in other words, each nome possessed its central shrine of 
Osiris, which was called a " Serapeum," or the place where Serapis 
was worshipped, but this happened because Osiris Khent Amenti 
was identified with Serapis, who was not the god Osiris himself, 
but only a dead Apis bull which had become an Osiris. It has 
already been said that in some lists the sanctuaries of Osiris are 
stated to be sixteen in number, but it is tolerably certain that the 
true number is fourteen, because in the inscriptions at Dendera 
which refer to the " mysteries " of Osiris, the statue of Seker-Osiris, 
which played such a prominent part in the ceremonies performed 
there, was made up of fourteen pieces, 2 although sixteen pieces are 
sometimes enumerated. 3 The sixteen members of the body of 

Osiris are : — his head, ®, the soles of his feet, yjft), his bones, £ c ,, 

his arms, a, his heart, ^ , his interior, * O, his tongue. 

^K, his eye, ^, his fist, *i-^, his fin S ers > )))> his back, 
X, his ears, <§-^§>, his loins, 1^ ^ X ^> nis Dod y> 2"! ^' 


1 See Brugsch, A&j. Zeitschrift, 1881, p. 79 ff. Another list of the sixteen 
sanctuaries is given by M. Loret in Becueil, torn, v., p. 85, where they are 

enumerated in the following order : — Tettu, 1 ^ , Abydos, 

(£> & " Y\ f^^l 

Memphis, q E Y ^L , Nubia, X , Herakleopolis, f Q ^ , , Kusae, 

Atef -khent, ^ ^=— _ V ,,^, , Sa'is, Txf *~^~, Mehtefc, ^' Amu ' & I 

Sma-Behutet, T ^, Re-aqiu, I j -y^y , Hen, <^>^^, Netrat, 

1 JL> { ©,' B ^ et ' f" @ ' Ka " qem ' ^^ ^BHE' Dendera > 4ar* S£ - 
- They are enumerated by Brugsch, Aeg. ZeiL, 1881, p. 90 ff. 
8 Recueil, torn, hi., p. 56; torn. iv\, p. 23. 


his head with the face of a ram, ® ^=— *"ww <£> q U ^> 22. , and 

his hair, <=> o - 1 

All the evidence on the subject now available goes to prove, 
as the paragraphs above show, that the early Egyptians believed 
that Osiris was a man-god who was murdered and whose body was 
mutilated, and that the various members of his body were recon- 
stituted ; and we know from a very interesting text at Dendera 2 
that during the month of Khoiak a number of festivals were 
celebrated at all the chief sanctuaries of Osiris in Egypt, and that 
elaborate ceremonies were performed in them in commemoration 
of every event which took place in the life, death, and resurrection 
of the god. In this text the uses of the various sanctuaries are 
described, and detailed instructions are given for the making of the 
funeral chest, and of the model of the god which was to be buried 
in the coffin, and of the incense, and of the amulets, and of the 
fourteen divine members, and of all the materials, etc., which were 
employed in the ceremonies. On the xiith day of Khoiak the 
Festival of the Ploughing of the Earth and the Festival of the 

TenA, (j , were celebrated; on the xivth day the great 

1 The hieroglyphic texts tell us that the head of Osiris was buried in the 
sanctuary of Arq-heh, <c=r> « Mr l © , in Abydos ; his left eye was buried in 

Het-Maakheru, [) I , in Lower Egypt ; his eyebrows were buried in Am, ^~ 
(PeVusium) ; his jaw-bones Avere buried at Faket in Upper Egypt ; certain portions 
of his head were buried at Heb-kert, V&y u ^ ^ , ha the Delta ; his neck was 
buried in the Delta ; an arm and his right leg were buried at Aterui qema, 
WW ^W^ ' *^ s l e ft l e o was buried at Mehet, Cx SPf ^ ; a bone of his back (os 

coccyx) was buried at Heliopolis, and his thighs at Het-her-ateb, J i i (I ', 

a foot was buried at Netert, \ ^ , and his heart at Usekht-Maati, 

ijjpji I) M J 4 J] ; his phallus was buried at Het-Bennu, J ^ ^^ ^ , 

and a portion of his backbone at Pa-paut-neteru, ^ | . Various other 

parts of his body were buried at different places, and in the case of a few members 
the honour of possessing them was claimed by more than one city. 

2 See Brugsch, Becueil, i., 15, 16 ; Diimichen, Besidtats, iv. 1-27 ; Mariette, 
Denderah, torn, iv., pll. 35-39. 



Festival of Pert; on the xvith day the Festival of Osiris Khent 
Amenti ; on the xxivth day the model of the god of the preceding- 
year was taken out from its place and buried suitably, and the new 
Osiris was embalmed in the sanctuary ; on the last day of the month 

the Tet, u, was set up in Tettu, because on this day the divine 
members of Osiris, | 9>R.^> were brought. The new Osiris remained 
without burial for seven days because of the tradition which 
declared that the god had remained for seven days in the womb of 
his mother Nut when she was with child. 

In connexion with the ceremonies in the great sanctuaries, 
e.g., Dendera, thirty-four papyrus boats were employed, and these 
were lit up with 365 lights, or lamps, ] U "^ Q, ^^n II " 
The gods of Mendes, with Anubis, occupied one boat, and Isis, 
Nephthys, Horus, and Thoth, each had a boat ; the remaining 
twenty-nine boats were dedicated to the following gods : — Mestha, 

Hapi, Tuamutef, Qebh-sennuf, Sah-heq, |^T, Armauai, 
£= -f) M 1 , Maa-tef-f, <2> " Jp *JL *^_ 1 , Ar-ren-f-tchesef, 
^" *—- -^j 1 , Am-Tet, JJ- ^ ^ , Nefer-hat, I *^ ^ , Ast-sen- 

ARI-TCHER, jj^jQIU^S^^^, SeM, ^ J\ ^ , HeR-A-F, ^ 

J , Sent, „ ^ ^> ^ , Ari-maat-f-tchesef, ySj ^" -ZT1) "j , 
Sebakhsen, fl ^ " ' 1, Heqes, 8 a n f^ 1 , Neter-bah, p| ' c=S) 1 , 
Qetet, ^ q ^ ^ , Khenti-heh-f, f ^ Q, *^ 1 ' ^-Q"? er - Am - 

UNNUT-F, T lr^%0 1 ' NeTCHEH-NeTCHEH, C ^ "SI, 

Asbu, \\ n J %> 1 , Per-em-khet-khet, ^=S /= J"^^"^ 1 , Erta- 
nef-nebt, <=> V J ^ [ 1 I , Tesher-maati, □§ -<2>- i , KnENT- 

het-Anes, fQH^pSl, Maa-em-qeeh, ^y^^Q"\ 

An-f-em-hru-seksek, j\ p i — <=> — »— ^fe? — h— X . The above 

facts prove that in the Ptolemaic period the views which were held 
generally about Osiris were substantially the same as those which 
were in vogue in the times when the Pyramid Texts were 

II — K 


composed, and it is clear that the cult of Osiris was widespread 
even in the Vth Dynasty, or about B.C. 3500. 

From the Pyramid Texts we learn that the dead kings were 
already identified with Osiris, and that Osiris was identified with 
the dead Sun-god, but we have no means of knowing when he was 
merged in Seker, the god of the Memphite Underworld. The 
Heliopolitan priests declared that he was the son of Seb and Nut, 
but it is much to be regretted that they did not preserve for us the 
genealogy of the god according to the priests of the predynastic 
period. The festivals which were celebrated in the month of 
Khoiak were, no doubt, founded upon very ancient tradition, but 
the elaboration of detail given in the text at Dendera, to which 
reference has already been made, does not suggest a primitive 
antiquity, although it shows how deeply seated was the cult of 
Osiris in the hearts of the people. The numerous aspects under 
which the god was worshipped also show that some of the original 
conceptions of the attributes of the god were forgotten in compara- 
tively early days, both by foreigners and Egyptians, and it is this 
fact which explains how he came to be identified with the Greek 
god Dionysos. The aspects of Osiris were nearly as numerous as 
those of Ra, hence we find him identified with the sun and moon, 
and with the great creative and regenerative powers of Nature, 
and he was at once the symbol of rejuvenescence, resurrection, and 
of life of every sort and kind which has the power of renewing 

We must now consider the various forms in which Osiris is 
represented on the monuments, and in papyri, etc. The common 
form of the god is that of a mummy, who wears a beard, and has 

the White Crown, /), on his head, and a mendt, (w , hanging from 

the back of his neck. In a scene reproduced by Lanzone 1 he 
appears in a group with the Hawk-god Seker, the Beetle-god 

Kheprer, and the goddess Shent, aaKaa, and has two forms, i.e., 

Osiris, lord of Khut, and Khent Amenti, r -<s>- ^37 '^^ ° , and 

flm ^ >^> f ' ^ n ano ^ ner scene 2 he appears in the form of the Tet 

1 Dizionario, plate 15. -Ibid., pi. 17. 

i ii 111 1 11 1 1 1 ii tii nun in in n un in iiiiii nrm 


osiris wearing the white crown and menat ano holding the sceptre, 

Crook, and Flail. Before him are the Four Children of Horus, and 

behind him is his wlfe isis. 


pillar, and is called " Osiris Tet," and stands at the head of a bier, 
on which lies the god Seker in mummied form. On a stele at 
Turin 1 Osiris appears in mummied form, seated, and holding in his 

hands the sceptre f , and the flail or whip £\ ; on his head is the 
White Crown with plumes, to which the name Atef is usually- 
given. His titles are " Osiris Khenti-Amentet, Un-nefer, lord of 
Tatcheser, the great god, king of the living." Behind him are 
seated Ptah-Sekri, ^ § ^^ ^ w) > " ^ or< ^ °f the bidden chest," 
Anpu, "dweller in the city of embalmment," Horus, son of Isis, 
and Hathor. As a form of Khnemu-Ra he has the head of a ram, 
the horns of which are surmounted by a solar disk and by four 

knives. 3 A common symbol of the god is A, i.e., the box which 

contained the head and hair of Osiris and which was preserved at 
Abydos, where these relics were buried. Elsewhere we see the 
body of the god bent round backwards in such a way as to form the 
region of the Tuat or Underworld (see vol. i., p. 229). Sometimes 
the god is seated on a throne, which is supported on the back of a 
monster serpent that rests on the top of the mythological flight of 
steps, /\ , at Henen-Su ; he is accompanied by Maat, Horus, son 
of Isis, Thoth, Heka, ^=^ jj , who holds a serpent in each hand, 
and the snake-headed goddess Heptet, 8 . The exact part 
which this last-named deity played in connexion with Osiris is 
unknown, but it is certain that it was of considerable importance, 
and that the goddess assisted in bringing about his resurrection. 
Heptet has the body of a woman with the head of a bearded 
snake ; on her head is a pair of horns which are surmounted by a 
solar disk, and Atef Crown, and uraei with disks and horns, r>. 
In each hand she holds a knife. 3 

On the walls of the temple of Dendera 4 is preserved a very 
interesting group of scenes connected with the story of the death 
and resurrection of the god, which may be briefly described thus : — 

1. Osiris lying on his stomach on his bier, beneath which are 
his four crowns ; he is called, " Osiris, beloved of his father, the 

1 Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 96. 2 Ibid., pi. 143. :! Ibid., pi. 211. 

4 See Mariette, Deader ah, torn, iv., pi. 6515., Paris, 1S73. 


king of the gods, the lord of life, Osiris." In front of Osiris is 
Horus who presents to him a lotus flower. 

No. 1. 

2. Osiris lying on his funeral bier ; at the head stands 


No. 2. 

Nephthys, and at the foot Isis. 

No. 3. 

3. Osiris, ithyphal- 
lic, and wearing the 
Atef Crown, lying on 
his bier. On the head 
of the bier is a hawk 
with outstretched wings, 
and behind it stands 
Isis ; on the foot is a 
similar hawk, and be- 
hind it stands Horus, 



son of Isis. Above is the soul of Osiris. Below the bier are two 
crowns, a tunic, and a cap. 

4. Osiris, naked and beardless, lying on his bier, at the head 
of which is a statue of Isis, and at the foot a statue of Nephthys. 

5. Osiris, naked and beardless, lying on his bier, at the head 
of which stands Isis who is addressing the god ; beneath the bier are 
figures of the four children of Horus, Mestha, Hapi, Tuamutef, and 
Qebhsennuf, who, besides representing the gods of the four cardinal 
points, may here be considered as personifications of the four large, 
internal organs of the body. 

6. Osiris, naked, lying upon 
his bier, over the foot of which 
is the vulture goddess Uatchet, 
and over the head the uraeus 
goddess Nekhebet. 

7. Osiris, in mummied form, 
lying on his bier beneath a funeral 
chest, over which a hawk stretches out its wings. 

8. Osiris, j ^g ^ , of Behutet (Edfu) lying on his bier, with 

No. 6. 

Xo. 8. 

Nephthys at his head and Isis at his feet. 

9. Osiris of Ta-khent lying on his bier, with a Hawk-goddess 
at the head and a Vulture-goddess at the foot. 

10. Osiris of Hap, ^^1©? wearing the Atef Crown, lying- 
face downwards on his bier, beneath which are a number of 
crowns and caps of the god. 



S» © 

11. Osiris lying on his bier in the Meskhen chamber with the 
four funeral vases beneath. 

12. Osiris, ithyphallic, mummied, and beardless, lying on his 
bier ; he is watched over by three hawks, and by Isis, who stands 

at the head, and by a 
frog - headed form of 
the god Horus. Be- 
neath the bier are the 
ape-headed god Aurt, 

4 _a < 1 ' anc * two 
snake-goddesses, one of 

No - 12 - which is called Her- 

tept, x ^ ^) Pn ' anc ^ an ibis-headed god. 

13. Seker-Osiris of 
Mendes, beardless, lying up- 
on a bier, with Anubis in .at- 
tendance, holding in his 
hands a vase of unguent, 
and an instrument used in 

14. Seker-Osiris of 
Mendes, in the form of a hawk-headed mummy, lying upon his 

bier, beneath which grow 
three small trees. 

15. Seker-Osiris, 
naked, and bearded, and 
wearing the Atef Crown, 
lying upon his bier, be- 
neath which grow three 
16. Ptah-Seker-Asar of Memphis, in mummied form and 
bearded, lying upon his bier, at the head of which, on a pedestal, 
stands a figure of Isis. The bier is placed within a funeral chest, 
the pillars of which are in the form of Tet, u . On the right is 

" Asar Tet, the holy one in Tettu, rj'S 7 □ M m >" m ^ ne f orm 
of a Tet pillar, which is provided with human hands and arms ; 

No. 13. 

No. 14. 



No. 16. 

above it appear the head of Osiris and the sceptre and flail, or 

Osiris on his bier ; beneath are the Canopic jars. 

The mummy of Osiris on its bier with the hawk of Horus above ; at the head is NephthyS, 

and at the foot Isis. 

17. Osiris, beardless, and wearing the White Crown and 
plumes, in the act of raising himself from his bier at the command 
of Heru-netch-tef-f. 



No. 17. 

No. 18. 

18. Osiris Un-nefer, in mummied form, lying on his bier, at 
the head of which grows the Persea tree, Ashet (1 A ; above the 

upper branches stands a soul in the form of a man-headed hawk. 

19. Osiris, bearded, lying on his bier, which rests within an 
elaborately ornamented funeral chest ; beneath the bier are a 
number of helmets, caps, etc., belonging to the god. Through one 
end of the chest Heru-netch-tef-f thrusts his lance, and touches the 
face of Osiris with it, with the view, presumably, of effecting the 
" opening of the mouth." 

Ceremonial scene connected with the resurrection of Osiris. 

20. Osiris, ithyphallic and bearded, in mummied form, lying 
upon his bier ; over his feet and his body hover two hawks. At 
the head kneels Hathor, " Mistress of Amentet, who weepeth for 
"her brother," and at the foot is a frog, symbol of the goddess 
Heqet, ( £> J); beneath the bier are an ibis-headed god holding 
the TJtchat, two serpents, and the god Bes. It is interesting 
to note that the frog-headed goddess Heqet, who was a form of 

PTAH-SEKER-AUSAR, the Triune God of the Resurrection 



Hathor, was connected by the Christians with the Christian 
Resurrection ; in proof of this may be cited the lamp described by 

No. 20. 

Signor Lanzone, 1 whereon, he tells us, is a figure of a frog, and 
the legend 3 Eyoj elfxt '^^ao-rctcri?, " I am the resurrection." 

21. Osiris, bearded, ithyphallic, in mummied form, and 
wearing the White Crown, lying on his bier, by the side of which 
stand Anubis, jackal-headed, and Heqet, frog-headed. At the 

Anubis addressing' Osiris on his bier. 

head stands H eru-netch-tef-f in the form of a hawk, and Nephthys 
kneels ; at the foot kneels Isis. 

22. Osiris, bearded, wearing the White Crown with plumes, 

No. 22. 
1 Dizionario, p. 853. 



and holding in his hands the sceptre and flail, or whip, raising 
himself up on his knees from his bier, which is enclosed within 
the funeral chest. Beneath the bier are most of the crowns of 
the god. Beside it stands Isis. 

23. Osiris rising up out of a basket (?), which rests upon a 
pedestal ; behind him stands Isis with her wings stretched out on 
both sides of him, and before him is a bearded god who presents 
to him " life." On the right is a second scene in which the god is 

seen kneeling within the boat of the double Tet, u , wherein are 

No. 23. 

a papyrus plant and a lotus plant, the emblems of the South and 
North respectively. The boat rests upon a sledge, the supports 
of which are made in the form of inverted lotus flowers, which are 
well known types of the dawn and of renewed life. The title of the 
god here is " Osiris Seker, lord of the funeral chest [at] Abydos," 
-'5a z^l 1$ ^^ r ^ rn i pi i -JQ Q ° 

The two commonest titles of Osiris are " Khent-Amenti," 

li^. and "Un-Ne™," Hi^J, or (Zl^Il -1 
as such he holds in his hands one or two sceptres and the whip, or 
flail, j, |, J\, and wears the White Crown. Sometimes he 

appears as a man, with a large mouth and eyes and nose, and with 
a Tet surmounted by a disk, plumes, horns, uraei, etc., issuing 
from his head. 1 He once appears in the form of Ptah pouring 
out 2 water from a libation vase for a deceased person who kneels 
before him, and once he appears with the head of the Bennu. 3 In 

1 Lanzone, Dizionario, pi. 293. 2 Ibid., pi. 294. 3 Rid., pi. 295. 

Ml Ml Ml Mr vr w w \u w \u w \u w \u m 

/av ja\ /av jms. /av /av /av /a\ /av /a\ /a\ /av /AV /av /A\ 

King SETI I. Addressing OSIRIS Khent-Amentet. 


some scenes Osiris appears as a god of vegetation, and in one 
instance the god is represented in mummied form, and wearing the 
xVtef Crown, and from his body a row of plants is seen growing ; 
in another he is represented by a small mound of earth, which is 
called " Osiris," \\% and from which four trees grow. Above the 

mound is a large serpent with the White Crown upon its head, and 
two small serpents growing out from its body ; on the right are: — 
1. A ram-headed god, holding a serpent, and 2. the serpent 

Khebkheb, ® J ® J Hlft ; on the left are a ram-headed god 
holding a serpent, and a feather. The Osiris ceremonies varied in 
different places, according as the god was identified with local 
gods, but in all great religious centres Osiris, under one name or 
another, possessed his own sanctuary. Thus, as Dr. Brugsch has 
pointed out, 1 in Northern Nubia Osiris was known as Khnemu, in 
Apollinopolis and Denclera as An, in Thebes as Khnemu-ut-em- 
ankh, in Coptos as Amsu-Heru-ka-nekht, in Diospolis Parva as 
Sekhem, in Lycopolis as Sekhem-taui, in Antaeopolis as Maui, 
in Cusae as Urt-ab, in Memphis as Seker, in Cynopolis and 
Oxyrhynchus as Anubis, in Herakleopolis as Ka-hetep and Heru- 
shefi, in the Libyan Nome as Khent-Amenti, in Heroopolis as 
Ankh and Tern, in Busiris as Tet or Tettu, in Heliopolis as Ser-aa, 
and in other places in the Delta as Fentet-ankh, Heru-ap-shata. 
In the cxlist and cxliind Chapters of the Book of the Dead we 
have a complete list of the forms and shrines of Osiris, and as they 
are of great importance for forming a right idea of the universality 
of the cult of Osiris in Egypt, it will be found, in two versions, at 
the end of this section on the great gods of Heliopolis. 

We have now traced the history of Osiris from the time when 
he was a river or water god, and of only quite local importance, up 
to the period when his worship reached from the north of the Delta 
to the Nubian Nome at Elephantine, and he had become in every 
sense of the word the national god of Egypt. We have now to 
consider Osiris in his character of god and judge of the dead, and 
as the symbol of the resurrection, and the best source upon which 

1 Religion, p. 018. 


we can draw for information on this subject is the Booh of the 
Dead. In this work Osiris is held to be the greatest of the gods, 
and it is he who is the judge of men after death, and he is the 
arbiter of their future destiny. He attained this exalted position 
because he was believed to have been once a human being who 
had died and had been dismembered ; but his limbs had been 
reconstituted and he had become immortal. The most remarkable 
thing about him was that his body had never decayed like the 
bodies of ordinary men, and neither putrefaction nor worms ever 
acquired power over it, or caused it to diminish in the least degree. 
It is true that it was embalmed by Horus, and Anubis, and Isis, 
who carried out with the greatest care and exactitude all the 
prescriptions which had been ordered by Thoth, and who performed 
their work so thoroughly well that the material body which Osiris 
possessed on this earth served as the body for the god in the world 
beyond the grave, though only after it had undergone some 
mysterious change, which was brought about by the words of 
power which these gods said and by the ceremonies which they 
performed. A very ancient tradition declared that the god Thoth 
himself had acted the part of priest for Osiris, and although the 
Egyptians believed that it was his words which brought the dead 
god back to life, they were never able wholly to free themselves 
from the idea that the series of magical ceremonies which they 
performed in connexion with the embalmment and burial of the 
dead produced most beneficial results for their deceased friends. 

The compositions which form the chapters of the Booh of the 
Dead are declared to have been written by Thoth, and they were 
assumed to be identical with those which this god pronounced on 
behalf of Osiris ; the ceremonies which were performed by the 
priests at the recital of such compositions were held to be identical 
with those Avhich Horus and Anubis performed for the " lord of 
life," and if the words were said by duly appointed and properly 
qualified priests, in a suitable tone of voice, whilst the ministrants 
and libationers performed the sacred ceremonies according to the 
Rubrics, it was held to be impossible for Osiris to refuse to grant 
the deceased eternal life, and to admit him into his kingdom. It may 
be argued that the words and the ceremonies were the all-important 


factors of the resurrection of man and of his eternal life, but this 
was not the case, for the Egyptians only regarded them as means 
to be used with care and diligence; it was Osiris, the god-man 
himself, who had risen from the dead and was living in a body 
perfect in all its members, who was the cause of the resurrection. 
Osiris could give life after death because he had attained to it, 
and he could give eternal life to the souls of men in their 
transformed bodies because he had made himself incorruptible and 
immortal. Moreover, he was himself " Eternity and Everlasting- 
ness," and it was he who "made men and women to be born 

again," f| P ^ ^ ^» $ $ | ^ J ^; the new birth was the 
birth into the new life of the world which is beyond the grave and 
is everlasting. Osiris could give life because he was life, he could 
make man to rise from the dead because he was the resurrection • 
but the priesthood taught in all periods of Egyptian history that it 
was necessary to endeavour to obtain the favour of the o-od by 
means of magical and religious words and ceremonies. From the 
earliest times the belief in the immortality of Osiris existed, and 
the existence of the dead after death was bound up with that of 
the god. Thus in the text of Unas (line 240) it is said of the 
king to Tern, " Tern, this is thy son Osiris. Thou hast given 
" him his sustenance and he liveth ; he liveth and Unas liveth ; he 
" dieth not, and this Unas dieth not ; he is not destroyed, and this 
" Unas shall not be destroyed ; if he begetteth not this Unas shall 
"not beget; if he begetteth this Unas shall beget." In a text 
nearly two thousand years later the deceased Ani is made to ask 
Tern, the head of the company of the gods of Heliopolis, " How 
"long have I to live?" and he replies, "Thou shalt exist for 
" millions of millions of years, a period of millions of years " ; * now 
Tern was identified with Ra, and Ra, at the time when this text was 
written, was held to be the father of Osiris, and to all intents and 
purposes the question of the scribe Ani was addressed to Osiris. 

It has already been said that the great source of information 

J H 

1 H _# ^^ <c==> 2T i ! AAAAAA K i ! X © i /wwv ' I© i ' Cha i ifcer clxxv - of 

the Book of the Dead (Ani, pi. 19, 1. 16). 


about Osiris and his cult is contained in the Book of the Bead, 
which may be termed the Gospel of Osiris, wherein the god is 
made to point out to man the necessity for leading a pure and 
good life upon earth, and to instruct him in the words and deeds 
which will enable him to attain eternal life, and we must now 
briefly describe the relations which were believed to exist between 
this god of truth and life and the deceased. In the accompanying 
plate, which contains the famous " Judgment Scene " of the Booh 
of the Bead, as contained in the Papyrus of Ani in the British 
Museum, we have a representation of Osiris in his capacity as the 
Judge of the dead, and a description of it will explain the views 
of the ancient Egyptians on the judgment of the souls of the dead. 
From certain passages and allusions in the Pyramid Texts it is 
clear that the ancient Egyptians believed that the souls of the 
dead, and perhaps also their bodies, were judged, and the place 
of their judgment seems to have been situated in the sky ; no 
details of the manner in which it was performed are given, but it 
seems as if the judgment consisted in the " weighing of words," 

%s> piq ft f\ <r-=^ v\, utcha metn, that is to say, the weighing of 

actions, for the word metu means " deed, action," as much as 
" word " (like the Hebrew ddbhdr, "Q"j). The " weighing of words" 
(or actions) was carried out by means of a pair of scales, Makhaat, 
^\ a T (] ^ Y| rtl, which were presided over by Thoth, who from 

very remote days was known as Ap-rehui, \/ <=^> | % ^ , 

i.e., " Judge of the two combatant gods," that is to say, " Judge of 

Horus and Set," and as Ap-senui, yJ^^W," Judge of the 

Two Brothers." Thoth, however, only watched the Balance when 
" words " were being tried in it on behalf of Osiris — at least this 
was the view in later times. 

The Egyptians, having once conceived the existence of a 
Balance in the Underworld, proceeded to represent it pictorially, and 
as a result we have in the vignette of the Judgment Scene a pair 
of scales similar to those with which they were acquainted in daily 
life. They were too logical to think that words, or even actions, 
could be weighed in a material balance, and they therefore 

The Goddess MESKHENET. 


represented the weighing of the material heart, from which they 
declared all thoughts and actions proceeded, and sometimes the 
whole body of the man who is to be judged was placed by the 
artist in one pan of the Scales. They had, moreover, in very 
early times arrived at the conception of " right, truth, law, and 

"rectitude," all of which they expressed by the word madt, ^ • , 

^ u 

and it was against the emblem of Madt, the feather, [), that they 
weighed either the heart or the whole body. Why the feather was 
chosen as the symbol of madt instead of the usual object, / — i, it is 
impossible to say, and this fact suggests that all the views which 
the Egyptians held about the weighing of the heart have not yet 
been understood. As the Judgment Scene stands it represents 
a mixture of different views and opinions which belong to different 
periods, but it seems impossible to doubt that at some remote time 
they believed in the actual weighing of a portion of the physical 
body of a man as a part of the ceremony of judgment. The 
judgment of each individual seems to have taken place soon after 
death, and annihilation or everlasting life and bliss to have been 
decreed at once for the souls of the dead ; there are no sufficient 
grounds for assuming that the Egyptians believed either in a 
general resurrection or in protracted punishment. How far they 
thought that the prayers of the living for the dead were efficacious 
in arresting or modifying the decree of doom cannot be said, but 
very considerable importance was attached by them to funeral 
prayers and ceremonies in all ages, and there is no doubt that they 
were the outcome of the firm belief that they would result in the 
salvation and well-being of the souls of the dead. The Judgment 
Scene as given in the Papyrus of Ani may be thus described : — 

The scribe Ani and his wife Thuthu enter the Hall of Maati, 
wherein the heart, symbolic of the conscience, is to be weighed in 
the Balance against the feather, emblematic of Right and Truth. 
In the upper register are the gods who sit in judgment, and who 
form the great company of the gods of Heliopolis, to whom are 
added Hathor, Hu, and Sa. On the standard of the Balance sits 
the dog-headed ape, the companion of Thoth, the scribe of the 
gods ; and the god Anubis, jackal-headed, examines the pointer to 


make certain that the beam is exactly horizontal, and that the 
tongue of the Balance is in its proper place. On the left of the 

Balance are :— 1. Shai, BH^.^ jj> tne & od of luck ' or destin y 5 
2. the Meskhen, jfi (1 ® □ , or rectangular object with a human 

I I I I /WW\A 

head which rests upon a pylon, and is commonly thought to be 
connected with the place of birth ; 3. Meskhenet, | p ^ %$ , 
the goddess of the funeral chamber, and Renenet, ^^ Njf , the 
goddess of nursing ; 4. the soul of Ani in the form of a human- 
headed hawk standing upon a pylon. The lines of hieroglyphics 
which appear above the figures of Ani and his wife contain a 
version of Chapter xxx.b of the Book of the Dead, in which the 
deceased addresses his heart, and prays that the sovereign chiefs 
may not oppose his judgment, and that it may not be separated 
from him in the presence of the keeper of the Balance. The 
sovereign chiefs here referred to are Mestha, Hapi, Tuamutef, and 
Qebhsennuf, the children of Horus. After the heart has been 
weighed, Thoth, being satisfied with the result, addresses the gods, 
saying, " The heart of Osiris Ani hath indeed been weighed, and 
" his soul hath borne witness concerning him (or it) ; it hath been 
" found true by trial in the Great Balance. No evil hath been 
" found in him, he hath not wasted the offerings in the temples, 
"he hath not done harm by his deeds, and he hath uttered no 
" evil report whilst he was upon earth." In answer to these words 
the gods ratify the sentence of Thoth, and they declare that he is 
holy and righteous, and that he hath not sinned against them ; 

therefore the monster Amemet, a 1\ ^ v ^, or the "Eater of 

the dead," who is seen standing behind Thoth, shall not prevail 
over him, and they further decree that he shall have a homestead 
in Sekhet-hetepu for ever, and that offerings shall be made to 
him, and that he shall have the power to appear before Osiris 
at will. 

In the second part of the scene Horus, the son of Isis, leads 
Ani by the hand into the presence of Osiris, who is enthroned 
within a shrine in the form of a funeral chest. Osiris has upon his 
head the Atef crown, and he holds his usual emblems of authority. 

The Company of the Gods 



1' I' 4\i f rom n * s nec ^ hangs the mendt, (jo^, i.e., the 

amulet which was associated with joy and pleasure. The title of 

the god is " Osiris, lord of everlastingness." Behind him stand 

Isis and Nephthys ; before him, standing on a lotus flower, are the 

four Children of Horus, i.e., the four gods of the cardinal points. 

The first, Mestha, has the head of a man ; the second, Hapi, the 

head of an ape ; the third, Tuamutef, the head of a jackal ; and 

the fourth, Qebhsennuf, the head of a hawk. In some papyri the 

lotus on which these gods stand is seen to have its roots in a lake, 

or stream, of water, which flows from under the throne of Osiris. 

Near the lotus hangs the skin of the pied bull which was sacrificed 

at the beginning of that portion of the funeral ceremony when two 

gazelles and a goose were also slain as sacrifices. The side of the 

throne of Osiris is painted to resemble that of a funeral chest. 

The roof of the shrine is supported on pillars with lotus capitals, 

and is surmounted by a figure of Horus Sept or Horus Seker, and 

by rows of uraei. The pedestal on which the shrine rests is in the 

form of the hieroglyphic which is emblematic of Maat, / — i, i.e., 

" Right and Truth." Before the shrine is a table of offerings, by 

the side of which, on a reed mat, kneels Ani with his right hand 

raised in adoration ; in the left hand he holds the kherp sceptre. 

He wears on his head a whitened wig, and the so-called " cone," 

the signification of which is unknown. In his speech Horus, the 

son of Isis, says, " I have come to thee, Un-nefer, and I have 

' brought unto thee the Osiris Ani. His heart is righteous, and it 

' hath come forth innocent from the Balance ; it hath not sinned 

' against any god or any goddess. Thoth hath weighed it accord- 

' ing to the decree pronounced unto him by the company of the 

' gods ; and it is most true and righteous. Grant that cakes and 

' ale may be given unto him, and let him appear in the presence 

' of Osiris ; and let him be like unto the followers of Horus for 

' ever and ever." The scribe Ani then makes his prayer to Osiris 

in the following words : — " Behold I am in thy presence, lord of 

Amentet. There is no sin in my body. I have not spoken that 

which is not true knowingly, nor have I done aught with a false 

heart. Grant thou that I may be like unto those favoured ones 

who are in thy following, and that I may be an Osiris greatly 

II — L 


"favoured of the beautiful god, and beloved of the lord of the 
*' world, [I] who am indeed a royal scribe, who loveth thee, 
" Ani maa kheru before the god Osiris." The reply of the god 
Osiris is not recorded, but we may assume that the petition of Ani 
was granted by him, and that he ratified the decision of the gods 
in respect of a habitation in the Sekhet-Aaru. Thus Ani was free 
to pass into all the various regions of the dominion of Osiris, and 
to enter into everlasting life and happiness. 

In the description of the Judgment Scene given above, 
reference is made to the Eater of the Dead, and in connexion with 
him it must be observed that he was supposed to devour straight- 
way the souls of all those who were condemned in the Judgment 
Hall of Osiris, and that from one point of view the punishment of 
the wicked consisted of annihilation. Above, too, it has been said 

that Ani became "maa kheru, Jp ^ I, before Osiris," 

when once his heart had been weighed and had not been found 
wanting. Egyptologists have investigated the meaning of these 
words very carefully, but have not agreed as to their meaning ; as 
a result maa kheru has been rendered " victorious, triumphant, 
" just, justified, truth-speaking, truthful, true of voice, mighty of 
" word or speech, etc." Their true meaning seems to be " he 
whose word is right and true," i.e., he whose word is held to be 
right and true by those to whom it is addressed, and therefore, 
whatsoever is ordered or commanded by the person who is declared 
in the Judgment Hall to be maa kheru is straightway performed 
by the beings or things who are commanded or ordered. Before a 
man who is maa kheru every door in the Underworld opened 
itself, and every hostile power, animate or inanimate, was made to 
remove itself from his path. 

Passing now from the consideration of Osiris as the king and 
judge of the dead, we must briefly refer to the beautiful hymns to 
the god which are found in the Booh of the Dead and elsewhere. 
First among these must be mentioned the very remarkable 
composition which is inscribed on a stele in the Bibliotheque 
Rationale, Paris, and which was first made known by Cbabas. 
The text is in the form of a hymn addressed to Osiris, but it is of 


unique importance in that it contains a proof of the substantial 
accuracy of the account of the life and death of Osiris, and of the 
birth of Horus, given by Plutarch. After enumerating the various 
great shrines of Osiris in Egypt, and ascribing great praise to this 
god, and summarising his beneficent acts, an allusion is made to 
his death and to the search which Isis made for his body. This 
goddess, the sister and wife of Osiris, was a skilled worker of 
miracles, and she knew words of power and how to utter them in 
such a way that the greatest effect might result from them. In 
the form of a bird she sought her brother's body ceaselessly, and 
went round about over the face of the earth uttering cries and 
moans, and she did not desist from her quest until she found it. 
When she saw that he was dead she produced light with her 
feathers, and air by the beating of her wings, and then by means 
of the words of power which she had obtained from Thoth she 
roused Osiris from his state of helplessness and inactivity, and 
united herself to him, and became with child by him, and in due 
course brought forth her son Horus in a lonely place unknown to 
any. The hymn in which the passage occurs is so important that 
a rendering of it is here given ; the hieroglyphic text, with 
interlinear transliteration and translation, will be found at the end 
of this section. 

( 148 ) 



"1 T OMAGE to thee, Osiris, the lord of eternity, the king 
of the gods, thou who hast many names, whose forms 
" of coming into being are holy, whose attributes are hidden in the 
"temples, whose Double is most august (or venerated). Thou art 
"the Chief of Tettu (or Busiris), the Great One who dwelleth 2. in 
" Sekhem (Letopolis), the lord to whom praises are offered in the 
" nome of Athi, 1 the Chief of the divine food in Annu (On, or Helio- 
" polis), and the lord who is commemorated in the [Hall (or City) of] 
" two-fold Right and Truth. Thou art the Hidden Soul, the lord 
"of Qereret (Elephantine 2 ), the holy one in the city of the White 
" Wall (Memphis), the Soul of Ra, and thou art of his own body. 
" Offerings and oblations are made to thy satisfaction in 3. Suten- 
" henen (Herakleopolis), praise in abundance is bestowed upon 
"thee in Nart, 3 and thy Soul hath been exalted as lord of the 
" Great House in Khemennu (Hermopolis). Thou art he who is 
"greatly feared in Shas-hetep, the lord of eternity, the Chief of 
"Abtu (Abydos), thy seat extendeth into the land of holiness 
" (Underworld), and thy name is firmly stablished in the mouth of 
"mankind. 4. Thou art the substance of [which were made] the 
"two lands (i.e., Egypt), thou art Tern, the divine food of the 
" doubles, thou art the chief of the company of the gods, thou art 
" the operative and beneficent Spirit among the spirits, thou drawest 

1 I.e., the ninth nome of Lower Egypt, also read Anetch. 

2 Qereret = Oerti, , or <z> ,-M , were the two caverns where the 

Nile was thought to rise at Elephantine. 

3 A sanctuary near Herakleopolis. 


" thy waters from the abyss of heaven, thou bringest along the 
" north wind at eventide and air for thy nostrils to the satisfaction 
" of thy heart. 5. Thy heart germinateth, thou producest the light 
" for divine food, the height of heaven and the starry gods obey 
"thee, thou openest the great pylons [of heaven], and thou art he 
" unto whom praises are sung in the southern heaven, and to 
" whom adorations are performed in the northern heaven. The 
" stars which never set 6. are under the seat of thy face, and the 
" stars which never rest are thy habitations ; and unto thee 
" offerings are made according to the decree of the god Seb. 

"The company of the gods sing praises unto thee, and the 
" starry gods of the Underworld bow down with their faces to the 
" earth [before thee], the ends of the earth prostrate themselves 
" before thee, and the bounds of heaven make supplication unto 
"thee 7. when they see thee. Those who are among the holy 
" ones are in awe of thee, and the two lands in their length and 
"breadth ascribe praises unto thee when they meet thy majesty, 
" thou glorious master, thou lord of masters, who art endowed 
" with divine rank and dignity, who art stablished in [thy] rule, 
"thou beautiful Sekhem of the company of the gods, who art 
" pleasant of face, 8. and art beloved by him that looketh upon 
" thee. Thou puttest thy fear in all the lands, and by reason of 
" love for thee all [men] proclaim thy name as being above that of 
" every name. All mankind make offerings unto thee, thou lord 
" who art commemorated in heaven and in earth, and who art 
" greatly praised in the Uak festival, and the two lands with one 
" consent 9. cry out unto thee with cries of joy, thou great one, 
" thou chief of thy divine brethren, thou prince of the company of 
" the gods, thou stablisher of Maat throughout the two lands, who 
"placest thy son upon the great throne of his father Seb, the 
" darling; of his mother Nut. 

" thou great one of two-fold strength, thou hast cast down 
" Seba, thou hast slain 10. thine enemy, and thou hast set thy 
"fear in thy foe. Thou bringest [together] remote boundaries, 
" thou art firm of heart, thy two feet are lifted up, thou art the 
"heir of Seb and of the sovereignty of the two lands, who hath 
"seen thy power and hath given command for thee to lead 11. the 


" two lands by thy hand until the end of time. Thou hast made 
" the earth in thy hand, and its waters, and its air, and its green 
" herb, and all its cattle, and all its birds, and all its fishes, and all 
" its reptiles, and [all] its four-footed beasts. The desert is thine 
"by right, son of 12. Nut, and the two lands are content to 
"make him to rise up upon the throne of his father like Ra. 
"Thou risest in the horizon, thou givest light through the 
" darkness, thou makest light to spread abroad from thy plumes, 
"and thou floodest with light the two lands like the 13. Disk at 
" the beginning of sunrise. Thy crown pierceth heaven, thou art 
" a brother of the starry gods, and the guide of every god, and 
" thou dost work by decree and word, thou favoured one of the 
" company of the gods, who art greatly beloved by the Lesser 
" Company of the gods. 

"Thy sister protected thee, and she drove away thy foes, 

" 14. and she warded off from thee evil hap, and uttered the 

" words of power with all the skill of her mouth ; her tongue was 

" trained, and she committed no fault of utterance, and she made 

" [her] decree and [her] words to have effect, Isis, the mighty one, 

" the avenger of her brother. She sought thee without weariness, 

"15. she went round about through this land in sorrow, and she 

" set not to the ground her foot until she had found thee. She 

" made light with her feathers, she made air to come into being 

" with her wings, and she uttered cries of lamentation at the bier 

" of her brother. 16. She stirred up from his state of iDactivity 

" him whose heart was still (i.e., Osiris), she drew from him his seed, 

" she made an heir, she suckled the babe in solitariness, and the 

" place wherein she reared him is unknown, and his hand is mighty 

"within the house 17. of Seb. The company of the gods rejoice 

" and are glad at the coming of Horus, the son of Osiris, whose 

" heart is stablished, and whose word taketh effect, the son of Isis 

"and the heir of Osiris. The assessors of Maat gather together 

" unto him, and with them are assembled the company of the gods, 

"and Neb-er-tcher himself, and the lords of Maat. 18. Verily 

" those who repulse faults rejoice in the house of Seb to bestow 

"the rank [of Osiris] upon its lord, to whom is by right all 

" sovereignty. The voice of Horus hath found the power of maat. 


" The rank of his father hath been given unto him, and he hath 
"come forth crowned 19. by the command of Seb. He hath 
"received the sceptre of the two lands, and the White Crown is 
"stablished upon his head. He judgeth the earth according to 
"his plans, and heaven and earth are open before his face. He 
"layeth his commands upon men, and spirits, and upon the pat 
" and hen-memet beings, and Egypt, and the Ha-nebu, and all the 
"region 20. wherein the Disk revolveth are under his plans, as 
" well as the north wind, and the river flood, and the celestial 
" waters, and the staff of life, and every flower. [He is] Nepra, 
" and he giveth his green herbs ; he is the lord of tchefau food, he 
" leadeth on abundance, and he giveth it unto all lands. 

"21. There is joy everywhere, [all] hearts are glad, [all] 
" hearts are glad, every face is happy, and every one adoreth his 
" beauties. His love is doubly sweet unto us, and his active 
" beneficence embraceth all hearts, and the love for him is great in 
" every body, and they do what is right 22. for the son of Isis. 
" His enemy hath fallen before his wrath, and he that worketh 
" evil hath fallen at the sound of his voice ; when the son of Isis, 
" the avenger of his father, the son of Isis, cometh against him, he 
" shooteth forth his anger in his season. Holy and beneficent is his 
" name, and the awe of him abideth in its place. 23. His laws are 
" stablished everywhere, the path is cleared, the roads are opened, 
" and the two lands are content ; wickedness departeth, evil goeth 
" away, the earth is at peace under [the rule of] its lord, and Maat 
" is stablished by 24. its lord, and setteth its back against iniquity. 
"The heart of Un-nefer, the son of Isis, is glad, for he hath 
" received the White Crown, and the rank of his father is his by 
" right in the house of Seb ; he is Ra when he speaketh and Thoth 
" when he writeth. 25. The assessors [of Osiris] are content ; let 
" what hath been decreed for thee by thy father Seb be performed 
" according to his word. 

" May Osiris, Governor of Amentet, lord of Abydos, give a 
" royal offering ! May he give sepulchral meals of oxen, and fowl, 
" and bandages, and incense, and wax, and gifts of all kinds, and 
" the [power to] make transformations, and mastery over the Nile, 
" and [the power] to appear as a living soul, and to see the Disk 



" daily, and entrance into and exit from Re-stau ; may [my] soul 
" not be repulsed in the Underworld, may it be among the favoured 
" ones before Un-nefer, may it receive cakes and appear before the 

Osiris on his funeral bed. 

" altar of the Great God, and snuff the sweet breath of the north 
" wind." 

( 153 ) 



I " A*~^ LORY 1 be to thee, Osikis Un-nefer, the great god who 

I "Y" dwellest within Abtu (Abydos), thou king of eternity, 

" thou lord of everlastingness, who passest through millions of 

" years in the course of thine existence. Thou art the eldest son 

" of the womb of Nut, and thou wast engendered by Seb, the 

" Ancestor ( d erpdt) ; thou art the lord of the crowns of 

" the South and North, thou art the lord of the lofty white crown, 

" and as prince of gods and men thou hast received the crook, | , and 

"the whip, A , and the dignity of his divine fathers. Let thine 

" heart, Osiris, who art in the Mountain of Amentet, be content, 
" for thy son Horus is stablished upon thy throne. Thou art 
crowned lord of Tettu (Mendes), and ruler in Abtu (Abydos). 
"Through thee the world waxeth green in triumph before the 
"might of Neb-er-tcher. He leadeth in his train that which is, 
" and that which is not yet, in his name Ta-her-sta-nef ; he toweth 
" along the earth by Maat in his name of 'Seker'; he is exceedingly 
" mighty and most terrible in his name ' Osiris ' ; he endure th for 
" ever and for ever in his name of ' Un-nefer.' 

" Homage be to thee, King of kings, Lord of lords, Ruler 
" of princes, who from the womb of Nut hast ruled the world and 

" the Underworld u\ <J±> f^^^o Akert). Thy members are [like] 

"bright and shining copper, thy head is blue [like] lapis-lazuli, 

1 Prom the Papyrus of Ani, sheet '2. 


" and the greenness of the turquoise is on both sides of thee, thou 
" god An ( I J]) of millions of years, whose form and whose beauty 
"of face are all-pervading in Ta-tchesert (i.e., the Underworld)." 

II. "Praise be unto thee, 1 Osiris, lord of eternity, Un- 

" nefer-Heru-Khuti (^ I J ^k "^ ® u S) i whose forms are 
"manifold, and whose attributes are majestic, Ptah-Seker-Tem 
"( D 8 ^^ \\ *M .~\ J) ) in Annu (Heliopolis), the lord of the 
"Hidden House, the creator of Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis) and of 
" the gods [therein], thou guide of the Underworld, whom [the gods] 

f> @). Isis 
"embraceth thee with content, and she driveth away the fiends 
"from the mouth of thy paths. Thou turnest thy face upon 
"Amentet, and thou makest the earth to shine as with refined 
"copper. Those who have lain down (i.e., the dead) rise up to 
" look upon thee, they breathe the air and they look upon thy face 
" when the disk riseth on the horizon ; their hearts are at peace 
"inasmuch as they behold thee, thou who art Eternity and 
" Everlastingness." 

III. "1. Homage 1 to thee, Khabesu (i.e., Starry deities 

"1 lik Ji P * ) ' in -^ nnn (Heliopolis) and Hememet (m t^ Jj^ ^) 
"in Kher-aha, thou god Unti, who art more glorious than the gods 
" who are hidden in Annu. 2. Homage to thee, An (| ' ^) in 
"An-tes (| ), Great One, Heru-khuti, thou stridest over 
"heaven with long strides, Heru-khuti. 3. Homage to thee, 
"soul of eternity, thou god Bai (^ (1(1^), who dwellest in 
" Tettu (Mendes), Un-nefer, son of Nut ; thou art the lord of 
" Akert (i.e., the Underworld). 4. Homage to thee in thy dominion 
" in Tettu ; the Ureret crown (\/\ is stablished upon thy head ; 

" thou art One and thou makest the strength which is thine own 
"protection, and thou dwellest in Tettu. 5. Homage to thee, 

" lord of the Acacia Tree (- — ° ^ «&* Jn), the Seker Boat is upon its 

1 From the Papyrus of Ani, sheet 19. 


"sledge ; thou drivest back the Fiend ([' J Q y ° | Sebcm), the 
" worker of evil, and thou causest the Utchat (^§) , to rest upon 

" its seat. 6. Homage to thee, thou who art mighty in thine hour, 
"thou great and mighty prince, who dwellest in An-rut-f; 1 thou 
" art the lord of eternity and the creator of evcrlastingness, thou 
"art the lord of Suten-henen (Herakleopolis Magna). 7. Homage 
" to thee, thou who restest upon Maat, thou art the lord of Abtu, 
" and thy limbs are joined unto Ta-tchesertet ; what thou 
"abominatest is falsehood (or, deceit and guile). 8. Homage to 
" thee, thou who art within thy boat, thou bringest along Hapi 
" (Nile) from out of his source ; 2 Shu shineth upon thy body, and 
" thou art he who dwelleth in Nekhen. 3 9. Homage to thee, 
"creator of the gods, king of the South and North, Osiris, 
" ( %^ ffl J3 ^ $1) > whose word is maat, thou possessor of the two 
" lands in thy seasons of operative power ; thou art the lord of the 
" Atebui (i.e., the two lands which lay one on each side of the 
"celestial Nile)." The above nine addresses form, in reality, a 
litany, and after each of them the deceased said to Osiris, " 
" grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I 
" am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I 
" done aught with deceit." 

IV. " Homage 4 to thee, Osiris Un-Nefer, whose word is 
" niaclt, thou son of Nut, thou first-born son of Seb, thou mighty 
" one who comest forth from Nut, thou king in the city of Nifu-ur, 
" thou Governor of Amentet, thou lord of Abtu, thou lord of souls, 
" thou mighty one of strength, thou lord of the Atef crown, j£ . 
"in Suten-henen, thou lord of the divine form in the city of 
"Nifu-ur, thou lord of the tomb, thou mighty one of souls in 
"Tattu, thou lord of [sepulchral] offerings, whose festivals are 
"many in Tattu. The god Horus exalteth his father in every 
" place, and he uniteth himself unto the goddess Isis and unto her 

1 A district of the Underworld. 

2 An allusion to the fact that Osiris was originally a Nile god. 

: > Nekhen was the sanctuary of the goddess Nekhebet of Nekhebet (Eileithvia- 
polis), whose male counterpart was An, a form of Osiris. 
4 Bool- of the Dead, Chap, cxxviii. (Saite Recension). 


"sister Nephthys ; and the god Thoth reciteth for him the mighty 
" glorifyings which are within him, and which come forth from his 
" mouth, and the heart of Horus is stronger than that of all the 
" gods. Rise up, then, Horus, thou son of Isis, and avenge thy 
" father Osiris. Hail, Osiris, I have come unto thee ; I am 
" Horus and I have avenged thee, and I feed this day upon the 
" sepulchral meals of oxen and feathered fowl, and upon all the 
" beautiful things offered unto Osiris. Rise up, then, Osiris, for 
" I have struck down for thee all thine enemies, and I have taken 
" vengeance upon them for thee. I am Horus upon this beautiful 
" day of thy fair rising in thy Soul, which exalteth thee along with 
"itself on this day before thy divine sovereign princes. Hail, 
" Osiris, thy double (lea) hath come unto thee and rests with 
" thee, and thou restest therein in thy name of Ka-Hetep. It 
" maketh thee glorious in thy name of Khu, and it maketh thee like 
" unto the Morning Star in thy name of Pehu, and it openeth for 
" thee the ways in thy name of Ap-uat. Hail, Osiris, I have 
" come unto thee, and I have set thine enemies under thee in 
" every place, and thy word is macit in the presence of the gods 
" and of the divine sovereign chiefs. Hail, Osiris, thou hast 
" received thy sceptre and the place whereon thou art to rest, and 
" thy steps are under thee. Thou bringest food to the gods, and 
" thou bringest sepulchral meals unto those who dwell in their 
" tombs. Thou hast given thy might unto the gods, and thou 
"hast created the Great God ; thou hast thy existence with them 
" in their spiritual bodies, thou gatherest thyself unto all the gods, 
" and thou hearest the word of madt on the day when offerings to 
" this god are ordered on the festivals of Uka." 

V. " Homage to thee, 1 Governor oe Amentet, Un-nefer, 
" lord of Ta-tchesert, thou who art diademed like Ra, verily I 
" come to see thee and to rejoice at thy beauties. His disk is thy 
" disk ; his rays of light are thy rays of light ; his TJreret crown is 
" thy TJreret crown ; his majesty is thy majesty ; His risings are 
" thy risings ; his beauties are thy beauties ; the terror which he 
" inspireth is the terror which thou inspirest ; his odour is thy 

1 Book of the Dead, Chap, clxxxi. 


" odour ; his hall is thy hall ; his seat is thy seat ; his throne is thv 
" throne ; his heir is thy heir ; his ornaments are thy ornaments ; 
" his decree is thy decree ; his hidden place is thy hidden place : 
" his things are thy things ; his knowledge is thy knowledge ; the 
" attributes of greatness which are his are thine ; the power which 
" protecteth him protecteth thee ; he dieth not and thou diest not ; 
" he is not overcome by his enemies and thou art not overcome by 
" thine enemies ; no evil thing whatsoever hath happened unto 
" him, and no evil thing whatsoever shall happen unto thee for 
" ever and ever. 

" Homage to thee, Osiris, son of Nut, lord of the two horns, 
" whose Atef crown is exalted, may the Ureret crown be given 
"unto thee, along with sovereignty before the company of the 
" gods. May the god Temu make awe of thee to exist in the 
" hearts of men, and women, and gods, and spirits, and the dead. 
" May dominion be given unto thee in Annu ; mayest thou be 
" mighty of transformations in Tattu (Mendes) ; mayest thou be 
" the lord greatly feared in the Aati ; mayest thou be mighty 
" in victory in Re-stau ; mayest thou be the lord who is com- 
" memorated with gladness in the Great House ; mayest thou have 
" manifold risings like the sun in Abtu ; may triumph be given 
" unto thee in the presence of the company of the gods ; mayest 
" thou gain the victory over the mighty Powers ; may the fear of 
" thee be made to go [throughout] the earth ; and may the princes 
" stand up upon their stations before the sovereign of the gods of 
" the Tuat, before thee the mighty Sekhem of heaven, the Prince 
" of the living ones, the king of those who are in [his train], and 
" the Glorifier of thousands in Kher-aha. The denizens of heaven 
" rejoice in thee, thou who art the lord of the chosen offerings in 
" the mansions above ; a meat offering is made unto thee in the city 
" of Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis) ; and the ' things of the night ' are 
" prepared for him in Sekhem (Letopolis). Behold, mighty god, 
" thou great one of two-fold strength, thy son Horus avengeth thee. 
" He doeth away with every evil thing whatsoever that belongeth 
" to thee, he bindeth up in order for thee thy person, he gathereth 
" together for thee thy members, he collecteth for thee thy bones, 
" and he brinsreth to thee whatsoever belomreth to thee. Thus 


" thou art raised up, Osiris, and I have given unto thee thy 
" hand, and I make thee to stand up a living being for ever and 
" ever. 

VI. " Homage to thee, 1 Governor oe those who are in 
" Amenti, who makest mortals to be born again, who renewest thy 
" youth, thou comest who dwellest in thy season, and who art more 

" beautiful than , thy son Horus hath avenged thee ; the 

"rank and dignity of Tern have been conferred upon thee, Un- 
" nefer. Thou art raised up, Bull of Amentet, thou art stablished 
"in the body of Nut, who unite th herself unto thee, and who 
" cometh forth with thee. Thy heart is stablished upon that which 
" supporteth it, and thy breast is as it was formerly ; thy nose is 
"firmly fixed with life and power, thou livest, and thou art 
" renewed, and thou makest thyself young like Ra each and every 
" day. Mighty, mighty is Osiris in victory, and he is firmly 
" stablished with life." 

VII. " Thy heart rejoiceth, 2 lord of the gods, thy heart 
" rejoiceth greatly ; the Black Land and the Red Land are at 
" peace, and they serve thee humbly under thy sovereign power. 
"The temples are stablished upon their own lands, cities and 
" nomes possess firmly the goods which are inscribed in their names, 
" and we will make to thee the divine offerings which we are 
"bound to make, and offer sacrifices in thy name for ever. 
" Acclamations are made in thy name, libations are poured out to 
"thy double. Sepulchral meals [are brought unto thee] by the 
" khus who are in their following, and water is sprinkled upon 
" the offerings (?) upon both sides of the souls of the dead in 
" this land ; every plan which hath been decreed for thee according 
" to the commands of Ra in the beginning hath been perfected. 
" Now, therefore, son of Nut, thou art diademed as Neb-er-tcher 
" is diademed at his rising. Thou livest, thou art stablished, thou 
" renewest thy youth, thou art true and perfect ; thy father Ra 
" maketh strong thy members, and the company of the gods make 
" acclamations unto thee. The goddess Isis is with thee, and she 
" never leaveth thee ; [thou art] not overthrown by thine enemies. 

1 Book of the Dead, Chap, clxxxii. (11. 1.5-19). 

2 Ibid., Chap, clxxxiii. (11. 17 ft'.). 


" The lords of all lands praise thy beauties even as they praise Ra 
" when he riseth at the beginning of each day. Thou risest up 
" like an exalted one upon thy standard, thy beauties exalt the 
" face and make long the stride. I have given unto thee the sove- 
" reignty of thy father Seb, and the goddess Mut, thy mother, who 
" gave birth to the gods, brought thee forth as the first-born of 
" five gods, and created thy beauties, and fashioned thy members. 
" Thou art stablished as king, the white crown is upon thy head, 
" and thou hast grasped in thy hands the crook and the whip ; 
" whilst thou wert in the womb, and hadst not as yet come forth 
" therefrom upon the earth, thou wert crowned lord of the two 
" lands, and the Atef crown of Ra was upon thy brow. The gods 
" come unto thee bowing low to the ground, and they hold thee in 
" fear ; they retreat and depart when they see thee possessing the 
"terror of Ra, and the victory of thy Majesty is in their hearts. 
" Life is with thee, and offerings of meat and drink follow thee, 
" and that which is thy due is offered up before thy face." 

VIII. " Homage to thee, 1 thou holy god, thou mighty and 
"beneficent being, thou Prince of eternity who dwellest in thy 
" abode in the Sektet Boat, thou whose risings are manifold in the 
"Atet Boat, to thee are praises rendered in heaven and upon 
" earth. Peoples and nations exalt thee, and the majesty of thy 
" terror is in the hearts of men, and spirits, and the dead. Thy 
" Soul is in Tattu (Mendes) and the terror of thee is in Suten-henen 
" (Herakleopolis) ; thou settest the visible emblems of thyself in 
"Annu and the greatness of thy transformations in the double 
" place of purification." 

IX. " Homage to thee, great God, thou Lord of Maati, 
" I have come to thee, my Lord, and I have brought myself 
" hither that I may behold thy beauties. I know thee, and I know 
" thy name, and I know the names of the Two and Forty gods who 
" exist with thee in the Hall of Maati, who live as warders of 
" sinners and who feed upon their blood on the day when the lives 
" of men are taken into account in the presence of the god 
" Un-nefer ; in truth thy name is ' Rekhti-merti-neb-Maati.' In 

1 Booh of the Dead, Chap, clxxxv. 


" truth I have come to thee, and I have brought Maat to thee, and 
" I have destroyed wickedness for thee. I have not done evil to 
"mankind. I have not oppressed the members of my family. 
" I have not wrought evil in the place of Maat. I have had no 
"knowledge of worthless men. I have not wrought evil. I have 
" not made to be the first [consideration] of each day that excessive 
" labour should be performed for me. I have not brought forward 
" my name for honours. I have not ill-treated servants. I have 
" not thought scorn of God. I have not defrauded the oppressed 
" one of his goods. I have not done that which is an abomination 
" unto the gods. I have not caused harm to be done to the servant 
" by his chief. I have not caused pain. I have made no man to 
" suffer hunger. I have made no one to weep. I have done no 
" murder. I have not given the order for murder to be done for 
"me. I have not inflicted pain upon mankind. I have not 
" defrauded the temples of their oblations. I have not purloined 
" the cakes of the gods. I have not carried off the cakes offered to 
" the spirits. I have not committed fornication. I have not 
" entered the holy places of the god of my city in a polluted con- 
" dition. I have not diminished from the bushel. I have neither 
" added to nor filched away land. I have not encroached upon the 
" fields [of others]. I have not added to the weights of the scales 
" (i.e., cheated the seller). I have not misread the pointer of the 
"scales (i.e., cheated the buyer). I have not carried away the 
" milk from the mouths of children. I have not driven away the 
" cattle from their pastures. I have not snared the feathered fowl 
" of the preserves of the gods. I have not caught fish [with bait 
" made of] fish of their kind. I have not turned back the water at 
" the time [when it should flow]. I have not cut a cutting in a 
" canal of running water. I have not extinguished a fire when it 
" should burn. I have not violated the seasons of the chosen meat 
" offerings. I have not driven off the cattle from the property of 
"the gods. I have not repulsed God in his manifestations. lam 
" pure. I am pure. I am pure. I am pure. My purity is the 
" purity of that great Bennu which is in the city of Suten-henen 
" (Herakleopolis Magna), for, behold, lam the nose of the god of 
" the winds who maketh all mankind to live on the day when the 


" Eye of Ra is full in Annu at the end of the second month of the 
"season Pert 1 in the presence of the divine lord of the earth. 
" I have seen the Eye of Ra when it was full in Annu, therefore let 
" not evil befall me in this land and in this Hall of Maati, because 
" I, even I, know the names of these gods who are therein and who 
"are the followers of the great god." 

1 I.e., the Season of Growing; the second month of Pert is the sixth month 
of the Egyptian year. 


( 162 ) 


XVIIITH DYNASTY, ABOUT B.C. 1500,£. ^ ^ M l -1! 

dnetch hrd-k Asdr neb heh suten neteru 

Homage to thee, Osiris, lord of eternity, king of the gods, 

^ <=> ^ #*, i 

"■ AW\M 5TI! ' 

q— ^ 

ash rennu tcheser kheperu sheta dru em 

many of names, holy of creations, hidden of forms in 

erperu shepses ka pu hhent Tattu ur 

the temples, whose ka is venerated, chief of Tattu, great one 

khert em Sekhem neb hennu em 

contained in the temple of Sekhem, lord of praises in 

ft o\\ 

Ji/?i khent tchef em Annu neb 

the nome Athi, chief of the sacred food in Heliopolis, the lord 

1 The stele on which the following text is inscribed is preserved in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. Its importance was first recognized by Chabas (see 
Eevue Archeologique, 1857, p. 65), and a complete copy of it will be found in 
Ledrain, Monuments Jfigyptiens, pll. xxii. ff. 






em Madti ba sheta neb Qerert 
who is commemorated in Maati, soul hidden, lord of Qerert, 

^ k .01 *V ? ^--^ 

tcheser em Aneb-hetch ba Rd tchet - f tchesef 

holy one, in White Wall, the soul of Ra, of his very body, 






em Suten-henen menleh hennu em Nart 

satisfied with in Henen-suten, abundant of praise in Nart, 


kheper setheset ba - f 



het aa 

em Khemennu 

hath become exalted his soul [as] lord of the Great in Khemennu, 







da neru em Shas-hetep neb 

great one of terror in Shas-hetep, lord of eternity, chief 





Abtu her dst - f 

of Abydos, extendeth his seat 




in the Land of established 


ren em re en ret pautti en 

of name in the mouth of mankind, the two-fold pant of 

tn ni Tern tchef Ica/U hhent paut 

the two lands, Tern the divine god of the has, chief of the paut 








neteru khu menhh emmd kliu Jchenp en nef 

of the gods, spirit beneficent among the spirits, he clraweth 







iVw mw - / Jcheni-nef meht mesas 

[from] Nu his waters, he bringeth along the wind of eventide 



[and] air 

er fentet-f er heteptu db -f 

to his nostrils to the satisfaction of his heart, 



retet. en db-f meses-nef Ichut telief 

germinateth his heart, he produceth the light, the divine food, 




i i i 

sbau dam 

setem-nef hert sbau sun-nef 

obey him heaven and the he maketh to the great gates, 

star-gods, be open 

rn t 





neb hennn 


em pet reset 

lord of praises in the southern adored 


em pet mehtet 

in the northern 


i i 



* in 


hher dst 


the stars which never [are] under of his face, 
diminish the seat 

dst - f 
his seats 



pu dukhemu-urtu 

are the stars which never rest, 

per-nef hetep 

cometh to him an offerinj 




1k I) ° 1 ^ 

Jx Ji mil 

1 65 


in i i ^ m in 

w£?« ew Seb paut neteru her tua - f sbau 

the order of Seb, the paut of the gods praise him, the star gods 





es n 



I s 






of the underworld smell the earth [before the boundaries [of 

him], earth] 


em feesw 
bow the back, 

the limits of heaven 

em thebhu 

make supplication 

i i i 


I I I 


maa-sen su 

[when] they see him. 

7mm (iffl shepsu 

Those who are among the holy ones 



/&«r ner-nef taui temt her ertd nef daiu 

fear him, the two lands, all [of them] give to him praises 

• ifflt 

em khesefu hen-f sahu khu khent sahu 

in meeting his majesty, the master glorious, chief of masters, 

? J 

uah dat smen heqet sekhem nefer 

endowed with divine rank, stablished of dominion. Form beautiful 



en paut neteru am lira merer 

of the company of the gods, gracious of face, beloved by 


maa-nef ertd sent -f em taiu neb en 

him that seeth him. He putteth his fear in all lands, through 

wierf £em &a - sen re% - / er 7&«£ 

love [of him] they all proclaim his name before [every name]. 

terp - nef nebu neb sehhau em 

Make offerings to him all men, the lord who is commemorated in 


= - ^ ™m k a& 

/?e£ em ta ash hi em Uak 

heaven [and] in earth, [he is] greatly praised in the Uak festival; 

dru - nef dhhi an taui em bu ud ur 

make to him cries to joy the two lands all together, the great one, 

| _ | ^!*_ §\ ^ e y { 

tep en sennit - f seru en jpaut neteru 

first of his divine brethren, prince of the paut of the gods, 



madt khet taui erta sa 

stablisher of right and throughout the two lands, placer of the son 

her nest-f da en at - f Seb merer mut - f 

upon his throne great of his father Seb, darling of his mother 


Nut da pehpeli sekher -f Sebd aha sma - / 

Nut, great one of two-fold he casts down Seba, he hath slaughtered 

hhffft -/ er^a sent - / em Merit -/ cm 

his enemy placing his fear in his foe. Bringer 

trheru uatu men db retui-f thest 

of boundaries remote, firm of heart, his two feet are lifted up. 

«w<ra $£& sutenit taui maa-f khu - f 

Heir of Seb and the of the two He hath seen his power, 

sovereignty lands. 

n H\ ^\ n /www ^vaaaa r\ ra , -- , pa 

Pl^fl^ ^ V^Jik 1L = — Ik a<==: 

sw£/i. - we/ we/ se??i form en em d er 

he hath given to him to lead the lands by [his] hand to 


<Q> H— I A^AAAA ■ , |— | 

A □ © I *L=_ I S /wwvv 

wa/i ew se_p dri-nef la 'pen em a -/ 

the end of times. He hath made this earth in his hand, 


X /~v / in ^ j 

I I Vsi. /WW\A /WW\A '-* 

wim -/ we/-/ se??i - / menment - / //>-/>/ 

its waters, its air, its green herbs, its cattle all, 

A/VWV\ \, / 

/WW\A £2| C^S>\ ^ I 


pait nebt khepanen uebt tchetfet - / did - / 

[its] birds all, [its] fishes all, its reptiles, its quadrupeds, 


^ n4i w i9ii q q 

se£ smadu en sa Nut taui hem her 

the desert is by right to the son of Nut, the two lands are content 


/www r\ a to. ^ n aaaa ' 

seM« fter %es£ e7?i fe/ md Ra uben - f 

to crown on the throne of the father like Ra. He riseth 

cOd "^^^ jc^. <wr D 

— * ^^ pf^ 

em &7m£ erfoz -/ shep en her leek sehetch-nef 

on the horizon, he giveth light through the darkness, he shineth 



sAw em shuti-f bdh-nef taui ma dthen 

with light from his plumes, he floodeth with the two like the Disk 

]ight lands 

em £ep fotaii hetch-f tem-nes hert sensen 

at the early sunrise. His crown pierceth heaven, he is a brother 

s&a% semi* e% %e£er -?z.e6 menhh utu 

of the star gods, the guide of god every, operative by command 

mek /im e?i £><z%i( neteru dat merer 

and word, favoured one of thepaut of the gods great, beloved of 

j?a«£ neteru netcheset dri en sent - f mdhet - f 

thepaut of the gods little. Hath made his sister his protection, 

driving away 


h' u 



sehemt sep 



shet hheru 
turning back evil hap, uttering the word 

P 1 



em hhu res dqert nes an uh 

with the power of her mouth, perfect of tongue, not erring 


en metu semenlchet utu metu Ast hhut 

of speech, operating by decree and word Isis, the strong one, 

netchet sens hehet su dtet bekek 

the avenger of her brother. She sought him without weariness, 







ta pen em 





she went round about this earth in sorrow, not alighted she 

qemtu - s su writ shut em shut - s 

without finding him, she made light with her hair (or, 





em tenhui 




khepert -nef 

making to wind with [her] wings, she made cries 


at the bier 

yp i6 -p^ n°M\- 

sen - s setheset enenu en urt - db 

of her brother. She raised up [from] inactivity the one still of heart, 



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khenpet mu -f drit audu shetet nekhen 

she extracted his seed, she made the heir, she suckled the babe 

em uaau tin rekh bu - f dm beset 

in solitariness, not known is his place wherein she reared 


su a - / nekhtu 

him, his hand is mighty 

em /c/2,e?i£ het Seb paut 

within the house of Seb. The paut 




sc& Berw mew a& 

neteru her resh sep sen iui Astir 

of gods rejoice, rejoice at the coming of Osiris' son Horus, stablished 

of heart, 

mad hheru sa Ast auciu Astir sehuu - nef 

whose word is absolute, son oflsis, heir of Osiris. Gather to him 




e 1^! ^ — J^ ^> 

paut neteru Neb-er '-teller tchesef 


the sovereign of Maat, the paut of the [and] Neb-er-tcher himself 


q^P I8 'SfWM 

male haiu 




am - s 

[and] the lords of Maat assemble therewith. Verily those who 




tisfet senetchemu em het ent Seb 
faults rejoice in the house of Seb 

er ertdt tiat 

to bestow the rank 
[of Osiris] 


1(1(1 "^ — -^ ^ ^S^~ ' 

en nebs suteni en madts nef qemen-tu 

upon its lord, the sovereignty of its right [is] to him. Hath found 

Heru Icheru-f man, ertau - nef dot ent tef 

Horus his voice true. Hath been given the rank of his father. 

to him 

l 1 /www o *v ra ft -q n 

¥^ o.{\ is- k 1 — %*J 

per-nef mehu em utu en Seb 

He hath come forth crowned by the command of Seb. 

D —° *^ I \>V V .111 

shep - nef heq taui ketch men 

He hath received the sceptre of the two the White is established 

lands, Crown 


dm t&p-f djp-nef ta er hhert-f 

upon his head. He judgeth the earth according to his plan. 



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pet ta Icher dst lp°d-f s-utu-nef ret 

Heaven and are under the seat of his face. He comniandeth men, 

khu pat hamemet Ta-merd Ha-nebu 

spirits, the dead, the , and Egypt, the lords of the north, 

9 T* 20. n s m p ® ! ^ °^^ 

shentu dthen Idler seJcheru-f meht dter 

the circle of the Disk, are under his plans, and the north the flood, 



e?MMu Me£ en dnhh ren/pet nebt Neprd 

the celestial waters, the staff of life, herb every. Nepra, 

£a-/ sem -f neb tchefau bes -f 

he giveth his green herbs, the lord of tchefau food, he leadeth on 


sesaw tti - f su em tarn bu neb kJient 

abundance, he giveth it in [all] lands. Everywhere is joy. 

V III <=Z> r-rrn Jd | AJ I I i 

afeit netchem hatu kher reshut hrd-neb thehu 

hearts are glad, hearts rejoice, every face is happy. 

1*J*~ ?*1 ILL' II- T- 

<iifc bu-neb her tua neferu-f netchemui mert - / 

Every place adoreth his beauties. Doubly sweet is his love 

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Jcher-n menlchut-f rer - nes dbu ur mert-f 

to us, his active goodness goeth round hearts, great is his love 


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22. I A/WW\ fev 

I i i i JSr I 

em Jchat nebt mad en sen en sa Ast 

in every body, and they do what is right to the son of Isis. 

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His enemy hath fallen before his wrath, the maker of evil 


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er shet kheru ut qen sep - f 

at the utterance of the voice, shooting forth his wrath in his season, 


sper eref sa Ast netcht-nef dt-f 

cometh unto him the son of Isis, the avenger of his father. 

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setcheseru semsnlchu ren-f shefit hetep-nes dst - s 

Holy and beneficent is his name ; awe resteth in its seat, 

/w mew er /&epw - / uat sesh-thd 

stablished everywhere are his laws, the path is opened, 

ra tk vx v 

n ^ 

mdthennu un seherui taui duit 

the roads are opened, content are the two lands, wickedness 

^p^P £\ <=>\\-a - krf, <£. 

shems a?u rim fa em /&e£ep Mer 

departeth, evil goeth away, the earth is at peace beneath 

neb-f smen Madt en neb - s ertau sa 

its lord, established is Maat by its lord, it giveth the back 

- qp<r^ I ?-■ ±J %: At «A 

er a.s/ef netchern db-h Un-nefer sa Ad sh&p 

to iniquity. Glad is thy heart, Un-nefer, son of Isis, he hath 


ne/ /&e£c/i smadu nef dat ent tef 

received the White is his by right the rank of his father 

em Ichennu Het - Seb Bd tchet-f Tehuti 

within the House of Seb, [he is] Ra [when] he Thoth 


an - f tchatchat her-thd utu en 

[when] he writeth. The assessors are content ; what hath decreed 

nek dtf-h Seb dri-entu hheft tchetet-nef 

for thee thy father Seb let be performed even as he spake ; 

suien td hetep Asdr Khent Amenti neb Abtu 

may give a royal Osiris, governor of Amenti, lord of Abydos, 

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td - f per Icheru dh apt shesa sentra merhet 

may he give sepulchral meals, oxen, fowl, bandages, incense, wax, 

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mat renpet neb dri kheperu sekhem 

gifts of herbs of all kinds, the making of transforma- the mastery 


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-H^p pert em ba dnhhi maa em dthen 

of Nile, appearance as a soul living, the sight of the disk 








em Re-stau an 



tep tuait dq pert 

at dawn daily, entrance and exit from Re-stau, not being repulsed 

into « 

ba em Neter-hhert 

the soul in the Underworld, 

terp - tic - f 





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the favoured 


Un-nefer shep sennu per 

Un-nefer, receipt of cakes, coming forth 








em-bah her hha/ut eat neter da- sesenet nef 

before the altar of the god great, the snuffing of the wind 


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of the north. 

( 176 ) 




1. Asar Un-nefer . 

2. Asar Ankhti 

3. Asar Neb-ankh 

4. Asar Neb-er-tcher 

5 . Asar Khenti- 

6. Asar Sah . 

7. Asar Saa . 

8. Asar Khenti-peru 

9. Asar Em Resenet 

10. Asar Em Mehenet 

11. Asar Nub -heh . 

12. Asar Bati erpit 

13. Asar Ptah-neb-Ankh 

14. Asar Khenti Re-stau 

15. Asar Her-ab semt 

16. Asar Em Ati (Anetch) 

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17. Asar Em Sehtet 

18. Asar Em Netchefet 

19. Asar Em Resu . 

20. Asar Em Pe . 

21. Asar Em Neteru 

22. Asar Em Sau-kheri 

23. AsarEmBaket 

24. Asar Em Sunnu 

25. Asar Em Rehenenet 

26. Asar Em Aper . 

27. Asar Qeftennu . 

28. Asar Sekri Em Pet-she 

29. Asar Khenti Nut-f . 

30. Asar Em Pesek-re 

31. Asar Em-ast-f-amu-Ta-meh 

32. Asar Em Pet . 

33. Asar Em-ast-f-amu-Re-stau 

34. Asar Netchesti . 

35. Asar Smam-ur . 

36. Asar Sekri 

37. Asar Heq-tchetta 

38. Asar Tua . 

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39. Asar Em Ater . 

40. Asar Em Sek . 

41. Asar Neb-tchetta 

42. Asar Athi 

43. AsarTaiti 

44. Asar Em Re-stau 

45. Asar Her-shai-f 

46. Asar Khenti-seh-hemt 

47. Asar Em Tau-enenet 

48. Asar Em Netebit 

49. Asar Em Sati . 

50. Asar Em Beteshu 

51. Asar Em Tepu . 

52. Asar Em Sau-heri 

53. Asar Em Nepert 

54. Asar Em Shennu 

55. Asar Em Henket 

56. Asar Em Ta-Sekri 

57. Asar Em Shau . 

58. Asar Em Fat-Heru 

59. Asar em Maati . 

60. Asar Em Hena. 





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1 . Asar Un-nefer . 

2. Asar Ankhi 

3. Asar Neb Ankh 

4. Asar Neb-er-tcher 

5. Asar Ap- .... taui 

6. Asar Khentet Un 

7. Asar Khentet Nepra 

8. Asar Sah . 

9. Asar Seps-baiu-Annu 

10. Asar Khenti-Thenenet 

1 1 . Asar Em Resenet 

12. Asar Em Mehenet . 

13. Asar Neb Heli . 

14. Asar Sa Erpeti 

15. Asar Ptah Neb Ankh 

16. Asar Khent Re-stau . 

17. Asar Heq taiu her-ab Tattu 

18. Asar Her-ab set 

19. Asar Ba sheps em Tattu 

20. Asar Em Atet . 


21. Asar Em Hest, or, Neter-seht IRj t= | H f! 

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22. Asar Neb ta ankhtet 

23. Asar Em Sau . 


24. Asar Em Netchet 

25. Asar Em Resu, oi 


26. Asar Em Pe 

27. Asar Em Tept . 

28. Asar Em Netra 

29. Asar Em Sau Khert 

30. Asar Em Sau hert 

3 1 . Asar Em An-rut-f 

32. Asar Em Bakui 

33. Asar Em Sunnu 

34. Asar Em Renen 

35. Asar Em Aper 

36. Asar Em Qefennu 

37. Asar Em Sekri 

38. Asar Em Petet 

39. Asar Em Het-f em Re-stau 

40. Asar Em Nif-ur 

41. Asar Em Netit 

42. Asar Khenti nut-f . 

43. Asar Henti 

44. Asar Em Pekes 














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45. Asar Em het-f am ta reset. 

46. Asar Em het-f am ta meht 

47. Asar Em pet . 

48. Asar Em ta 

49. Asar Em nest . 

50. Asar Em Atef-ur 

51. Asar Seker em shetat 

52. Asar heq tchetta em Annu 

53. Asar Utet 

54. Asar Em Sektet 

55. Asar Em Rertu-nifu 

56. Asar Neb-tchetta 

57. Asar Neb-heh 

58. Asar Em Tesher 

59. Asar Em Seshet 

60. Asar Em Uhet-resu 

61. Asar Em Uhet-meht 

62. Asar Em Aat-urt 

63. Asar Em Apert. 

64. Asar Em Shennu 

65. Asar Em Hekennut, or 


66. Asar Em Seker 



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67. Asar Em Shau 

68. Asar Fa-Heru 

69. Asar Em Uu-Pek 

70. Asar Em Maati 

71. Asar Em Mena 

72. Asar Baiu tef-f 

73. Asar Neb taiu suten neteru 

74. Asar Em Bener 

75. Asar Em Tai . 

76. Asar Her shai-f 

77. Asar Khent sehet kauit-f 

78. Asar Em Sa 

79. Asar Em Sati . 

80. Asar Em Asher 

81. Asar Em taui nebu . 

82. Asar Khent shet aa-perti 

83. Asar Em Het Benbenet 

84. Asar Em Annu 

85. Asar Aau am Annu 

86. Asar Em Hemak 

87. Asar Em Akesh 

88. Asar Em Pe Nu 

89. Asar Em Het-aat 

90. Asar Neb-Ankh em Abtu 



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Asar Neb-Tattu 
Asar Khent Ka-ast . 
Asar Athi her-ab Abtu 
Asar Athi her-ab Shetat 










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Asar Em ankh em Ptah 

Asar neb pehtet petpet Seba IPS ^z^ 2r§! D D (1 J 

Asar Ba her-ab Qemt . rl ft ^^ ^ 

Asar Aheti 

Asar Seh 

Asar Heru-khuti 

Tern Ka khapautneteru aat " 

Ap-uat rest sekhem taui . «.% ^ 

Ap-uat meht sekhem pet 

Ptah Tettet sheps ast Ra 

Ua seqeb em Het-Benben 

Seb erpat neteru 

Heru-ur . 


Heru-sa-Ast . 

Amsu (Min)-suten-Heru 
nekht . 

An-mut-f ab-perui-urui 
Khnemu- H er u-hetep 
Heru-Sekhai . 


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H eru-khent-khatthi 

Heru-Tehuti . 

An-her . 



Ast netert em ren-s nebu jj Q 



Heqtit . 

Neshmet neb tchetta 


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128. Ta ftu Mesklienu amu Abtu 




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Meskhen Aat . 


Meskhen Seqebet 


Meskhen Ment (?) 


Meskhen Nefert 


Amseth . 






Qebh-sennu-f . 





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Aarat her-ab neter het 
Neteru semu Tuat . 
Neter u Qerti . 


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Neteru neterit amu Abtu 1 o " ~ J^s in 1 J 

Aturti Rest Meht . 

Amkhiu nu Asar 

Asar Khent Amentet 

Asar Em ast-f nebu. 

Asar Em ast-f em ta rest 



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Asar Em ahat-f em ta meht A J] 


Asar Em ast-f neb meri 
ka-f am 

Asar Em seh-f nebu 
Asar Em qema-f nebu 
Asar Em ren-f nebu 
Asar Em ker-f neb 
Asar Em khau-f nebu 
Asar Em khakeru-f nebu 
Asar Em ahat-f nebu 

Heru-netch-tef-f em ren-f 
neb .... 

Anpu khent neter seh em 
ren-f neb 

Anpu am Uhet 
Neteru ent Neter-khert 
ent amu Tuat 

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( 186 ) 



XII. " |^k j OW the story of Isis and Osiris, its most significant and 
^^ " superfluous parts omitted, is thus briefly related : — 
" Rhea, they say, having accompanied with Kronos by stealth, was 
" discovered by Helios, who hereupon denounced a curse upon her, 
" ' that she should not be delivered in any month or year.' Hermes 
"however, being likewise in love with the same Goddess, in 
" recompence of the favours which he had received from her, plays 
" at tables with Selene, and wins from her the seventieth part of 
" each of her illuminations ; these several parts, making in the 
" whole five new days, he afterwards joined together, and added to 
" the three hundred and sixty, of which the year formerly 
" consisted : which days therefore are even yet called by the 
" Egyptians the ' Epact ' or ' superadded,' and observed by them 
" as the birth-days of their Gods. For upon the first of them, say 
" they, was Osiris born, just at whose entrance into the world a 
" voice was heard, saying, * the lord of all the earth is born.' 
" There are some indeed who relate this circumstance in a different 
" manner, as that a certain person named Pamyles, as he was 
" fetching water from the temple of Jupiter at Thebes, heard a 
"voice commanding him to proclaim aloud, that 'the good and 
" great king Osiris was then born ' ; and for this reason Kronos 
" committed the education of the child to him, and that in memory 
"of this event the Pamylia were afterwards instituted, a festival 
"much resembling the Phallephoria or Priapeia of the Greeks. 

1 See S. Squire, Plutarch's Treatise of Isis and Osiris, Cambridge, 1744, 
p. 15 ff. 


" Upon the second of these days Avas Aroueris (Apovrjp^) born ; 
" whom some call Apollo, and others distinguish by the name of 
" the elder Orus. 1 Upon the third, Typho [i.e., Set /i kj 

" came into the world, being born neither at the proper time, nor 
" by the right place, but forcing his way through a wound which 
"he had made in his mother's side. Isis was born on the fourth 
" of them, in the marshes of Egypt ; as Nephthys was upon the 
"last, whom some call Teleute and Aphrodite, and others Nike. 
" Now as to the fathers of these children, the two first of them are 
" said to have been begotten by Helios ; Isis by Hermes ; Typho 
" and Nephthys by Kronos ; and accordingly, the third of these 
" superadded days, because it was looked upon as the birth-day of 
" Typho, was regarded by the kings as inauspicious, and consequently 
" they neither transacted any business in it, or even suffered them- 
" selves to take any refreshment until the evening. They further 
" add, that Typho married Nephthys ; and that Isis and Osiris, 
" having a mutual affection, enjoyed each other in their mother's 
" womb before they were born, and that from this commerce sprang 
" Aroueris, whom the Egyptians likewise call the ' elder Orus,' and 
" the Greeks ' Apollo.' " 

XIII. " Osiris, being now become king of Egypt, applied 
" himself towards civilizing his countrymen, by turning them from 
" their former indigent and barbarous course of life ; he moreover 
" taught them how to cultivate and improve the fruits of the earth ; 
" he gave them a body of laws to regulate their conduct by, and 
" instructed them in that reverence and worship, which they were 
" to pay to the gods ; with the same good disposition he afterwards 
" travelled over the rest of the world, inducing the people every- 
u where to submit to his discipline, not indeed compelling them by 
" force of arms, but persuading them to yield to the strength of 
" his reasons, which were conveyed to them in the most agreeable 
" manner, in hymns and songs accompanied with instruments of 
" music ; from which last circumstance, the Greeks conclude him 
" to have been the same person with their Dionysos or Bacchus. 
" During Osiris's absence from his kingdom Typho had no 

1 'Apouiypis = HeBU-UB, V\ -^ =f 


"opportunity of making any innovations in the state, Isis being 
" extremely vigilant in the government and always upon her guard. 
"After his return, however, having first persuaded seventy-two 
" other persons to join with him in the conspiracy, together with a 
"certain queen of Ethiopia named A so, who chanced to be in 
" Egypt at that time, he contrived a proper stratagem to execute 
"his base designs. For having privily taken the measure of 
" Osiris's body, he caused a chest to be made exactly of the same 
" size with it, as beautiful as might be, and set off with all the 
"ornaments of art. This chest he brought into his banqueting 
" room ; where, after it had been much admired by all who were 
" present, Typho, as it were in jest, promised to give it to any one 
" of them, whose body upon trial it might be found to fit. Upon 
" this the whole company, one after another, go into it, but as it 
" did not fit any of them, last of all Osiris lays himself down in it, 
" upon which the conspirators immediately ran together, clapped 
" the cover upon it, and then fastened it down on the outside with 
"nails, pouring likewise melted lead over it. After this, they 
" carried it away to the river side, and conveyed it to the sea by 
" the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile ; which for this reason is still held 
" in the utmost abomination by the Egyptians, and never named 
" by them but with proper marks of detestation. These things, say 
" they, were thus executed upon the 17th day of the month Athyr, 
" when the Sun was in Scorpio, in the 28th year of Osiris's reign ; 
" though there are others who tell us that he was no more than 28 
" years old at this time. 

XIV. " The first who knew the accident which had befallen 
" their king, were the Pans and Satyrs who inhabited the country 
" about Chemmis ;* and they immediately acquainting the people 
" with the news gave the first occasion to the name Panic Terrors, 
" which has ever since been made use of to signifie any sudden 
" affright or amazement of a multitude. As to Isis, as soon as the 
" report reached her, she immediately cut off one of the locks of 
" her hair, and put on mourning apparel upon the very spot where 

1 I.e., Apu, (I v\ ©, the Panopolis of the Greeks; the name Xe'/x/us, the 
modern Akhmim, is derived from the old Egyptian name, _ "^ ' . 


" she then happened to be, which accordingly from this accident 
" has ever since been called Coptos, or the City of Mourning, though 
" some are of opinion that this word rather signifies Deprivation. 
" After this she wandered everywhere about the country, full of 
" disquietude and perplexity, in search of the chest, enquiring of 
" every person she met with, even of some children whom she 
" chanced to see, whether they knew what was become of it. Now 
"it so happened that these children had seen what Typho's accom- 
" plices had done with the body, and accordingly acquainted her by 
" what mouth of the Nile it had been conveyed into the sea. For 
" this reason therefore the Egyptians look upon children as endued 
" with a kind of faculty of divining, and in consequence of this 
" notion are very curious in observing the accidental prattle which 
" they have with one another whilst they are at play (especially if 
"it be a sacred place), forming omens and presages from it. Isis, 
" during this interval, having been informed that Osiris, deceived by 
" her sister Nephthys who was in love with him, had unwittingly 
" enjoyed her instead of herself, as she concluded from the melilot 
" garland (top MekikaTivov o-recfyavov), which he had left with her, 
" made it her business to search out the child, the fruit of this 
"unlawful commerce (for her sister, dreading the anger of her 
"husband Typho, had exposed it as soon as it was born), and 
" accordingly, after much pains and difficulty, by means of some 
" dogs that conducted her to the place where it was, she found it 
"and bred it up ; so that in process of time it became her constant 
"guard and attendant, and from hence obtained the name of 
"Anubis, being thought to watch and guard the Gods, as dogs do 
" mankind. 

" At length she receives more particular news of the chest, 
" that it had been carried by the Avaves of the sea to the coast of 
" Byblos, and there gently lodged in the branches of a bush of 
" Tamarisk, which in a short time had shot up into a large and 
" beautiful tree, growing round the chest and enclosing it on every 
"side, so that it was not to be seen ; and farther that the king of 
" the country, amazed at its unusual size, had cut the tree down, 
"and made that part of the trunk, wherein the chest was concealed, 
" a pillar to support the roof of his house. These things, say they, 


" being made known to Isis in an extraordinary manner by the 
" report of demons, she immediately went to Byblos ; where, 
" setting herself down by the side of a fountain, she refused to 
" speak to anybody, excepting only to the queen's women who 
" chanced to be there ; these indeed she saluted and caressed in 
"the kindest manner possible, plaiting their hair for them, and 
" transmitting into them part of that wonderfully grateful odour, 
" which issued from her own body. This raised a great desire in 
" the queen their mistress, to see the stranger, who had this 
" admirable faculty of transfusing so fragrant a smell from herself 
" into the hair and skin of other people. She therefore sent for 
" her to court, and after a further acquaintance with her, made her 
"nurse to one of her sons. Now the name of the king, who 
" reigned at this time at Byblos, 1 was Melcarthus, as that of his 
" queen was Astarte, or according to others, Saosis, though some 
" call her Nemanoun, which answers to the Greek name of 
" Athenais. 

XVI. " Isis fed the child by giving it her finger to suck 
" instead of the breast ; she likewise put him every night into the 
" fire in order to consume his mortal part, whilst transforming 
" herself into a swallow she hovered round the pillar and bemoaned 
" her sad fate. Thus continued she to do for some time, till the 
" queen, who stood watching her, observing the child to be all in a 
" flame, cryed out, and thereby deprived him of that immortality, 
"which would otherwise have been conferred upon him. The 
" goddess upon this, discovering herself, requested that the pillar 
" which supported the roof might be given her ; which she accord- 
" ingly took down, and then easily cutting it open, after she had 
" taken out what she wanted, she wrapped up the remainder of 
" the trunk in fine linnen, and pouring perfumed oil upon it, 
" delivered it again into the hands of the king and queen (which 
" piece of wood is to this day preserved in the temple of Isis, and 
" worshipped by the people of Byblos). When this was done she 
" threw herself upon the chest, making at the same time such a 

1 The Byblos really referred to here is a city in the Papyrus Swamps of the 



" loud and terrible lamentation over it, as frighted the younger of 
" the king's sons, who heard her, out of his life. But the elder of 
" them she took with her, and set sail with the chest for Egypt ; 
" and it being now about morning, the river Phaedrus sending 
" forth a rough and sharp air, she in her anger dried up its 
" current. 

XVII. " No sooner was she arrived at a desert place, where 
" she imagined herself to be alone, but she presently opened the 
" chest, and laying her face upon her dead husband's embraced his 
" corpse, and wept bitterly ; but perceiving that the little boy had 
" silently stolen behind her, and found out the occasion of her 
" grief, she turned herself about on the sudden, and in her anger 
gave him so fierce and stern a look that he immediately died of 
' the affright. Others indeed say that his death did not happen in 
" this manner, but, as was hinted above, that he fell into the sea, 
" and afterwards received the greatest honours on account of the 
" goddess ; for that the Maneros, whom the Egyptians so frequently 
" call upon in their banquets, is none other than this very boy. 
"This relation is again contradicted by such as tell us, that the 
" true name of this child was Palaestinus, or Pelusius, and that the 
" city of this name was built by the goddess in memory of him ; 
"adding farther, that the Maneros above mentioned is thus 
" honoured by the Egyptians at their feasts, because he was the 
" first who invented music. There are others again, who affirm 
" that Maneros is not the name of any particular person, but a 
" mere customary form, and complimental manner of greeting 
" made use of by the Egyptians one towards another at their more 
" solemn feasts and banquets, meaning no more by it than to 
" wish ' that what they were then about might prove fortunate 
" and happy to them,' for that this is the true import of the word. 
" In like manner, say they, the human skeleton, which at these 
" times of jollity is carried about in a box, and shewn to all the 
" guests, is not designed, as some imagine, to represent the par- 
" ticular misfortunes of Osiris, but rather to remind them of their 
" mortality, and thereby to excite them freely to make use of and 
" to enjoy the good things which are set before them, seeing they 
"must quickly become such as they there saw ; and that this is 


" the true reason of introducing it at their banquets — but to 
"proceed in the narration. 

XVIII. " Isis intending a visit to her son Orus, who was 
" brought up at Butos, 1 deposited the chest in the meanwhile in a 
" remote and unfrequented place ; Typho however, as he was one 
" night hunting in the light of the moon, accidentally met with it ; 
"and knowing the body which was enclosed in it, tore it into 
"several pieces, 14 in all, dispersing them up and down in different 
" parts of the country. Upon being made acquainted with this 
" event, Isis once more sets out in search of the scattered fragments 
" of her husband's body, making use of a boat made of the reed 
" Papyrus in order the more easily to pass thro' the lower and 
" fenny parts of the country — For which reason say they, the 
" crocodile never touches any persons, who sail in this sort of 
" vessels, as either fearing the anger of the goddess, or else respect- 
" ing it on account of its having once carried her. To this occasion 
" therefore is to be imputed, that there are so many different 
" sepulchres of Osiris shewn in Egypt ; for we are told, that 
" wherever Isis met with any of the scattered limbs of her husband, 
" she there buried it. There are others however who contradict 
" this relation, and tell us, that this variety of sepulchres was owing 
" rather to the policy of the queen, who, instead of the real body, 
" as was pretended, presented these several cities with the image 
" only of her husband ; and that she did this, not only to render 
" the honours, which would by this means be paid to his memory, 
" more extensive, but likewise that she might hereby elude the 
"malicious search of Typho; who, if he got the better of 
" Orus in the war wherein they were going to be engaged, dis- 
" tracted by this multiplicity of Sepulchres, might despair of being 
"able to find the true one — we are told moreover, that notwith- 
" standing all her search, Isis was never able to recover the privy- 
" member of Osiris, which having been thrown into the Nile 
"immediately upon its separation from the rest of the body, 
"had been devoured by the Lepidotus, the Phagrus, and the 
" Oxyrynchus, fish which of all others, for this reason, the 

1 I.e., Per-Uatcliit, Cr - =1 J M 



"Egyptians have in more especial avoidance. In order, how- 
" ever, to make some amends for the loss, Isis consecrated the 
" Phallus made in imitation of it, and instituted a solemn 
" festival to its memory, which is even to this day observed by the 
" Egyptians." 

"After these things, Osiris returning from the other world 
" appeared to his son Orus, encouraged him to the battle, and at 
" the same time instructed him in the exercise of arms. He then 
" asked him, ' what he thought the most glorious action a man 
"could perform?' to which Orus replied, 'to revenge the injuries 
"offered to his father and mother.' He then asked him, 'what 
" animal he thought most serviceable to a soldier ? ' and beinsr 
" answered ' a horse,' this raised the wonder of Osiris, so that he 
" further questioned him, 'why he preferred a horse before a lion ? ' 
" ' because,' says Orus, ' tho' the lion be the more serviceable 
" creature to one who stands in need of help, yet is the horse more 
" useful in overtaking and cutting off a flying adversary.' These 
" replies much rejoiced Osiris, as they shewed him that his son 
" was sufficiently prepared for his enemy. We are moreover told, 
" that amongst the great numbers who were continually deserting 
" from Typho's party was h,is concubine Thueris, 1 and that a serpent 
" pursuing her as she was coming over to Orus, was slain by his 
" soldiers — the memory of which action, say they, is still preserved 
" in that cord, which is thrown into the midst of their assemblies, 
" and then chopt into pieces — afterwards it came to a battle between 
" them, which lasted many days ; but victory at length inclined to 
" Orus, Typho himself being taken prisoner. Isis however, to 
" whose custody he was committed, was so far from putting him to 
" death, that she even loosed his bonds and set him at liberty. 
u This action of his mother so extremely incensed Orus, that he 
" laid hands upon her, and pulled off the ensign of royalty which 
" she wore on her head ; and instead thereof Hermes clapt on an 
"helmet made in the shape of an oxe's head. After this Typho 
" publicly accused Orus of bastardy ; but by the assistance of 
" Hermes, his legitimacy was fully established by the judgment of 

1 I.e., Ta-urt, q 
II — 


"the Gods themselves. After this, there were two other battles 
" fought between them, in both which Typho had the worst. Fur- 
" thermore, Isis is said to have accompanied Osiris after his death, 
tT lmd in consequence hereof to have brought forth Harpocrates, 
" who came into the world before his time, and lame in his lower 
" limbs." 

( 195 ) 



IN connexion with the history of the god Osiris mention must be 
made of Asar-Hapi or Serapis, a deity whose cult was wide- 
spread in Egypt under the Ptolemies, and in many provinces of the 
Roman Empire after that country had passed under the authority 
of the Caesars. The second part of the name, " Hapi," was that 
which was given to the famous bull which formed the object of 
worship at Memphis very early in the dynastic period of Egyptian 
history, and which is commonly known as the " Apis Bull," 
whilst the first part is, of course, nothing but the name Osiris in 
its Egyptian form. The Greeks fused the names of the two deities 
together under the form Zapani*;, and, although the exact nature 
of the attributes which they assigned to Osiris and Apis united is 
not quite clear, it seems tolerably certain that they regarded Serapis 
as the form which Apis took after death. According to the 
hieroglyphic texts * which were found on stelae and other objects in 
the Serapeum at Sakkara, Apis is called " the life of Osiris, the 

"lord of heaven, Tern [with] his horns [in] his head," 8 ^ <^ ■¥■ 

\\ ^zi7 f=q . ^- 5? *^— , and he is said to "give life, 

strength, health, to thy nostrils for ever." Elsewhere Apis-Osiris 
is described as, " the great god, Khent Amentet, the lord of life for 

*™>" JtSViMlil^TfTSl' «* as this 

text belongs to the period of the XVIIIth Dynasty, we see that 
even at the beginning of the New Empire Apis and Osiris were 

1 See Mariette, Le Serapeum de Memphis, Paris, 1882, p. 125 ff. ; Mariette, 
Memoire sur cette Representation gravee en trie de quelques proscyntmes du Serapeum, 
Paris, 1856. 



joined together by the priests of Memphis, and that the attributes 
of Apis had been made to assume a funereal character, and that he 
was at that time recognized as a god of the Underworld. On a 
monument of the XlXth Dynasty, 1 Apis is said to be " the renewed 

life of Ptah," ^ J \J 
$ , and in an inscrip- 
tion of the XXVIth 
Dynasty he is called 
the " second Ptah," 

i nsTrraa^raaHMi^gsanB^ essem 

"u|T<< l "^ , »»/"»rpif 












ifl^m@»s i m°i:Q ^mm^n^^im 






mS Ifrl^EBKSS^IHeiails H*r.<n 





Sepulchral tablet with a scene in which the deceased is 
seen adoring Osiris, Serapis, and other gods. 


the same text we have a 

mention of the " temple 

of Asar - H api," rj j\ 

tv rjb i.e., of Serapis, 

and we may learn from 
this fact that Apis had 
been finally made a god 
of the Underworld, and 
that his identity had been 
merged in that of Osiris. 
The identification of 
Apis with Osiris was 
easy enough, because 
one of the commonest 
names of Osiris was 
"Bull of the West," 
and the identification 
once made the shrines 
of Osiris were regarded 
as the proper places at 

which the worship of the double god should be paid. Apis was, in 
fact, believed to be animated by the soul of Osiris, and to be Osiris 
incarnate, and the appearance of a new Apis was regarded as a new 

Mariette, Seraphim, p. 139. 

2 Ibid., p. 198. i 


manifestation of Osiris upon earth ; but he was also an emanation 
of Ptah, and he was even called the "son of Ptah," 1 ^ ° § . 
The double god Asar-Hapi or Hapi-Asar, is depicted in the form 
of a bull, which has the solar disk and a uraeus between its 
horns. The peculiar marks on a bull which indicated that he was 
Apis, and the general history of the god will be found in the 
Chapter on " Animals sacred to the Gods." 

The chief centre of the worship of Serapis in Ptolemaic times 
was Alexandria, where it was established, according to tradition, by 
Ptolemy Soter. This great ruler of Egypt appears to have wished 
to find some god who could be worshipped both by Greeks and 
Egyptians at a common shrine, and one whom he could cause to be 
regarded as the characteristic god of his dynasty in Egypt. The 
most important Egyptian god at the time was Osiris, that is to say 
Osiris- Apis, the great god of the Egyptian Underworld, but it was 
impossible for him to remove the great sanctuary of this god, and 
he therefore determined either to rebuild some ruined Serapeum at 
/Uexandria, or to found a new one wherein he might set up a 
statue which should be worshipped both as the god of the Egyptian 
Underworld and the Greek Hades, and in which would be united 
the attributes of Osiris Khent Amenti, and of Dis. Whilst 
Ptolemy was meditating upon these or similar things he had a 
dream, wherein a colossal statue of some god appeared to him, and 
told him to remove it from where it was to Alexandria : according 
to Plutarch {Be Iside et Osiride, § 28), he had never seen a 
similar statue, and he knew neither the place where it stood, nor to 
whom it belonged. One day he happened to mention his dream to 
Sosibius, and described the statue which he had seen, whereon this 
man declared that he had seen a statue like it at Sinope. Tradition 
says that this was Sinope on the Pontus, and adds that as the 
inhabitants of the city were extremely unwilling to part with their 
statue, it, of its own accord, after waiting for three years, entered 


1 In the text of Pepi I. (1. 671) the god Ur-sheps-f, -^^ I ^^ j^i 

lied the '-beloved, the son of Ptah," *^£. M D | 1 
justified in assuming him to be an old form of Osiris-Apis. 

is called the " beloved, the son of Ptah," *^X. (J (J x ( v-\ 8 , but we are not 



into a ship and arrived at Alexandria safely after a voyage of only 
three days. When the Greeks came to see the statue it was 
introduced to them as the god Hades, and the Egyptian priests 
were ready to bestow upon him the name Asar-Hapi, or Serapis, 
by which name the Greeks were, apparently, quite contented to 
call him. Thus both the Greeks and Egyptians in Alexandria 

acquired a god whom they willingly 
worshipped as the god of the Under- 

As soon as the god who was now 
called Serapis had been established in 
his new home, his former worship and 
rites were greatly modified, and his 
services and processions were made to 
resemble those of the Egyptians, who 
naturally expected their main features 
to be brought into harmony with 
those of the cult of Osiris, their 
national god. It appears to have 
been to the interest of all parties to 
welcome Serapis, and all must admire 
the astute action of Ptolemy, who 
succeeded in making the Greeks think 
that in worshipping this god they were 
adoring one of their own native deities, 
and who persuaded the Egyptians that 
they were maintaining the supremacy 
of Osiris- Apis in spite of the fact that 
the Macedonians were the rulers and 
masters of the country. Some doubt 
has been cast upon the identification of 
the Sinope mentioned by Plutarch with the Sinope of Pontus, but 
with insufficient reason. The Serapeum which Ptolemy repaired, or 
founded, was probably near Raqetit * \ ^=> (1(1 ^, and was a 
very remarkable building ; its main plan seems to have resembled 
that of the famous Serapeum at Memphis, but parts of it were 
richly painted and gilded, and it possessed a fine library which was 

Asar-Hapi (Serapis). 


said to contain some 300,000 volumes. The following is Plutarch's 
account of the introduction of the god of Sinope into Egypt : — 
" After this, say they, both Isis and Osiris, on account of their 
eminent virtue, were translated from the order of good Demons 
to that of Gods, as in after ages were Hercules and Bacchus ; and 
therefore the honours which are paid them are very properly of 
the mixed kind, such as are due both to Gods and Demons, their 
power being very great, not only upon earth, but in those regions 
likewise which are under the earth. For, say they, Osiris is none 
other than Pluto, nor is Isis different from Proserpine, as Arche- 
machus the Euboean asserts, and as appears likewise to have 
been the opinion of Heraclides of Pontus from his declaring the 
oracle at Canopus to belong to Pluto. 

XXVIII. " But the following facts will make this point still 
more evident. Ptolemy, surnamed the Saviour, had a dream, 
wherein a certain Colossean statue, such as he had never seen 
before, appeared unto him, commanding him to remove it as soon 
as possible from the place where it then stood to Alexandria. 
Upon this the king was in great perplexity, as he knew neither 
to whom the statue belonged nor where to look for it. Upon his 
relating the vision to his friends, a certain person named Sosibius, 
who had been a great traveller, declared that he had seen just 
such a statue as the king described at Sinope. Soteles and 
Dionysius were hereupon immediately dispatched in order to 
bring it away with them, which they at length accomplished 
though not without much difficulty, and the manifest interposi- 
tion of providence. Timotheus the Interpreter, and Manetho, as 
soon as the statue was shown to them, from the Cerberus and 
Dragon that accompanied it, concluded that it was designed to 
represent Pluto, and persuaded the king that it was in reality 
none other than the Egyptian Sarapis ; for it must be observed, 
that the statue had not this name before it was brought to 
Alexandria, it being given to it afterwards by the Egyptians, as 
equipollent, in their opinion, to its old one of Pluto. So again, 
Avhen Heraclitus the Physiologist asserts that Pluto and Bacchus 
are the same, does not this directly lead to the same conclusion ? 
For as to those who say that by Pluto is here meant the body, 


" because the soul, whilst it is in it, is as it were intoxicated and 
" beside itself, and that from hence springs the relation between 
" it and Bacchus, this is too subtle and finespun an allegory to 
" deserve our serious notice. Heraclitus's assertion therefore may 
" be much more probably accounted for, by supposing the Bacchus 
" here meant to be the same as Osiris, and Osiris again the same 
" as Sarapis, this latter appellation having been given him, upon 
" his being translated from the order of Genii to that of the Gods, 
" Sarapis being none other than that common name by which all 
" those are called, who have thus changed their nature, as is well 
" known by those who are initiated into the mysteries of Osiris. 

" Little regard therefore is to be paid to those Phrygian Tales, 
" wherein mention is made of one Sarapis, as the daughter of 
" Hercules, and of Typho, as born of Isaeacus one of his sons : 
" nor does Phylarchus better deserve our credit, when he tells us 
" that ' Bacchus first brought two bullocks with him out of India 
" into Egypt, and that the name of the one was Apis, and that of 
" the other Osiris,' adding moreover, ' that Sarapis. in the proper 
" meaning of the word, signifies him who disposed the Universe 
si into its present beautiful order.'' Now though this assertion of 
" Phylarchus be weak enough, yet it is not quite so absurd as that 
" of those who assert, that ' Sarapis is no god at all, but the mere 
il denomination of the sepulchral chest, wherein the body of Apis 
" after its death is deposited ; ' much more tolerable than either of 
" the preceding is their opinion, who would derive this name from 
" words which in the Greek language import, ' one who first 
" impelled and gave motion to the universe.'' The priests indeed, at 
" least the greatest part of them, tell us, that Sarapis is none other 
" than the mere union of Osiris and Apis into one word ; declarative 
" as it were of that opinion, which they are perpetually explaining 
" and inculcating, ' that the Apis ought ever to be regarded by us, 
" as a fair and beautiful image of the soul of Osiris.' For my part 
" I cannot but think, that if this word be of Egyptian extraction, 
" it ought to be interpreted so as to express joy and gladness, seeing 
" that festival, which we Grecians call Charmosyna, or the feast of 
" joy, is by the Egyptians expressly termed Sarei. Nor altogether 
" disagreeable to this last notion of Sarapis, is the explication which 


" Plato gives of the corresponding name of Hades or Pluto, stiling 
" him, ' the son of cheerfulness, and a kind and gentle Deity to all 
" such as come unto him.' There are likewise many other words, 
" which when interpreted into Greek, become entire sentences ; 
" such particularly is Amenthes, or that subterraneous region 
" whither they imagine the souls of those who die to go after their 
" decease, a name which expressly signifies in the tongue, the receiver 
" and giver. 1 But whether this likewise be not one of those words, 
" which were originally transplanted from Greece into Egypt, we 
" will enquire in another place." 

1 The Egyptian form of the word is 9 Amentet, and the name means 

" hidden place." 

( 202 ) 


AST, j, OR jo, OR j^, ISIS 

NOTWITHSTANDING the fact that As, or Ast, i.e., Isis, 
is one of the goddesses most frequently mentioned in the 
hieroglyphic texts, nothing is known with certainty about the 
attributes Avhich were ascribed to her in the earliest times. From 
the fact that she was regarded as the female counterpart of Osiris 
in the dynastic period, we may assume that she was also associated 
with the god in this capacity in the predynastic period, and 
if he was originally a water spirit or a river-god, she must 
have possessed the same characteristics. The name Ast has, 
like Asak, up to the present defied all explanation, and it is 
clear from the punning derivations to which the Egyptians 
themselves had recourse, that they knew no more about the 
meaning of her name than we do. The probability is that As, or 
Ast, is a Libyan name originally, and that it is to be classed with 
the names of the other Libyan deities, e.g., Net, Bast, etc., who 
were worshipped by the predynastic Egyptians, and the sounds of 
whose names were expressed by hieroglyphic symbols as nearly as 
possible when the people of the country borrowed or invented the 
art of writing. The symbol of the name of Isis in Egyptian is a 
seat, or throne, u, but we have no means of connecting it with the 
attributes of the goddess in such a way as to give a rational 
explanation of her name, and all the derivations hitherto proposed 
must be regarded as mere guesses. Isis is usually depicted in the 
form of a woman who wears on her head a vulture head-dress, and 
holds in her hand a papyrus sceptre. The usual ornament or 
crown on her head consists of a pair of horns, between which is a 
solar disk, and this is sometimes surmounted by j| , the symbol of 
the sound of her name. Sometimes she wears the double crowns 

The Goddess ISIS. 

ISIS 203 

of the South and the North, to the back of which is attached the 
feather of Mafit, and sometimes she wears with the pair of horns 
and the solar disk two plumes. 1 Her horns are usually those of 
the cow of Hathor, or of one of the sister forms of this goddess, \f , 
but occasionally 2 she wears ^jDaJr^j^j^jn^s^hjojmSj "^2" , under her 
double crown ; since, however, Osiris was represented by the Ram 
of Mendes, and was identified with Khnemu, it is only to be 
expected that his female counterpart Isis should appear sometimes 
with the horns which are the peculiar characteristic of the great 
Ram-god. Isis, as a woman, and not as a goddess, is depicted in 
the ordinary head-dress of a woman, but even so she has the 
uraeus over her forehead, for the Egyptians wished it never to be 
forgotten that she was of divine origin ; of the forms which she had 
the power to take in her character of the " lady of words of 
power " mention will be made further on. 

An examination of the texts of all periods proves that Isis 
always held in the minds of the Egyptians a position which was 
entirely different from that of every other goddess, and although it 
is certain that their views concerning her varied from time to time, 
and that certain aspects or phases of the goddess were worshipped 
more generally at one period than at another, it is correct to say 
that from the earliest to the latest dynasties Isis was the greatest 
goddess of Egypt. Long before the copies of the Pyramid Texts 
which we possess were written the attributes of Isis were well- 
defined, and even when the priests of Heliopolis assigned to her 
the position which she held in the cycle of their gods between 
B.C. 4000 and B.C. 3000 the duties which she was thought to 
perform in connexion with the dead were clearly defined, and were 
identical with those which belonged to her in the Graeco- Roman 
period. Isis was the great and beneficent goddess and mother, 
whose influence and love pervaded all heaven, and earth, and the 
abode of the dead, and she was the personification of the great 
feminine, creative power which conceived, and brought forth every 
living creature, and thing, from the gods in heaven, to man on the 
earth, and to the insect on the ground ; what she brought forth 
she protected, and cared for, and fed, and nourished, and she 
1 See Lanzone, Dizlonariv, pll. 306 ff. ~ Mil, pi. 308, No. 3. 

204 ISIS 

employed her life in using her power graciously and successfully, 
not only in creating new beings but in restoring those that were 
dead. She was, besides these things, the highest type of a faithful 
and loving wife and mother, and it was in this capacity that the 
Egyptians honoured and worshipped her most. In the section on 
Osiris a rendering of the Mythological History of Isis and Osiris 
by Plutarch has already been given, but reference must here be 
made to one or two passages in it for purposes of comparison with 
Egyptian texts. According to this document Osiris was slain by 
the cunning of his brother Typhon, or Set, and the box containing 
his body was thrown into the river, which carried it to the sea ; 
after long search Isis found it, and set it, as she thought, in 
a safe hiding place, but it was found by Typhon, who cut it up 
into a number of pieces. It is nowhere so stated, but it seems 
that Isis was childless before the death of Osiris, and both the 
narrative of Plutarch and a passage in the Hymn to Osiris quoted 
above (p. 150) agree in stating that, by means of certain words of 
power which had been given to her by Thoth and which she knew 
how to use, she restored her dead husband to life, and was united 
to him ; as the result of this embrace she conceived her son Horns, 
and in due course brought him forth. 

The incidents of her search for the dead body of Osiris, 
and of the conception and birth, and rearing of her child power- 
fully impressed the imagination of the Egyptians, and hieroglyphic 
literature is full of allusions to them. In the Pyramid Texts 
the deceased is said (Unas, line 181) "to breathe the breath 
of Isis," and to make his passage in heaven, with Isis, in the 
Matet Boat, i.e., the boat of the rising sun (line 293) ; moreover, 
he is declared to be the very son of Isis and of her twin 
form Nephthys. 1 In a remarkable passage in the text of Teta 
(line 84) the deceased is introduced to the triad of goddesses, Isis, 
Nephthys, and Asbet, <k\ [> J ° , as their son, and elsewhere 
(line 172) Seb, the father of Osiris and Isis, is made to speak of 

■ ii s sd t s ^ t *« ram ? 

AAAAAA *= r ^-=r-' ^ I 


Unas, 1. 487. 

TSIS 205 

Isis and Nephthys as his " sisters." These things the Egyptians 
believed because their ancient traditions told them of all that Isis 
had done for her husband and child, and they hoped that the 
goddess would be present at the celebrations of their funeral rites, 
and that she would secure for them a new birth. In the illustrated 
Recensions of the Boole, of the Dead Isis frequently appears both 
as the mother of Horus, the heir to the throne of Osiris, and as 
the mourning; widow of her husband. In the vignette to the 
clist Chapter Isis kneels at the bier of the deceased, and says to 
him, " I have come to protect thee with the north wind which 
" cometh forth from Tern; I have strengthened for thee thy throat; 
" I have caused thee to be with the god ; and I have placed all 
" thine enemies under thy feet." This speech refers to the air 
which Isis produced by the beating of her wings when she restored 
Osiris to life in order that she might conceive an heir by him, and 
also to the air which she provided for her son Horus after he had 
been stung to death by a scorpion. Everywhere in the Booh of 
the Dead Isis is regarded as a giver of life and of food to the dead, 
and she appears behind the god in the shrine wherein Osiris is 
seated in the Judgment Hall, and in one of her aspects she is 
identified with one of the two Maat goddesses ; she may, in fact, 
be regarded as one of the judges of the dead. 

Now, the Book of the Dead supplies us with many interesting 
allusions to her relations with Osiris, but it says little about her 
devotion to her son Horus, whom she reared with loving care that 
he might become the " avenger of his father," and we must have 
recourse to the texts which are found inscribed on the " Metternich 
stele," 1 if we would gain a clearer idea of the troubles which Isis 
endured after the death of Osiris. In one of these the goddess is 
made to relate the narrative of her wanderings and sorrows, and 
she says, " I, even I, am Isis, and I came forth from the house 
"wherein my brother Set had placed me." From this it is clear 
that Set was not content with murdering his brother Osiris, but 
that he must needs shut up the widow and her child in some place 

1 This stele was found in Alexandria in 1828, and was given to Prince 
Metternich by Muhammad 'AH ; for a facsimile of it, and renderings of the texts 
upon it, see Golenischeff, Die MetternicTistele, Leipzig, 1877. 

206 ISIS 

of restraint. Whilst Isis was thus confined, " Thoth, the great 
" god, the prince of Law both in heaven and upon the earth," 
came to her and said, " Come, thou goddess Isis, it is good to be 
" obedient, for there is life for him that will follow the advice of 
" another. Hide thou thy son the child [Horus], and this is what 
" shall happen : his limbs shall grow, and he will become endowed 
" with two-fold strength, and then he shall be made to sit upon the 
" throne of his father, and he shall avenge him and take possession 
" of the rank of the prince of the Two Lands." Isis took the 
advice of her friend Thoth and, she says, " I came forth from the 
" house at eventide, and there also came forth with me Seven 
" Scorpions, who were to accompany me, and to be my helpers. 
" Two scorpions, Tefen and Befen, were behind me, two scorpions, 
" Mestet and Mestetef were by my side, and three scorpions, Petet, 
" Thetet, and Maatet, shewed me the way. I cried out unto them 
" in a very loud voice, and my speech entered into their ears even 
" as into the ears of one who knoweth that obedience is a thing 
" which is applauded, and that disobedience is the mark of the 
" person who is of no account, and I said unto them, ' Let your 
"faces be turned to the ground that ye may [shew me] the way.' 
" So the leader of this company brought me unto the marshes of 
" Pa-sui, the city of the two Divine Sandals, which lay at the 
"beginning of the Papyrus Swamps ((1 cs ft "w Ateh). When 
" I had arrived at Teb I came forth to the habitations of the 
" women who belonged to the overlord of the district, and the chief 
" Avoman who had seen me coming along shut her doors in my face, 
"and was angry with me in her heart because of those (i.e., the 
" Seven Scorpions) that were with me. Now the scorpions took 
" counsel on the matter, and they all at one time ejected their 
" poison on the tip of the tail of Tefen ; but as for me, a poor 
" fen- woman opened her door to me, and I entered into her house. 
" Meanwhile the Scorpion Tefen entered under the leaves of the 
" door of the lady [who had shut her doors upon me], and she 
" stung her son, and fire straightway broke out in the house of the 
" noble lady ; but there was no water forthcoming to put it oat, 
" and the heavens dropped down no rain upon the house of the 
" noble lady, for it was not the season for rain. And, behold, the 








ISIS 207 

"heart of the woman who had not opened her doors to me was 
" sad, for she knew not whether her son would live, and although 
" she went round about through her city uttering cries of lamenta- 
" tion none came at her call. But mine own heart was sad for the 
" child's sake, and I wished to restore to life him that had com- 
" mitted no fault. Thereupon I cried out to the noble lady, 
" ' Come to me. Come to me, for my speech hath in it the power 
" to protect, and it possesseth life. I am a woman who is well- 
" known in her city, and I can drive the evil out of thy son by one 
" of my utterances, which my father taught me, for I was the 
" beloved daughter of his body.' ' : 

The noble lady presumably listened to the words of Isis, who, 
it seems, either went to her house, or had the dead child brought 
into her presence, for the narrative continues, " Then Isis laid her 
" hands upon the child to restore to life him that was without 
" breath (literally' him whose throat was foul'), and said, ' poison 
" of Tefen, come forth, and appear on the ground ; come not in, 
" approach not ! poison of Befent, come forth, and appear on the 
" ground ! for I am Isis the goddess, and I am the lady of words of 
" power, and I know how to work with words of power, and most 
" mighty are [my] words ! all ye reptiles which sting, hearken 
" unto me, and fall ye down on the ground ! poison of Mestet? 
" come not hither ! poison of Mestetef, rise not up ! poison of 
" Petet and Thetet, enter not here ! [0 poison of] Maatet, fall down !'" 
Next in the narrative we have the words of the " Chapter of the 
stinging [of scorpions] " which " Isis, the goddess and great 
enchantress at the head of the gods," spake on this occasion, and it 
is said that she learnt her method of procedure from Seb, who had 
taught her how to drive out poison. At the dawn of day she 
uttered the words, " poison, get thee back, turn away, begone, 
retreat," and added " Mer-Ra ; " and at eventide she said, "The 
Egg of the Goose " cometh forth " from the Sycamore." Then 
turning to the Seven Scorpions she said, " I speak to you, for I 
" am alone and am in sorrow which is greater than that of anyone 
" in the nomes of Egypt. I am like a man who hath become old, 
" and who hath ceased to search after and to look upon women in 
" their houses. Turn your faces down to the ground, and find ye 

208 ISIS 

" me straightway a way to the swamps and to the hidden places in 
" Khebet." x Following this passage come the exclamation, " The 
" child liveth and the poison dieth ; the Sun liveth and the poison 
" dieth," and then the wishes, " May Horus be in good case for his 
" mother Isis ! And may he who shall find himself in a similar 
" state be in good case also ! " As the result of the utterances of 
Isis the fire in the house of the noble lady was extinguished, and 
" heaven was satisfied with the words which the goddess Isis " had 
spoken. The narrative is continued by Isis in these words : — 
" Then came the lady who had shut her doors against me, and 
" took possession of the house of the fen-woman because she had 
" opened the door of her house unto me, and because of this the 
"noble lady suffered pain and sorrow during a whole night, and 
" she had to bear [the thought] of her speech, and that her son had 
" been stung because she had closed the doors and had not opened 
"them to me." Following this come the words, "0, the child 
"liveth, the poison dieth ! Verily, Horus shall be in good case for 
" his mother Isis ! Verily, in like manner shall he be in good case 
" who shall find himself in a similar position ! Shall not the bread 
" of barley drive out the poison and- make it to return from the 
" limbs ? Shall not the flame of the hetchet plant drive out the fire 
" from the members ? " 

" ' Isis, Isis, come to thy child Horus, thou whose mouth is 
" wise, come to thy son : ' thus cried out the gods who were near 
" her after the manner of one whom a scorpion hath stung, and like 
" one whom Behat, whom the animal Antesh put to flight, hath 
" wounded. Then came Isis like a woman who was smitten in her 
"own body. And she stretched out her two arms, [saying], I will 
" protect thee, I will protect thee, my son Horus. Fear thou not, 
" fear thou not, son, my glorious one. No evil thing whatsoever 
" shall happen unto thee, for in thee is the seed whereof things 
" which are to be shall be created. Thou art the son within the 

i ^ J <a> Khebet, or Khebit, J (1(1 y&^ "Ml, is, as Dr. Brugscb has 

shown, the Egyptian original of the Greek Xe/t/us, or X6,u/3is, an island in the 
neighbourhood of the city of Buto (Pe and Tep), which, according to Herodotus, 

ISIS 209 

" Mesqet, who hast proceeded from Nu, and thou shalt not die by 
"the flame of the poison. Thou art the Great Bennu who wast 
" born on the Incense Trees in the House of the Great Prince in 
" Heliopolis. Thou art the brother of the Abtu Fish, who dost 
" arrange that which is to be, and who wast nursed bv the Cat 
"within the House of Net. Beret, Hat and Bes protect thy 
" limbs. Thine head shall not fall before him that is hostile to 
" thee. The fire of that which hath poisoned thee shall not have 
" dominion over thy limbs. Thou shalt not fail on land, and thou 
" shalt not be in peril on the water. No reptile that stingeth shall 
" have the mastery over thee, and no lion shall crush thee or gain 
" the mastery over thee. Thou art the son of the holy god and 
" dost proceed from Seb. Thou art Horus, and the poison which 
" is in thy limbs shall not have the mastery over thee. And even 
" so shall it be with him that is under the knife. And the four 
" noble goddesses shall protect thy limbs." 

From the above we see that the gods informed Isis that her 
son Horus had been stung by a scorpion, and from what follows we 
shall see in what condition Isis found her son. She says, " I, Isis, 
" conceived a man child, and I was heavy with Horus. I, the 
" goddess, bare Horus, the son of Isis, within a nest of papyrus 
" plants (or, ■ Island of Ateh.') I rejoiced over him with exceedingly 
" great joy, for I saw in him one who would make answer for his 
" father. I hid him, and I concealed him, for I was afraid lest he 
" should be bitten. Now I went away to the city of Am, and the 
" people thereof saluted me according to their wont, and I passed 
" the time in seeking food and provision for the boy ; but when I 
" returned to embrace Horus, I found him, the beautiful one of 
" gold, the boy, the child, inert and helpless. He had bedewed the 
" ground with the water of his eye, and with the foam of his lips ; 
" his body was motionless, and his heart was still, and his muscles 

"moved not, and I sent forth a cry Then straightway 

" the dwellers in the swamps came round about me, and the fen 
" men came out to me from their houses, and they drew nigh to 
" me at my call, and they themselves wept at the greatness of my 
"misery. Yet no man there opened his mouth to speak to me 
" because they all grieved for me sorely ; and no man among them 
ii — p 

210 ISIS 

" knew how to restore Horus to life. Then there came unto me a 
" woman who was well known in her city, and she was a lady at 
" the head of her district, and she came to me to restore [Horus] to 
"life. Her heart was filled with her own affairs, according to 
" custom, but the child Horus remained motionless and moved not. 
" The son of the goddess-mother had been smitten by the evil of 
" his brother. The plants [where Horus was] were concealed, and 
" no hostile being could find a way into them. 

" The word of power of Tern, the father of the gods, who is in 
" heaven, acted as the maker of life, and Set had not entered into 
" this region, and he could not go round about the city of Kheb 
" (Khemmis) ; and Horus was safe from the wickedness of his 
" brother. But Isis had not hidden those who ministered unto him 
" many times each day, and these said concerning him, ' Horus 
"liveth for his mother;' they found out where he was, and a 
"scorpion stung him, and Aun-ab (i.e., Slayer of the Heart) 
" stabbed him." 

Then " Isis placed her nose in the mouth of Horus to learn if 
" there was any breath in him that was in his coffin, and she opened 
"the wound of the divine heir, and she found poison therein. 
" Then she embraced him hurriedly and leaped about with him like 
" a fish when it is placed over a hot fire, and she said, ' Horus is 
" stung, Ra, thy son is stung. Horus, thy very heir, and the 

"lord of the of Shu is stung. Horus, the child of the 

" Papyrus Swamps, the child in Het-ser is stung ; the beautiful 
" Child of gold is stung, and the Child, the Babe, hath become a 
" thing of nothingness. Horus, the son of Un-nefer, is stung,' etc. 
" Then came Nephthys shedding tears, and she went about the 
" Papyrus Swamps uttering cries of grief, and the goddess Serqet 
" said, ' What is it ? What is it ? What hath happened to the 
" child Horus ? ' 

" ' Isis, pray thou to heaven so that the sailors of Ra may 
" cease rowing, so that the Boat of Ra may not depart from the 
" place where the child Horus is.' Then Isis sent forth a cry to 
"heaven, and addressed her prayer to the Boat of Millions of 
" Years ; and the Disk stood still, and moved not from the place 
"where he was. And Thoth came, and he was provided with 


ISIS 211 

" magical powers and possessed the great power which made [his] 
" word to become Maat (i.e., Law), and he said : ' Isis, thou 
" goddess, thou glorious one, who hast knowledge how to use thy 
" mouth, behold, no evil shall come upon the child Horus, for his 
" protection cometh from the Boat of Ra. I have come this day in 
"the Boat of the Disk from the place where it was yesterday. 
"When the night cometh the light shall drive [it] away for the 
" healing of Horus for the sake of his mother Isis, and every person 
" who is under the knife [shall be healed] likewise.' ' In answer to 
this speech Isis told Thoth that she was afraid he had come too late, 
but she begged him, nevertheless, to come to the child and to bring 
with him his magical powers which enabled him to give effect to 
every command which he uttered. Thereupon Thoth besought 
Isis not to fear, and Nephthys not to weep, for said he, "I have 
" come from heaven in order to save the child for his mother," and 
he straightway spake the words of power which restored Horus to 
life, and served to protect him ever afterwards in heaven, and in 
earth, and in the Underworld. 

The region where all these things took place was situated in 
the Delta, and the Island in the Papyrus Swamps, where Isis 
brought forth her child and hid him, was near the famous double 
city of Pe-Tep, which was commonly called Buto by the Greeks. 
It is impossible to assign a date to the composition of the story 
briefly narrated above, but it is, no doubt, as old as the legends 
about the death and resurrection of Osiris, and it must form an 
integral portion of them, and date from the period when Libyan 
gods and goddesses were worshipped in the Delta and in certain 
parts of Upper Egypt before the great development of Sun-worship. 
The chief importance of the story consists in the fact that it makes 
Isis to be both woman and goddess, just as the story of Osiris 
makes that deity to be both god and man, and it is quite con- 
ceivable that in the predynastic times the sorrows of Isis, like those 
of Osiris, formed the subject of miracle plays which were acted 
annually in all the centres of the worship of Isis. Isis as the faithful 
and loving wife, and as the tender and devoted mother won the 
hearts of the Egyptians in all periods of their history, and we can 
only regret that the narrative of the wanderings and sorrows of the 

212 ISIS 

goddess is not known to us in all its details. Her persecution by- 
Set after her husband's death was a favourite theme of ancient 
writers, who delighted in showing how the goddess outwitted her 
terrible adversary ; thus on one occasion she was so hard pressed 
by him that she changed her body into that of the cow-goddess 

Heru-sekha, V^v —*- 7 \\ >jra ? and her son Horus into an Apis 

Bull, ^ 5fc^ "^ »* an ^ wen * away with him to the Apis temple, 
^ . in order that she might see his father Osiris, who was 


Another great human element in the story of Isis which 
appealed strongly to the Egyptians was the desire of the goddess 
to be avenged on the murderer of her husband, and it is this which 
is referred to in the words of Isis, who says, " I rejoiced over him 
" with exceedingly great joy, for I saw in him one who would make 
"answer for his father." The manner in which Horus "made 
answer for " and avenged his father is told in the Sallier Papyrus 
(translated by Chabas, 2 ) where it is said that Horus and Set fought 
together, standing on their feet, first in the forms of men and next 
in the forms of two bears. For three days and for three nights the 
fight between them raged, and Horus gained the victory over Set, 
but when Isis saw that Set was being overpowered her heart was 
touched on his account, and she cried out and ordered the weapons 
which her son was wielding against her brother to fall down, and 
they did so, and Set was released. When Horus saw that his 
mother had taken his adversary's part he raged at her like a 
panther of the south, and she fled before his wrath ; a fierce 
struggle between Isis and Horus then took place, and Horus cut 
off his mother's head. Thoth, by means of his words of power, 
transformed her head into that of a cow which he attached to her 
body straightway. 

Isis, > though worshipped all over Egypt, was specially 
venerated in certain cities, and the following are among the 
commonest of her titles 3 : — " The great lady, the God-mother, lady 

1 Bmgsch, Aeg. ZeiL, 1879, p. 19. • Le Calendrier, p. 28. 

3 See Lanzone, Dizionario, pp. 829, if. 

The Goddess ISIS-SEPT. 


"of Re-a-nefer; Isis-Nebuut, jj ~ ^~|), lad y of Sekhet ; lady 
" of Besitet ; Isis in Per Pakht, um tSr nrzi ; the queen of Mesen, 

"flf 1 — H%; I sis <> f Ta-at-nehepet, -^r^^©? Isis > 
"dweller in Netru, ""j^^b©; Isis, lady of Hebet, §^ flfTl; 
" Isis in P-she-Hert, ~ *~w^ C\ • Isis, lady of Khebt, © Ua W • 

" Usert-Isis, ] 1^ Jj^Jl? giver of life, lady of Abaton, lady of 
" Philae, lady of the countries of the south," etc. From a list of 
titles of the goddess collected by Dr. Brugsch, 1 it is clear that Isis 

was called Usert, | R <=> ^ , in Thebes, Aat, T^n J) , in Heliopolis, 
Menkhet, ^^ ® A in Memphis, God-mother, ^ ^ \\ , in Coptos, 

Hert, * ! ^^ Pn ' * n Letopolis ; and " Hent," i.e., " Queen," in 
every nome ; 2 and another important list tells us that Isis was 

* |\ nit null ^ _, ^_^ ^^ 

called Ament, l\ ~*~« , in Thebes, Menhet, r^ Vn > m Heliopolis, 

Renpet, j ° J) , in Memphis, Sept, A , in Abydos, Hetet, 

§ C= ^ 3 ^P, in Behutet, Hurt, ^^^ A\, in Nekhen, Thenenet, 

s=3l^lj in Hermonthis, Ant, ffl ^, in Dendera, Sesheta, T , 

in Hermopolis, Heqet, ^ ?, in Hibiu, Uatchit, TQQ^I/Iij m 

Hipponus, Mernekhen, 5 f i ) , in Herakleopolis, Renpet, 

3 , in Crocodilopolis, Neb-tept, ^z^ 7 ® , in Arsinoe, That, 

s=s A <=> p. , or Tchetut, ° l ^J J) , in Aphroditopolis, and Shetat, 

^, in Bubastis. Among her general titles may be mentioned 
those of " the divine one, the only one, the greatest of the gods 
" and goddesses, the queen of all gods, the female Ra, the female 
" Horus, the eye of Ra, the crown of Ra-Heru, Sept, opener of the 
" year, lady of the New Year, maker of the sunrise, lady of heaven, 
" the light-giver of heaven, lady of the North Wind, queen of the 
" earth, most mighty one, queen of the South and North, lady of 
" the solid earth, lady of warmth and fire, benefactress of the Tuat, 

1 Religion, p. 646. 2 Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 773. 


" she who is greatly feared in the Tuat, the God-mother, the God- 
" mother of Heru-ka-nekht, the mother of the Horus of gold, the 
" lady of life, lady of green crops, the green goddess (Uatchet), 
" lady of bread, lady of beer, lady of abundance, lady of joy and 
" gladness, lady of love, the maker of kings, lady of the Great 
" House, lady of the House of fire, the beautiful goddess, the lady 
" of words of power, lady of the shuttle, daughter of Seb, daughter 
" of Neb-er-tcher, the child of Nut, wife of Ra, wife of the lord 
" of the abyss, wife of the lord of the Inundation, the creatrix of 
" the Nile flood." 

From a number of passages in the texts of various periods we 
learn that Isis possessed great skill in the working of magic, and 
several examples of the manner in which she employed it are well 
known. Thus when she wished to make Ra reveal to her his 
greatest and most secret name, she made a venomous reptile out of 
dust mixed with the spittle of the god, and by uttering over it 
certain words of power she made it to bite Ra as he passed. When 
she had succeeded in obtaining from the god his most hidden name, 
which he only revealed because he was on the point of death, she 
uttered words which had the effect of driving the poison out of his 
limbs, and Ra recovered. 1 Now Isis not only used the words of 
power, but she also had knowledge of the way in which to 
pronounce them so that the beings or things to which they were 
addressed would be compelled to listen to them and, having 
listened, would be obliged to fulfil her behests. The Egyptians 
believed that if the best effect was to be produced by words of 
power they must be uttered in a certain tone of voice, and at a 
certain rate, and at a certain time of the day or night, with appro- 
priate gestures or ceremonies. In the Hymn to Osiris, of which 
a rendering has already been given (see p. 150), it is said that Isis 
was well skilled in the use of words of power, and it was by means 
of these that she restored her husband to life, and obtained from 
him an heir. It is not known what the words were which she 
uttered on this occasion, but she appears to have obtained them 
from Thoth, the " lord of divine words," and it was to him that 

1 See the translation of the Legend of Ra and Isis given in vol. i., p. 372 ff. 

The Goddess RENNUT. 



she appealed for help to restore Horus to life after he had been 
stung to death by a scorpion. 

In the Theban Recension of the Booh of the Dead is found a 
Chapter (No. clvi.) which was composed for the purpose of bestow- 
ing upon the deceased some of the magical power of the o-oddess. 
The Chapter was intended to be recited over an amulet called thet 
I ^ O » made of carnelian, which had to be steeped in water of 
dnkhami flowers, and set in a 
sycamore plinth, and if this 
were laid on the neck of a dead 
person it would place him under 
the protection of the words of 
power of Isis, and he would 
be able to go wheresoever he 
pleased in the Underworld. The 
words of the Chapter were :— 

"Let the blood (™™^ij of 

"Isis, and the magical powers 

" (%* ®\l\ or s P irits ) of 
" Isis, and the words of power 

"(if ., ') °f ^- s ^ s ' ^ e m i& n ty 
"to protect and keep safely 
" this great god (i.e., the 
" deceased), and to guard him 
" from him that would do unto 
" him anything which he abomi- 
" nateth." 

The symbol of Isis in the heavens was the star Sept, A*, 
which was greatly beloved because its appearance marked not only 
the beginning of a new year, but also announced the advance of 
the Inundation of the Nile, which betokened renewed wealth and 
prosperity of the country. As such Isis was regarded as 
the companion of Osiris, whose soul dwelt in the star Sah, 

|q] ^^ ? li * jjj, i.e., Orion, and she was held to have brought 

Rennufr, lady of Aat. 


about the destruction of the fiend Apep, ^ Wi, and of his hosts 
of darkness by means of the might of her words of power. As the 
light-giver at this season of the year she was called Khut, 
® J| ^ J) , as the mighty earth-goddess her name was Usert, 

1 P ^^ $ ' as the Great Goddess of the Underworld she was 
Thenenet, e^^, as the power which shot forth the Nile 
flood she was Sati, ^ J, and Sept, as the embracer of the land 
and producer of fertility by her waters she was Anqet, ^ ^ $ > 

_ Q /WW\A ff\ 

as the producer and giver of life she was Ankhet, ^ m q ^ ^ , as 
the goddess of cultivated lands and fields she was Sekhet, y J^ || , 
as the goddess of the harvest she was Renenet, ^^ ^ 11 , as the 

° /www VJ vU V. 

goddess of food which was offered to the gods she was Tcheft, w| ^J , 
and lived in the Temple of Tchefau, Q^ ^T|'^ ( ^' and as 
the great lady of the Underworld, who assisted in transforming the 
bodies of the blessed dead into those wherein they were to live in 

the realm of Osiris, her name was Ament, (J ^ J) , i.e., the 

1 A/WW\ \J ill 

" hidden " goddess. In this last capacity she shared with Osiris 

the attribute of " giver of life," and she provided food for the dead 

as well as for the living ; as Ament also she was declared to be the 

mother of Ra. In fact, at a comparatively early period in Egyptian 

history Isis had absorbed the attributes of all the great primitive 

goddesses, and of all the local goddesses such as Nekhebet, Uatchet, 

Net, Bast, Hathor, etc., and she was even identified as the female 

counterpart of the primeval abyss of water from which sprang all 

life. From what has been said above it is manifestly impossible to 

limit the attributes of Isis, for we have seen that she possesses the 

powers of a water goddess, an earth goddess, a corn goddess, a 

star goddess, a queen of the Underworld, and a woman, and that 

she united in herself one or more of the attributes of all the 

goddesses of Egypt known to us. 

From the works of classical writers we know that her worship 
spread from Egypt into several places in Western Europe, and 


she was identified with Persephone, Tethys, Athene, etc., just as 
Osiris was identified with Hades or Pluto, Dionysos-Bacchus, and 
other foreign gods. According to Herr August Mau, 1 various 
causes contributed to the rapid extension of the cult of Isis and 
Serapis. " The worship of Isis, associated with Mysteries from an 
" early period, was reorganized by the first Ptolemy with the help 
" of Manetho an Egyptian priest, and Timotheus, a Greek skilled 
"in the Eleusinian Mysteries .... It had the charm of some- 
" thing foreign and full of mystery. Its doctrine, supported by 
" the prestige of immemorial antiquity, successfully opposed the 
" mutually destructive opinions of the philosophers, while at the 
" same time its conception of deity was by no means inconsistent 
" with philosophic thought ; and it brought to the initiated that 
" expectation of a future life to which the Eleusinian Mysteries 
"owed their attractive power. The ascetic side of the worship 
" too, with its fastings and abstinence from the pleasures of sense, 
" that the soul might lose itself in the mystical contemplation of 
" deity, had a fascination for natures that were religiously suscep- 
" tible ; and the celebration of the Mysteries, the representation of 
" the myth of Isis in pantomime with a musical accompaniment, 
" appealed powerfully to the imagination." A college of the 
servants of Isis, who were called Pastophori, was founded in Rome 
in the time of Sulla, about B.C. 80 (Apuleius, Met. xi.), but after a 
very few years the worship of Isis was proscribed by the authorities, 
and the temples of the goddess were pulled down in the years 
58, 53, 50, and 48. In B.C. 43, however, the triumvirs, seeing 
that it was the only way to win the affections of the people, built 
temples in honour of Isis and Serapis, and publicly sanctioned 
their worship, and in a short time several temples of these gods 
were in existence outside the city ; all these were under the 
control of the Government, which had frequently to be exercised 
in a vigorous fashion on account of the orgies and debaucheries 
which took place in connexion with the celebration of the festivals 
of Isis. From the time of Vespasian, however, the worship of Isis 
and Serapis grew and flourished until the general introduction of 

1 Pompeii, its Life and Art, London, 1899, p. 162. 


Christianity, and the festival of these gods was recognized in the 
public Calendar. 

The chief temple of Isis in Rome stood in the Campus Martius, 
where the goddess was called "Isis Campensis"; and an inscription 
of the year 105 B.C. found at Puteoli proves that a temple of 
Serapis was then standing in that city. 1 The important temple of 
Isis at Pompeii appears to have been built soon after this date, 
and an inscription over the door states that it was rebuilt by 
Numerius Popidius Celsinus after the earthquake (that of the 
year 63). It has architecturally nothing suggestive of the Egyp- 
tian style, yet the plan presents a marked deviation from ordinary 
types. In his Eleventh Book Apuleius gives a very interesting 
description of the manner in which Isis was worshipped in Rome in 
the latter half of the second century a.d., and adds some curious 
details about the attributes of the goddess herself. Thus in his prayer 
to her he calls her "queen of heaven," regina coeli, 2 and he identifies 
her with Ceres, and Venus, and Proserpine, and refers to her in 
her capacity as goddess of wheat and crops. At daybreak on the 
day of the festival of the goddess the priest went into her temple, 
and threw open the doors, leaving nothing but white linen curtains 
across the doorway to screen the interior. When the courts were 
filled with people, these curtains were drawn, and the worshippers 
were permitted to gaze upon the image of the goddess ; to it at 
once the people began to pray, and the women rattled their sistra, 
and the prayers were followed by an interval, during which the 
devout crowd engaged in silent prayer and contemplation of the 
goddess. About one hour after daybreak, i.e., when the sun had 
risen, the multitude sang a hymn to the newly risen god, and then 
departed to their homes. In the afternoon another service was 
held, at which sistra were shaken, and sacrifices were offered up, 
and incense was burnt, and an elaborate ceremony in connexion 
with the use of a vessel of holy Nile water was performed. 

The holiest of all the sanctuaries of Isis known to the Greeks 
was that at Tithorea, and Pausanias tells us 3 that festivals were 

"^37 D <=> 
1 Mau, op. cit., p. 163. 2 The Egyptian 

3 Book x., chap, xxxii., § 9 (J. G. Frazer's translation). 


held there in honour of the goddess twice a year, one in sprino- 
and one in autumn. He says, " Two days before each festival the 
" persons who are free to enter the shrine clean it out in a certain 
" secret way ; and whatever remains they find of the sacrificial 
" victims which were cast in at the previous festival, they always 
" carry them to the same spot and bury them there. The distance 
" of this spot from the shrine we judged to be two furlongs. That 
" is what they do to the sanctuary on this day. On the next day 
" the hucksters set up booths of reeds and other improvised 
" material ; and on the last of the three days they hold a fair for 
" the sale of slaves and all kinds of cattle, also garments, and silver 
" and gold. After noon they betake themselves to sacrificing. 
" The richer people sacrifice oxen and deer, the poorer folk 
" sacrifice geese and guinea fowl. But it is against the custom to 
",use swine, sheep, and goats for this sacrifice. Those whose (duty 
" it is) to burn the victims, and bring them into the shrine .... 
" must wrap the victims in bandages of linen, either common linen 
" or fine linen ; the mode of dressing them is the Egyptian. All 
" the animals sacrificed are led in procession ; some convey the 
" victims into the shrine, others burn the booths in front of it and 
" depart in haste. They say that once upon a time, when the pyre 
" began to burn, a profane fellow who had no right to go down 
" into the shrine rashly entered it out of curiosity. The whole 
" place seemed to him full of spectres ; and scarcely had he 
" returned to Tithorea and told what he had beheld when he gave 
" up the ghost. I have heard a like story from a Phoenician man. 
" He said that the Egyptians hold the festival of Isis at the time 
" when they say she is mourning for Osiris. At that time the Nile 
" begins to rise, and it is a common saying among the natives that 
"it is the tears of Isis that cause the river to rise and water the 
" fields. Well, then, my informant said that at that season the 
" Roman governor of Egypt bribed a man to go down to the 
" shrine of Isis at Coptos. The man who was thus sent in returned 
" from the shrine ; but after he had told us all that he had beheld, 
" he, too, I was informed, immediately expired. Thus it appears to 
" be a true saying of Homer's that it is ill for mankind to see the 
" gods in bodily shape." 


Among the various peoples by whom Isis is venerated must 
be mentioned those of Syria, who identified her with certain of 
their local goddesses, and it is clear that the early Christians 
bestowed some of her attributes upon the Virgin Mary. There 
is little doubt that in her character of the loving and protecting 
mother she appealed strongly to the imagination of all the Eastern 
peoples among whom her cult came, and that the pictures and 
sculptures wherein she is represented in the act of suckling her 
child Horus formed the foundation for the Christian figures and 
paintings of the Madonna and Child. Several of the incidents of 
the wanderings of the Virgin with the Child in Egypt as recorded in 
the Apocryphal Gospels reflect scenes in the life of Isis as described 
in the texts found on the Metternich Stele, and many of the 
attributes of Isis, the God-mother, the mother of Horus, and of 
Neith, the goddess of Sais, are identical with those of Mary the 
Mother of Christ. The writers of the Apocryphal Gospels intended 
to pay additional honour to Mary the Virgin by ascribing to her 
the attributes which up to the time of the advent of Christianity 
they had regarded as the peculiar property of Isis and Neith and 
other great indigenous goddesses, and if the parallels between the 
mythological history of Isis and Horus and the history of Mary 
and the Child be considered, it is difficult to see how they could 
possibly avoid perceiving in the teaching of Christianity reflections 
of the best and most spiritual doctrines of the Egyptian religion. 
The doctrine of partheno-genesis was well known in Egypt in 
connexion with the goddess Neith of Sais centuries before the 
birth of Christ ; and the belief in the conception of Horus by Isis 
through the power given her by Thoth, the Intelligence or Mind 
of the God of the universe, and in the resurrection of the body 
and of everlasting life, is coeval with the beginnings of history 
in Egypt. We may note too in passing the probability that many 
of the heresies of the early Christian Church in Egypt were caused 
by the survival of ideas and beliefs connected with the old native 
gods which the converts to Christianity wished to adapt to their 
new creed. Be this, however, as it may, the knowledge of the 
ancient Egyptian religion which we now possess fully justifies the 
assertions that the rapid growth and progress of Christianity in 


The Goddess MENQET 


Egypt were due mainly to the fact that the new religion, which 
was preached there by Saint Mark and his immediate followers, in 
all its essentials so closely resembled that which was the outcome 
of the worship of Osiris, Isis, and Horus that popular opposition was 
entirely disarmed. In certain places in the south of Egypt, e.g., 
Philae, the worship of Osiris and Isis maintained its own until the 
beginning of the fifth century of our era, though this was in reality 
due to the support which it received from the Nubians, but 
speaking generally, at this period in all other parts of Egypt Mary 
the Virgin and Christ had taken the^'places of Isis and Horus, and the 
" God-mother," or " mother of the god," V\ , was no longer Isis, 
but Mary whom the Monophysites styled ©eoro/co?. 

( 222 ) 


48. Q 

nuk Ast 
I am Isis. 


I came forth 

em wa d£ 

from the house 

placed me 



send-d Set er-s as tchet-nd Tehuti ur 

my brother Set in it. Behold, said to me Thoth, the great one, 

i i 

her tep Madt em pet ta 

chief of Maat in heaven and earth, 




i: J 






hher pu setem 



thou Isis, 

goddess, good (it is) to possess obedience ; life (is to the) one (who is) 



(by) another. 


*8 m V • so. 

,£3 <^> — £j /www 

seteka ert hher sa nelchen 

Hide thyself with the son child, 

m - / enen hdu-f rut pehpeh-f neb 

will happen these things, his limbs (will) grow, he will grow 

strong wholly, 

1 See Golenischeff, Die Metternicltstele, Leipzig, 1877, pi. 3, 1. 48, ff. 


— 9 S * ^ T° 

U o q U K-«=_ I ^ g — 

Mep tat hetep-f her 7iest tef - f netchet-nef 

and he shall be upon the throne of his father, he will obtain 
made to rest 

« ? =^= LTZD ^zz* <§> ^ r a, 

dat heq taui per-hid her trdt en 

the dignity of prince of the two I came forth at the season of 


mesher pert matet vii. Me?*i /i<7£-(i mad-sen 

evening, and came seven scorpions before me, they continued 

AJL — — — LI /wsaaa ^£J /www. ti \ J 

Tia « jTe/<m Befen ha-d sep sen Mestet 

with me at Tefen and Befen were behind me, twice, Mestet and 
my side. 

- j>^a a«p r:^ °>3P 

Mestetef kher mdt-d Petet Thetet Mnatet 

Mestetef were near me, and Petet, and Thetet, and Maatet 

her tcheser-nd uat hen-d en sen ur sep sen 

showed to me the way. I cried out to them loudly, loudly, 

\M K^ k f»rr, k T ^k 

met-d sehhep em diikhui-sen em rehh setem 

my word entered into their ears, as in (those of) a obedience 

wise man : 



ushet tesher em sa sa 

is praiseworthy, disobedience (is) as the mark of the son 




sa er netches 


I I I I 




em kher her 



of a man of low estate, " Let your bent down on the way." 

faces be 


8^8 — 

J& 53. 

i i 


ot sem heh-nud er 

The leader of the brought me to 





pe/i % (sic) 
the swamps 

— g) 

o I 


of Pasui, 


the city of the two Sandal- at the beginning of the Papyrus 
goddesses Swamps. 







Having arrived at Teb I came forth to the houses of the women 




hai an teka - nud shejps em ua 

of the governor. Had seen me the chief woman on the march, 

r 54. ^ inmnr n 

i i 



■"""""l ^g, 


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an-nes aaiu-s lier-a mens her-dh en 

she closed her doors upon me, she was angry in her heart at 

id T 


ewie£ er hen-d netchsen re hers ertdsen 

those who were with me. They decreed about it (and) they placed 


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1 III 



® 1 



metusen en sep her tep set en Tefen un-nd 

their poison all at one time on the tail of Tefen. Opened to 




SM5 hM V 

(1 55. [[)" 


- a •=* I I 1 "■ LI'J %* 

tah sba-s dq-tu er pas senen 

a poor woman her door, (I) entered into her house. Cunningly 



A Q <==> 

Tefen dqet Icher aaiu en 

Tefen entered under the leaves of the door, 







smote she 





o Q o (2 | q 

sa usert Ichet pertu em pa usert 

the son of the noble fire broke out in the house of the noble 
lady, lady, 



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dw ww mi* am er dhhems an pet hi 

not was water there to quench it, not did heaven let fall 






i i i 

mu-s em pa usert an trdt dru 

its rain in the house of the lady, not being it the season thereof. 





as pit 
And behold, 

terns un-nd 

she who had not 
opened to me, 

t 1 \ 

her heart 

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ant er 
(was) sad 

an relch 




nuts em 


not knowing if he lived. She went round her city with lamentation, 



If 1 ?| 1 


dw ww i e/i hherus db-d ant en slier 

not came [any] at her call. My heart was sad about the child 
II — Q 


hers er sednJch shu em bet - f nds-d 

for her sake, (I wished) to (him that was) without I cried out 
revive fault. 

-*- i tM i * n ii CM ^ i <=> 1 

wes her mad nd sep sen mak ret-d hher dnkh 

to her, Come to me, twice. A charm is my word having life. 



nuh satet rekht em nuts ter bethet 

I am a daughter known in her city, who driveth away evil 

, — ® 

em tep-res sba-nud dtf-d er relch nuh 

by her utterance. Taught me my father to know. I am 

Q Q _, _ Ki ■ = " 

58. > 1 ^=^ £| AAAAAA H 


H - 1 

O - — fl I 

satet-f mer Jchat-f uah en Ast ddids her 

the daughter beloved of his body. Laid Isis her hands upon 

neJchen er sednJch entet em ha dhet met 

the child to vivify that of which had closed the throat. poison 

AAAAAA V _C]°\i 1 -/J <-_> | | S AAAAAA ' -A ^ AAAAAA _<d ^ 

Te/ew. mddt per her ta an sliaset an dqet 

of Tefen, come, appear on the earth, not advance, not enter in. 

met Befent mddt per her ta nuh Ast 

poison of Befent, come, appear on the earth. I am Isis 










heka hhu 

the goddess, lady of words of worker with words of mighty- 
power, power, 


tchet kheru setem-nd re neb 




hhert er kher 

in utterance of Hearken mouth (which) biteth, fall downwards, 
speech. to me, every 

r c =i3)f 

met en Mestet an sekheset met en Mestetef 

Poison of Mestet, not advance, poison of Mestetef 

an theset met 

not rise up. Poison 


zl ^ 


Petet Thetet an dqet 

Petet and Thetet not enter. 


^ & 


If 1 

Motet kher kher re en pehes tchet en 

Maatet fall down. Chapter of stinging (which) spake 

h M s iv : m 

Ast netert urt heka khent neteru 

Isis, the goddess, the great one of words of power, head of the gods. 

r c =T5l 

Had given to her Seb 

$e?> M?i - / er khesef met em 

his powers to repulse poison from 









her form (?), 'repulsing, turning driving away poison 

away, back, back, 





k 62 - 






nehep er pet em tchet Ra-mer suht 

the dawn saying, " Ra-mer, the Egg of the Goose cometh 


1 — ra< 

em nehet 

from the sycamore. 


mdku metet-s hentu 

A protection (are) her words spoken 


I I I 

B 63. <=> 

tcher ukh tchet-d en ten tu-a em ua 

at the season of evening. I speak to you. lam in loneliness 

11 T 

tu-d em 



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seshen ur 

g^ff q 


i i i 




and in sorrow greater than (that of) throughout the nomes, 

the people 







nek (?) qemu sliet qem 

(and I am) as a man feeble who hath to seek out and to look 


cr=] i 




her td 

O i 



em pau-sen hrd-ten em kher 

in their houses. Your face[s] downwards, 



i i i 




em Khebet 

to make a way to the swamps, to the hidden in Khebet." 



a <m&/a nekhen mit met dnkh Rd - mi£ 

liveth the boy, dieth the poison ; liveth Ra, dieth 


p=af ^^ I 1 w J 66 ' ^ "^ :&_ Jo 

me^ /fca sm'6 Sena e^ mut-f Ast 

the poison. Verily, healthy be Horus for his mother Isis. 

*<?i r\ /VWW\ n /vww\ m rv _ — . 

— k p \\ j .xv <^> >- e: to, 

/jo. sm'6 e?i£i 7c/ier metes mdtet hhet 

Verily, healthy be he who is under the knife also. The fire 



t=i 67. <$> ® /www rl^ 

dhhem-tu pet hetepet her tep re en Ast 

is extinguished, heaven is content at the utterance of Isis, 

% k h ji — va ;~ 

netert usert it dn-s-nd khet-s 

the goddess. The lady (who) came, (she who) had shut her house, 

on me 



ArM i D 

meh-nes pa en tah en ha en tah 

she seized the house of the poor woman because the poor woman 

68. <=^— | & 

-mnmr m " I O I ^5^> 

er im - ?i& sa - s er ?iser£ /ier mew. 

had opened to me her door. Wherefore the lady was in pain 

*T> «*- ^ Jj ™ T ^69. fa 

shenen em Jcerh ud tep - nes re-s peshu, 

and sorrow during night one, she tasted her speech. Was stung 

sa-s dn-s khet-s em dsu en terns un-nd 

her son, was closed her house in return for her not having opened 
for her to me. 


If ? V A^ -i PTJ 

a tinkh nekhen mil met lea senib 

liveth the child, dieth the poison. Verily shall be sound 

Horus through his mother Isis. Verily shall be sound he who is 



&^ S o I in 

/c/ier metes neb mdtet an ta en beti 

under the knife everyone likewise. Shall not bread of barley 

- a /"* 71. V fl l| § = I m 

< > /"' ii) -/J I /wwv\ A aaaaaa Q. IT] 

£e?* -/ mei hems an hemen hdu heh en 

drive out poison ? It shall return all the limbs the flame of 


m <=>^ J 'A t= Im — Jlo ® ii 

hetchet ter - / we5 em Ami e?& J.s£ s<?p sen 

hetchet and drive out the fire from the members Isis. Twice. 

A AAAAAA <£\ <- — --> n <- — ~> . f\ l\ 

A 72. C\ <=* 3 <=>-«_ " = fl-^ 


mdd-t net Heru relch re-s mdd-t en 

Come thou to Horus. Thou whose mouth come thou to 

is wise 

Ii IV m - >* El 

sa-t a an neteru em mer - s ma 

thy son. " Hail," say the gods in her neighbourhood, like 

73. ^j^™ it^ ^r^^r 

a o 

entet tcheteb nes Tchart behd-nes 

one whom has stung the scorpion Tchart, whom hath pierced 






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Beh at, whom hath put to Antesh. 


per Asb em 

Appeared Isis as 





one who was in 

her body. 

mdk-d sep sen sa-d 

I vill protect, twice, my son 


<Z^3 — "— ^ \\ 

pet-nes ddui-s 

She stretched out her arms, 



em sent sep sen 
Fear not, twice, 

sa khut-d an hheper Jchet neb tit erelc 

son, my glory. Not shall happen thing any evil unto thee. 










Seed is in thee for making 

A <=> 



things which Thou art the son 
are to be. 

her-db Mesqet per em Mil an mit-h em 

within Mesqet, proceeding from Nu, not shalt thou die by 


J/wvwn — 9^=r 

ta na met entek Bennu da mes 

the flame of the poison. Thou art the Bennu Great born 

her tep 



I, G 


em Het-ser 

the House 
the Prince 

wr em Annu ruffle 

on the incense trees in the House of great in Annu. Thou art 



78. 4H 




send en Abt ser klieper mentit 

the brother of the Abt Fish, the disposer ofwhatistobe, nursed 






nu mdut em then en Ret Net Bert Eat 

by the cat within the House of Net. Rert, and Hat, 




Pes em sa en hdu-k an Jcher tep-k en 

and Bes, protect thy limbs. Not shall fall thy head before 

x J% 





him that is 

to thee. 

an shep hdu-k tai 

Not shall conquer thy limbs the fire 

f=3i ^ 

a (£ 





en metu-k an hen-k her ta an 

of thy poison. Not shalt thou fall on the ground, not 






khas-k her mu an sekhem re neb 

shalt thou be in on water. Not shall have the reptile any 
peril mastery 


over thee. 




shall crush thee 





sekhemet dm-k entek sa neter tchesert 

(or) be master over thee. Thou art the son of a god holy 




per em Seb entek Heru an sekhem 

proceeding from Seb. Thou art Horus, not shall have the 


oaf = &m^ ^* ^ Ifl < = > 

mefw em hdu-k entek sa neter tchesert 

the poison in thy limbs. Thou art the son of a god holy 

per em Seb pa entet kher tern mdtet 

proceeding from Seb. (With him) under the knife likewise (is it). 

that is 

IV,: N-ar,* =—v n^;— 

aw iv. shepset em sa en hdu-k 
The four holy goddesses protect thy limbs 

unk Ast duur-th em tcha-s baka-th em Heru 

I am Isis, who conceived her male and was with Horus. 

child, heavy 

1. i sS ^ ° m 0n ® — 

we£er£ mes-nd Heru sa Asdr em khen sesh en 

A goddess I bore Horus, son of Osiris, within a nest of 

_A~y<?_ ^ ® ? 169. ->T 

d/e/t hdd-nd her-s ur sep sen her maa-nd 

papyrus I rejoiced over it greatly, twice, because I saw (in him) 

usheb her dt-f dmen-d su setek-d su 

one who would answer for his father. I hid him, I concealed him 


a «* ~o*- «>i3 Ik® -fllll 

Mer se«tf netep-f shema-d dm tud 

having fear of his being I went to the city Am, (the people) saluted 

em sewi an ... . ursh-d • feer /&e/& nekhen 

according to custom. I spent the time in seeking for the boy 

her dri kher -f hem net er sekhen Heru qem-nd 
to make his food. I returned to embrace Horus, I found 

} % I 17 °- """• <**> f 1 f 1 !^ 

su Heru nefer en nub nekhen suk 

him, Horus, the beautiful one of gold, the boy, the child, 


t= ^ AAAAAA \^\?\^ AAAAAA 

^r — > AAAAAA *$ «g» AAAAAA 

a£e£ -/ netef-nef taiu em mu nu 

he was nothing. He had bedewed the ground with the water of 

AA. AAAAAA ±3 Q ^^ ^^ «, ^^^ « 

maat-f em netet nu septi-f tchet-f urt 

his eye, and with the foam of his lips ; his body was motionless, 

I Sn -^ /?& o ©I i ilw 1 Sit 

db-f betesh an pa metu nu hdu-f utu-nd 

his heart still, not moved the muscles of his body. I sent forth 

t-it m.-i-i V^f ^rr, *3 

£a& /&er amw aie/i rer-sen nd 

a cry The dwellers in the swamp they came round me 









her a 





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e?)i pan-sen 

at once, came to me the fenmen from their houses, 

AAAAAA AVWNA rfTX II 61 -fl 71/3(1 f\ <T 5» 

r-im^ 179.^ I J) ^^^0 ■ fl 

|X1 Q VU AAAAAA Q | fl JJJ j^ ^ Hi) I Sill 

nehep - se?*, «,d ^-er JcJieru-d akeb - sen dru 

they drew nigh to me at my call, they wept, even they, 

fg ^ 18 Q. _^ J^ J p 


/ier wm men-d an un s em re -f 

at the greatness of my misery. There was none who his mouth 


dm er sa neb dm-sen her dun sep sen an un relch 

there, man every among them grieved greatly. There was none 


am er sednkh iu-nd set rekht 

there to make to live (Horus). Came to me a woman well known 

em ?m£-s erpei 7c7&e?i£ ww-s iu-s 

in her city, a lady at the head of her district. She came 

wa er se-ker dnkh meh db-s dteru her khet - s 

to me to restore life, her heart was filled with her affairs 

V & 184 - T J^i 

em sent sep sen sa Heru em betesh 

according to wont. Twice. The son Horus (was) in inactivity. 


f\yX/1 /WWVA II ^ 

© 1 

II I Jfcd JT' A 

sep sen neter mut neklien baq er tu en sen - f 

Twice. The son of the mother safe from the evil of his brother, 
of the god was 

185 - J"k^ "He ~*-7l T % 

ba dmen-tu an dq em hhefti 

The plants were hidden, not could enter there an enemy 

e r-es heka en Tern tef neteru 

into them. The word of power of Tern father of the gods, 

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186. *= *=* c=z <a>- ■¥•- -jl. - 

ew& em pet em dri dnkhet an dq 

who is in heaven, was as the maker of life, not entered 

I Effll _Zl _£l AAA/WN <^> 2: V^— .fid! Hi 

Set er uu yen an rer-nef Kheb 

Set into region this. not could he go about Kheb. 

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W^ j o 1 /wwv\ ' <£-i I 

IZerit baq er tu en send-f an tekhen-s 

Horus was smitten by the wickedness of his brother. Not had she 


il Ml 188 --- M ^ ? W 

<x??m s/imt - / heh sep hru enen 

those who were in his service many time[s] a day. These (said) 

<f*_ f ^ — ^^(1 T 189- 

/&er-/ #?iM JTer?^ en mut-f s em un-eref 

concerning "Shall Horus for his mother?" they found where he 
him, live was, 


r~~> _ (Pb " > - fl -TV I 0>L WVA^AA 

tchart her tchetem - f dun-db her Ichun - / 

and a Scorpion stung him, and the slayer hath stabbed him. 

of the heart 

d /W*MA 

<=> £3 _ <=> <Q> 

ertd en Ast fent-s em re-f her rekh set dru 

Placed Isis her nose in his mouth to know if had breath 

191 ^ "VWVA P^ *^ XJ ^^ 8^ O ^^ 

' LZZ2 Bl d x ^- i — g 

em Mew en sheta -f dp - s men nu dudd 

he who was in his coffin. She opened the wound of the heir 

1«|» ^-192. ffl 7»^ ()fl \^0 

netert qem-nes hher met sekhen-s asta 

divine, she found it possessing poison. She embraced him hurriedly 

9 a a ffl _ n ^j j_j 193 § ._ in 

her 'peiyer hher -f md remu Jehad her tchd 

and leaped about with him like a fish laid upon a fire 

(saying,) Stung is Horus, Ra, stung is thy son. Stung is 

Heru ad en du neb en Shu 

Horus, heir of heir, lord of the [pillars ?] of Shu. 

pesh Hern hun en Athet nelchen em 

Stung is Horus, the child of the papyrus the child in 




196. jS) T *~w* (%^) QQQ 

Het-ser pesh nekhen nefer en nub nu 

Het-ser. Stung is the child beautiful of gold. The child, 

sw& a£e£ -/ £>es/z/ Sent sa JJn-nefer 

the babe, he is nothing. Stung is Horus, son of Un-nefer. 

m ere/ Nebt-het her rem tdau-s rer 

Then came Nephthys weeping, she cried, going about 

dateh Serq her petrd sep sen nimd trd 

the swamp, and Serqet (who said), What, twice, what then is 

er sa Heru Ast tua ert er pet 

to the child Horus, Isis ? pray thou therefore to heaven 


! Cv 



hheper aha qeti Bd dn nd uda 

so that may a stop to the sailors of Ra, not will travel the boat 

AAAAAA "^ <CZ> V\ JlKJ'O, X 

en Bd er sa Heru her hes-f utu 

of Ra from the son Horus from where he is. Sent forth 


io n - - -ji 

Ast Jiheru-s er jpet sebeh-s er uda en 

Isis her cry to heaven, her prayer (was) to Boat of 

n • 207. o 

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AMAAA / H— _ fl 


hell seJchen dten em aq-s an menmen-f 

Millions of Stood still the disk at her coming, not moved he 

? I- 44 2 T 208 -#- 

her dst-f Tehuti iu djper em peh - f 

on his seat. Tboth came provided with his magic power, 

m *tk ~ a □ 

v ~~** an ® ii ni 

I'her utu dat en maakheru peter sep sen Ast 

possessing command great of mad-kheru. What, twice, Isis, 

1 ° % # 209. 


netert hhut rekh re - s an tu 

goddess, mighty one, understanding (with) her mouth, not evil 

as er sa Hern sa-f en uda 

behold shall be to the son Horus, his protection is from the boat 



en Bd i-nd man em tejpt dten 

of Ra. I have come to-day in the boat of the disk 


*= J 

em dst -f en sef hek hlieper 

from its place of yesterday. When the night cometh 

*^_ zwwvv *^ 211. ^~^ c= y^ • n 

P J 

seshep ter er senb Heru en mut - f 

the light driveth (it) away to heal Horus for his mother 

I ^ H AWWV A ^ 

212. h ^37 /i\ ^ y 

J.s£ sa %e& e«£ Mer maten mdtet 

Isis (and) person every who is under the knife likewise. 

( 241 ) 


SET, the Xr\B of Plutarch, and the god who was identified 
with Typhon in late times, was, according to the Helio- 
politan system of mythology, the son of Seb and Nut, the brother 
of Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys, the husband of Nephthys, and the 
father of Anubis ; the worship of the god is, however, very much 
older than this system, and in primitive times the attributes of the 
god were very different from those which are usually ascribed to 
him in the late dynastic period. In the Pyramid Texts we find 
Set associated very closely with Horus, and he always appears in 
them in the character of a god who is a friend and helper of the 
dead. It will be remembered that according to one myth the floor 
of heaven was made of a vast, rectangular plate of iron, the four 
corners of which rested upon four pillars which served to mark the 
cardinal points. At certain places this iron plate was thought to 
be so near the tops of the mountains that the deceased might easily 
clamber on to it and so obtain admission into heaven, but at others 
the distance between it and the earth was so great that he needed 
help to reach it. A legend current in early times asserted that 
Osiris experienced some difficulty in getting on to the iron plate, 
and that he only succeeded in doing so by means of a ladder with 
which Ra provided him. Even then Osiris appears to have found 
some difficulty in mounting the ladder, and he was finally helped 
to ascend it by Heru-ur and Set, who were twin gods. Thus in 
the text of Pepi I. (line 192), the deceased is made to say, " Homage 
" to thee, divine Ladder ! Homage to thee, Ladder of Set ! 
" Stand thou upright, divine Ladder ! Stand thou upright, 



" Ladder of Set ! Stand thou upright, Ladder of Horus, whereby 
" Osiris came forth into heaven." In the text of Unas (line 
493) it is said, "Unas cometh forth upon the Ladder which his 
"father Ra hath made for him, and Horus and Set take the hand 
" of Unas, and they lead him into the Tuat." x On the other hand, 
in another passage Ra and Horus are said to set up the Ladder for 
Osiris (line 579 ff.), but even so when the dead king " standeth up 
"he is Horus, and when he sitteth down he is Set." 

The association of Set with Horus in these and many other 
passages well illustrates the antiquity of the cult of Set, and helps 
us to understand his attributes. Here we find him regarded as the 
equal in every respect of Heru-ur, i.e., " Horus the Elder," who 
was admittedly one of the oldest gods in Egypt, and it was 
considered necessary for the welfare of the deceased that Set should 
be propitiated, and his favour secured. From other passages, 
however, it is clear that there existed opposition and hostility 
between Heru-ur and Set, and that the destruction of one god by 
the other was only prevented by Thoth, who in his capacity as 
regulator of the strife which existed between the two gods, was 

called Ap-kehu, \J <=> | % , or Ap-rehui, \/ | ^ \\ , or 
\f <==> | \\ ^\ J\J\, i.e., "Judge of the two opponent gods," and 
thus it is clear that even in the period of the Early Empire Set 
was regarded both as the enemy of Heru-ur and as a god who 
could be of service to the dead in the Underworld, and who if he 
were not a friend to him would certainly be a foe. From the fact 
that Heru-ur and Set were thought to be always in opposition we 
are justified in assuming that the attributes of the former god 
were exactly contrary to those of the latter, and the assumption is 
supported by the evidence of the hieroglyphic texts. Heru-ur, as 
we have already seen, was the god of the sky by day, and Set was 
the god of the sky by night ; this fact is proved by the figures 

o ft <=> ^ s-j J^ — o — ( gj j r,] ^ P — \ \ <=> 

The dual God HORUS-SET. 


of the double god which are found in mythological scenes whereon 
the head of Heru-ur and the head of Set are seen upon one body. 
The attributes of Heru-ur changed somewhat in early dynastic 
times, but they were always the opposite of those of Set, whether 
we regard the two gods as personifications of two powers of nature, 
i.e., Light and Darkness, Day and Night, or as Kosmos and Chaos, 
or as Life and Death, or as Good and Evil. 

The signification of the name of Set is not easy to determine. 
Heru, or Horus, certainly means "he who is above," and by analogy 
the name Set ought to mean something like " he who is below ; " 
and in proof of this Dr. Brugsch calls attention ! to the well- 
known Coptic words, gp<M "above," and ecHT "below." The 

hieroglyphic form of the name Set, U, or , has for its 

determinative either a stone, ma (\ I ) , or the figure of an animal, 
'Vj , or Kj (y & \A , or Ho >£_j) ; the former of these indicates 

that the god was the personification of the stony or desert land and 
the regions of death, but the signification of the latter is not so 
easy to understand because the animal has not yet been identified. 
The pictures of the animal which was supposed to be the incarnation 
of Set represent it with a head something like that of a camel, 
with curious, pricked ears, and a straight tail, bifurcated at the 
end. In the absence of any facts on the subject we must assume 
that the animal which was the symbol of Set was one that prowled 
about by night in the deserts and in waste places of the towns and 
cities, and that his disposition was hostile to man, and wicked 
generally, and that owing to his evil reputation he was hunted and 
slain with such diligence that he became extinct in comparatively 
early times. 

The region in which the Set animal lived appears to have 
been situated in the South, and the god Set became, in consequence, 
the god of the South, just as Heru-ur became the god of the 
North, and as such he assisted at the coronation ceremonies of 
kings. Thus a relief 2 at Thebes represents Horus and Set standing 
one on each side of Seti L, and each god is pouring out a libation 

1 Beliijiou, p. 702. - Lanzoue, Dizionario, pi. 375. 


of " life " over the head of the king: ; and in another scene l Horus 
and Set are represented in the act of placing the double crown of 
the South and the North upon the head of Rameses II. Horus 
says to the king, " I will give thee a life like unto that of Ra, and 
years even as the years of Tern," and Set says, " I stablish the 

" crown upon thy head even like the Disk (\\ ' ) [on the head of] 

" Amen Ra, and I will give thee all life, and strength, and health ; " 
in his character of giver of life each god holds in his hand the 
notched palm branch, :P, symbol of " years," which rests upon a 
frog, *vN, and Q, the emblem of the Sun's path in the heavens 
and of eternity. In yet another scene 2 we find Set teaching 
Thothmes III. the use of the bow in connexion with the emblem of 
the goddess Neith, whilst Horus instructs him how to wield some 
weapon, which appears to be a staff. According to Dr. Brugsch, 3 
Set was the god of the downward motion of the sun in the lower 
hemisphere, in a southerly direction, and for this reason he was the 
source of the destructive heat of summer ; and since the days 
began to diminish after the summer solstice, it was declared that 
he stole the light from Horus or Ra, and he was held to be the 
cause of all the evil, both physical and moral, which resulted 
therefrom. The light which Thoth brought with the new moon 
was withdrawn by Set as soon as it was possible for him to obtain 
power over that luminary, and he was, naturally, thought to be the 
cause of clouds, mist, rain, thunder and lightning, hurricanes and 
storms, earthquakes and eclipses, and in short of every thing which 
tended to reverse the ordinary course of nature and of law and 
order. From a moral point of view he was the personification of 
sin and evil. 

The mythological and religious texts of all periods contain 
many allusions to the fight which Set waged against Horus, and 
more than one version of the narrative is known. In the first and 
simplest form the story merely records the natural opposition of 
Day to Night, or Night to Day, and the two Combatant gods were 
Heru-ur, or Horus the Elder, and Set. In its second form the 
two Combatant gods are Ra and Set, and the chief object of the 

1 Lanzone, Dizionario, pi. 374. 2 Ibid., pi. 376. 3 Religion, p. 703. 


latter is to prevent Ra from appearing in the East daily. The 
form which Set assumed on these occasions was that of a monster 
serpent, and he took with him as helpers a large number of 
small serpents and noxious creatures of various kinds. The name 

of the serpent was Apep, TTl ibM , or Afiapef, j\ a J^ J^_ , 

which is preserved in Coptic under the form <mt<juc|>, but he was also 

called Rerek, <=> |® j[_ , and since he was identified with a long 

series of serpent monsters he had as many names as Ra. The 
weapons with which Apep fought were cloud, mist, rain, darkness, 
etc., and Ra, his opponent, was armed with the burning and 
destroying heat of the sun, and the darts and spears of light. The 
result of the fight was always the same ; Apep was shrivelled and 
burnt up by Ra, but he was able to renew himself daily, and 
at the end of each night he collected his fiends, and waged war 
against Ra with unabated vigour. In the third form of the story 
the Combatant gods are Osiris and Set, and we have already seen 
how Set slew his brother and persecuted his widow and child, and 
how he escaped punishment because Osiris had, at the time of his 
death, none to avenge his cause. In the fourth form of the story 
the Combatant gods are Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, and Set, 
and the avowed intention of Horus is to slay him that slew his 
father Osiris. 

The two gods fought in the forms of men, and afterwards in 
the forms of bears, and Horus would certainly have killed Set, 
whom he had fettered, had not Isis taken pity upon her brother 
and loosed his bonds and set him free. The fight between Horus, 
son of Osiris and Isis, and Set, had a very important bearing on 
the destinies of the dead, for to it was attached the moral idea of 
the victory of Good over Evil, and the deceased was believed to 
conquer Set even as Osiris had done. Thus in the Book of the Dead 
(ix. 3), he says, " I have come, I have seen my divine father Osiris. 
" I have stabbed the heart of Suti " (i.e., Set) ; and from Chapter 
xviii.H 1 ff., we may see that although the fiends of Set changed 
themselves into wild beasts on the night of the breaking and 
turning up of the earth in Tattu, Osiris, by the help of Thoth, 
slew them, and mixed their blood with the sods. In Chapter 


xxiii. 2, we find the deceased praying that Thoth will come to him, 
and will by means of his words of power loose the bandages where- 
with Set has fettered his mouth ; and in Chapter xxxix. 15, we find 
him declaring that he is Set who " letteth loose the storm-clouds 
" and the thunder in the horizon of heaven, even as doth the god 

" Netcheb-ab-f, (^ J ^ ^ *— ) • Elsewhere (xl. 1 ff.) Apep is 

called both Hai, [Tl iL N\ ^ , ancl Am-aau, a ^ ^ ~ ^ 1^1 , 

i.e., the "Eater of the Ass," and he is declared to be a being 
abominable both to Osiris and to the god Haas, ^^ ^ , or 

^F lb^ ® Q P H 5 ^ ne -^ ss re f erre( l *° nere i s > °f course, Ra ; the 
Ass was regarded in one aspect as a solar animal because of his 
great virility. On the other hand, certain passages prove that 
even in the XVIIIth Dynasty Set was regarded as a god who was 
friendly towards the deceased, for we read (xvii. 131), "Tern hath 
" built thy house, Shu and Tefnut have founded thy habitation; lo ! 
"drugs are brought, and Horus purifieth and Set strengthened, 
" and Set purifieth and Horus strengthened." In the Chapter of 
the deification of members, the backbone of the deceased is identified 
with the backbone of Set (xlii. 12), and elsewhere the deceased 
says (I.b 2) " Suti and the company of the gods have joined together 
" my neck and my back strongly, and they are even as they were 
" in the time that is past ; may nothing happen to break them 
" apart." But in Chapter lxxxvi. 6, the deceased says, " Set, son 
of Nut, [lieth] under the fetters which he had made for me;" 
and elsewhere (cviii. 8), he is said "to depart, having the harpoon 
" of iron in him," and to have thrown up everything which he had 
eaten and to have been put in a place of restraint. 

A statement in Plutarch's Be hide et Osiride (§ 62), informs 
us that Typhon was called Seth, and Bebo, and Smy, " all of them 
" words of one common import, and expressing certain violent and 
" forcible restraint and withholding, as likewise contrariety and 
" subversion ; we are, moreover, informed by Manetho that the 
" load-stone is by the Egyptians called the ' bone of Horus,' as 
" iron is, the ' bone of Typho.' " This information is of con- 
siderable interest, for it makes the identity of Set and 


Typhon 1 certain, and it is, moreover, supported by the evidence of 

the inscriptions. The name Seth is, of course, Set, jj ; Bebo is 

the Egyptian J^^^^^Baba, and Smy is J^i)^, 
Smai, the well-known Egyptian name for Set as the Arch-Fiend. 
The associates of Set were called Smaiu, T lb. (10 i , and the 

determinative s — a, shows that the idea of " violence " was implied 
in the name. That iron was connected with Set or Typhon 
is quite clear from the passage quoted by Dr. Brugsch 2 in which 
Thoth is said to have obtained from Set the knife with which he 
cut up the bull. 

It has been said above that the serpent and the Set animal 
were the common symbols of Set, but instances are known in 
which he is represented in the form of a man, wearing a beard and 
a tail, and holding the usual symbols of divinity. In the example 
figured by Lanzone 3 the god is called "mighty-one of two-fold 
strength," <x=> f^f] ^— °, and is accompanied by Nephthys, who 
wears upon her head a pair of horns and a disk. Now, as Set was 
the personification of the powers of darkness, and of evil, and of 
the forces of the waters which were supposed to resist light and 
order, a number of beasts which dwelt in the waters, or at least 
partly on land and partly in the water, were regarded as symbols 
of him and as beings wherein he took up his habitation. Among 
these were the serpent Apep, the fabulous beast, Akhekh, T" 

which was a species of antelope with a bird's head surmounted by 
three uraei, and a pair of wings, the hippopotamus, the crocodile, 
the pig, the turtle, the ass, etc. These animals were, however, not 
the only ones which were regarded as types of Set, for as Dr. 
Brugsch has rightly observed, every creature which was snared or 
caught in the waters or hunted in the desert, was treated as an 
incarnation of Set ; and animals with red, or reddish-brown bail- 
or skins, and even red-haired men were supposed to be especially 

1 Tawfan, qUjId, or yVi^L, the Arabic word for "storm, deluge, inundation, 
whirlwind," etc., appears to be derived from the name Typhon. 

2 Religion, p. 707. 3 Dizionario, pi. 377. 


under the influence of Set. On the other hand, the animals which 
were used by man in the chase, i.e., dogs, cheetas, etc., and certain 
other animals, e.g., lions, cats, etc., were held to be sacred to the 
gods, and according to Plutarch (De hide, § 72), " the gods, 
" through a dread of Typho, metamorphosed themselves into these 
" animals, concealing themselves as it were from his purpose in 
" the bodies of ibises, dogs and hawks." The sacrifice of certain 
animals associated with Set played a prominent part in the ritual 
of the Egyptian religion, and at the seasons of the year when Set's 
influence was supposed to be the greatest earnest attempts were 
regularly made to propitiate him by means of offerings. 

Thus in order to drive away Set from attacking the full moon 
of the month Pachons an antelope was sacrificed, and a black pig 
was hacked in pieces upon an altar made of sand, which was built 
on the bank of the river. On the twenty-sixth day of the month 
Choiak, which was the time of the winter solstice, an ass was slain, 
and a model of the serpent-fiend was hewn in pieces. On the first 
day of Mesore, which was the day of the great festival of Heru 
Behutet, large numbers of birds and fish were caught, and those 
which were considered to be of a Typhonic character were stamped 
upon with the feet, and those who did this cried out, " Ye shall be 
" cut in pieces, and your members shall be hacked asunder, and each 
" of you shall consume the other ; thus doth Ra triumph over all his 
" enemies, and thus doth Heru-Behutet, the great god, the lord of 
" heaven, triumph over all his enemies." On such occasions, we learn 
from Plutarch {Be hide, § 63), sistra 1 were shaken in the temples, 
" for, say they, the sound of these Sistra averts and drives away 
" Typho ; meaning hereby, that as corruption clogs and puts a 

1 The sistrum is thus described by Plutarch : — " Now the outer surface of this 
" instrument is of a convex figure, as within its circumference are contained those 
" four chords or bars, which make such a rattling when they are shaken — nor is 
" this without its meaning ; for that part of the universe which is subject to 
" generation and corruption is contained within the sphere of the moon ; and 
" whatever motions or changes may happen therein, they are all effected by the 
" different combinations of the four elementary bodies, fire, earth, water, and air. 
" Moreover, upon the upper part of the convex surface of the sistrum is carved the 
" effigies of a Cat with a human visage, as on the lower edge of it, under those 
" moving chords, is engraved on the one side the face of Isis, and on the other that 
" of Nephthys," etc. 



" stop to the regular course of nature, so generation, by the means 
" of motion, loosens it again, and restores it to its former vigour." 

The kingdom of Set was supposed to be placed in the northern 
sky, and his abode was one of the stars which formed the constella- 
tion of Khepesh, a , -j), or the "Thigh," which has been 

identified with the Great Bear, and it was from this region that he 
made use of his baleful influence to thwart the beneficent designs 


of Osiris, whose abode was Sah or Orion, and of Isis, whose home 
was Sept, or Sothis. A little consideration will show that the 
northern sky was the natural domain of Set, for viewed from the 
standpoint of an Egyptian in Upper Egypt the north was rightly 
considered to be the place of darkness, cold, mist, and rain, each of 
which was an attribute of Set ; and we may note in passing that 
the Hebrews called the region of darkness, or the winter hemi- 
sphere, Sephon, a name which 
appears to be connected beyond 
a doubt with Saphon, "North." 
The chief opponent of Set was 
the hippopotamus goddess Reret, 

<=> jk ? who was believed to keep 

The seven stars of the Great Bear. 

this power of darkness securely 

fettered by a chain ; this goddess 

is usually represented with the arms and hands of a woman which 

are attached to the body of a hippopotamus, and in each she holds 

a knife. Her temple was called Het-Khaat, Q Q n . The 

duty of the goddess was to keep in restraint the evil influence of 
Set and to make clear a way in the sky for the birth of Heru-sma- 
taui, whom Dr. Brugsch identified with the spring sun ; the texts, 
however, make it clear that Reret was nothing but a form of Isis. 

From a passage in the Booh of the Dead (xvii. 89) we learn 
that Set was accompanied by the four children of Horus, Mestha, 
Hapi, Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf, who were said to be "behind 
the Thigh in the northern sky," and were believed to take part in 
curbing the evil deeds of Set. They may be identified with the 
four Af gods, ^ 9, rj) llll ? " who are the four gods of the Followers 


(/WWVA \ 

nn ^L-j ) , who is a mighty 

" warrior," and it was»their duty to be with the sailors of the Boat of 

Ra, that is to say, with the Akhemu-seku, (1 ® i — *— | ^T^ i , 

of the North, and with the four stars of the Meskheti, 

H ^ <\\ c^-, or Great Bear. In the text from which these 
details are quoted it is said definitely that the " Meskheti is the 
Thigh of Set," | ~J~ ^ c^ ° ™™ ^ * In early dynastic 

times it is tolerably certain that the worship of Set was wide- 
spread, and his cult seems to have nourished until the period which 
lies between the Xllth and the XVIIIth Dynasties ; but about 
B.C. 1700 a change came over his fortunes, and the Egyptians began 
to show the greatest detestation for him. He had, of course, 
always been connected with evil, but it appears that the popularity 
of his cult suffered greatly at this period because he was associated 
with the occupation of Northern Egypt by the Hyksos, who 
identified him with certain Semitic, Syrian gods. At Kom Ombo 
and in the south of Egypt a common name of Set was Nubti, 
r 55 ^ J ^ 3-J ■> or Set-Nubti, /! kl f^H J ^ © , and as such he is 
usually represented with one body and two heads, one being that 
of a hawk, and the other that of the remarkable animal which was 
the symbol of the god. 2 In the North and South of Egypt Set was 

called both Nubti and Sutekh, 1 % J ^ > °r ^^^ ^ ' ancl 
there is no doubt whatsoever that he was endowed by the peoples 
in the Delta with all the attributes of the Semitic god Baal, 
b#3, whose name appears in Egyptian under the form Bar, or 

That the name of Bar was common in Egypt, at all events 
among settlers from Syria, is proved by its occurrence in proper 

< == > aa^vx va\ vfo ^ anc [ Bari-Eumau, 

n ^j _£as c — ^k ^> ^ ^e last being the equivalent of the Semitic 

name Ba'al Ram, DT^JB. 8 In Middle Egypt the centre of the 

1 Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 122 ; Religion, p. 712. 

2 See Lanzone, op. cit., pi. 378. 

3 See M tiller, Asien mid Europa, p. 309 ; Recueil, torn. xii. 17. 


worship of Set was at Sept-Mert-et, tfff ^ , which is 

commonly known as Oxyrhynchus, 1 and other prominent places of 

his worship were one of the Oases, ^ , and Sennu, I 9 @> 

and Unnu, ^^5? Hermopolis. In the Delta the centre of his 

worship was the famous city Het-uart, or Avaris, where the 
Hyksos king Apepa made him to be the greatest of all the gods of 
his dominions, and at one time Set was to all intents and purposes 
the national god of the Delta. 

In the narratives of their prowess in battle which kings caused 
to be inscribed on stelae and on the walls of their temples, they 
delighted to have it stated that they were as terrible as Bar in the 
attacks which they made upon their foes. Under the XVIIIth 
Dynasty we hear little of Set, for Amen, the god of the Upper 
Country, had the pre-eminence, but the cult of Set appears to 
have been revived under the XlXth Dynasty, for the second king- 
thereof called himself Seti, after the name of the god, and this king 
caused bas-reliefs to be set up in his temples wherein Set is repre- 
sented in the act of performing the coronation ceremonies. Under 
this Dynasty Ave have another king called after the name of the 
god, i.e., Seti II., Menephthah, but after that period the figure 
of Set appears in no cartouche, and his evil reputation increased. 
To the XXth Dynasty probably belongs the very interesting 
bronze figure of Set in the British Museum (No. 18,191), which 
was worn as a pendant, and was originally plated with gold ; the 
god stands upright and wears the double crown of the South and 
the North and a uraeus. When found the figure was bent double, 
a position which it was made to take by violence, probably by 
someone who detested the god, but the body has been straightened 
out and it is now possible to examine the head of the Set animal, 
which in this specimen is finely shaped. Another interesting- 
figure of Set is No. 22,897, which is of good workmanship ; this, 
like the preceding, was also gilded and worn as a pendant. 
Belonging to a much later period we have the small wooden 
figure of the Set animal (No. 30,460), and the upper part of a 

1 Brugsch, Diet. Grog., p. 275. 


two-headed bronze figure of Amen-Heru-pa-khart (No. 16,228). 
The former stands on a pedestal on which is a sepulchral inscrip- 
tion, addressed to Set, "the great god, lord of heaven," who is 
asked to give "life, strength, and health" to him that had it made; 
and the latter represents Amen under the form of a ram-headed 
man, who wears on his head the plumes of Shu, the disk of Ra, 
and a uraeus, and the head of Set, with characteristic ears. The 
above four figures are when taken together of great interest, and, 
as they all have been acquired by the Trustees of the British 
Museum since Signor Lanzone issued the last part of his Dizionario, 
they form a valuable addition to the examples registered by 
him in it. 

The ideas which were held by the Egyptians about Set in the 
late times are well illustrated by the following extract from 
Plutarch (De Iside, § 30), who says that it is evident from many of 
their rites and ceremonies " that they hold him in the greatest 
" contempt, and do all they can to vilify and affront him. Hence 
"their ignominious treatment of those persons, whom from the 
" redness of their complexions they imagine to bear a resemblance 
" to him ; and hence likewise is derived the custom of the Coptites 
" of throwing an Ass down a precipice ; because it is usually of 
"this colour. Nay, the inhabitants of Busiris and Lycopolis 
" carry their detestation of this animal so far, as never to make any 
" use of trumpets, because of the similitude between their sound 
" and the braying of the ass. In a word, this animal is in general 
" regarded by them as unclean and impure, merely on account of 
" the resemblance which they conceive it bears to Typho ; and in 
" consequence of this notion, those cakes which they offer with 
" their sacrifices during the last two months Paiini and Phaophi, 
" have the impression of an Ass bound stamped upon them. For 
" the same reason likewise, when they sacrifice to the Sun, they 
" strictly enjoyn all those who approach to worship the God, 
" neither to wear any gold about them, nor to give provender to 
" any ass. It is moreover evident, say they, that even the 
" Pythagoreans looked upon Typho to have been of the rank or 
" order of Demons, as, according to them, ' he was produced in the 
" even number fifty-six.' For as the power of the Triangle is 


" expressive of the nature of Pluto, Bacchus, and Mars, the 
" properties of the Square of Rhea, Venus, Ceres, Vesta, and Juno ; 
" of the Dodecagon of Jupiter ; so, as Ave are informed by Eudoxus 
" is the figure of 56 angles expressive of the nature of Typho : as 
" therefore all the others above-mentioned in the Pythagorean 
" system are looked upon as so many Genii or Demons, so in like 
" manner must this latter be regarded by them. 'Tis from this 
" persuasion likewise of the red complexion of Typho, that the 
" Egyptians make use of no other bullocks in their sacrifice but 
" what are of this colour. Nay, so extremely curious are they in 
" this respect, that if there be so much as one black or white hair 
" in the beast, 'tis sufficient to render it improper for this service. 
" For 'tis their opinion, that sacrifices ought not to be made of such 
" things as are in themselves agreeable and well-pleasing to the 
" Gods, but, on the contrary, rather of such creatures wherein the 
" souls of wicked and unjust men have been confined during the 
" course of their transmigration. Hence sprang that custom, 
" which was formerly observed by them, of pronouncing a solemn 
" curse upon the head of the beast which was to be offered in 
" sacrifice, and afterwards of cutting it off and throwing it into the 
" Nile, though now they dispose of it to foreigners. No bullock 
" therefore is permitted to be offered to the Gods, which has not 
" the seal of the Sphragistae first stamped upon it, an order of 
" priests peculiarly set apart for this purpose, from whence likewise 
" they derive their name. Their impress, according to Castor, is 
'"a man upon his knees with his hands tied behind him and a 
" sword pointed at his throat.' Nor is it from his colour only that 
"they maintain a resemblance between the Ass and Typho, but 
" from the stupidity likewise and sensuality of his disposition ; and 
" agreeably to this notion, having a more particular hatred to 
" Ochus than to any other of the Persian monarchs who reigned 
" over them, looking upon him as an exsecrable and abominable 
" wretch, they gave him the nick-name of the Ass, which drew the 
" following reply from that prince, ' But this ass shall dine upon 
" your ox.' and accordingly he slew the Apis : this story is thus 
"related by Dino. Now as to those who pretend that Typho 
" escaped out of the battle upon an Ass after a flight of seven days, 


" and that, after he had got into a place of security, he begat two 
" sons, Hierosolymus and Judaeus, 'tis obvious from the very face 
" of the relation, that their design is to give an air of fable to 
" [what] the Jewish history [relates] of the flight of Moses out of 
" Egypt, and of the settlement of the Jews about Hierusalem and 
"Judaea" (Squire's Translation). 

As a proof of the correctness of Plutarch's statements may be 
mentioned the figure of Set, which is reproduced from a Demotic 
papyrus at Leyden by Signor Lanzone, 1 and which represents the 
srod as having the head of an ass ; on his breast, which is that of a 
man, is inscribed the name CH-9-. We have now seen how the god 
Set was the opponent first of Heru-ur, then of Ra, andfi nally of 
Osiris and his son Horus, and that during the long period of 
Egyptian history his attributes changed according to the various 
modifications which took place in the beliefs concerning this god 
in the minds of the Egyptians, and that from being a power of 
nature, the darkness, he became the symbol and personification of 
both physical and moral evil. We have now to consider briefly the 
female counterpart of Set, that is to say the goddess Nephthys, 
and to describe the part which she played in the Great Company 
of the gods of Heliopolis. 

Nebt-het YGc^J' or TKSv Nephthys ' 

Nebt-het, or Nephthys, was the daughter of Seb and Nut, 
and the sister of Osiris, and Isis, and Set, and the wife of Set, and 
the mother of Anpu, or Anubis, either by Osiris or Set. The 
name " Nebt-het " means the " lady of the house," but by the word 
"house" we must understand that portion of the sky which was 
supposed to form the abode of the Sun-god Horus ; in fact "het" 
in the name of Nebt-het is used in exactly the same sense as " het " 
in the name "Het-Hert," or Hathor, i.e., the "house of Horus." 
In the earliest times Nephthys was regarded as the female counter- 
part of Set, and she was always associated with him ; nevertheless 

1 Dizionario, pi. 378. 

The Goddess NEBT-HET (Nephthys). 


she always appears as the faithful sister and friend of Isis, and 
helps the widowed goddess to collect the scattered limbs of Osiris 
and to reconstitute his body. In the Pyramid Texts she appears 
as a friend of the deceased, and she maintains that character 
throughout every Recension of the Booh of the Dead ; indeed, she 
seems to perform for him what as a nature goddess she did for the 
gods in primeval times when she fashioned the " body " of the 
" Company of the Gods," and when she obtained the name 

Nebkhat, (i?=§ J) j 1 i.e., " Lady of the body [of the Gods]." 

The goddess is represented in the form of a woman who wears upon 
her head a pair of horns and a disk which is surmounted by the 

symbol of her name, TT , or the symbol [J only ; and her commonest 

titles are, " dweller within Senu," " lady of heaven," " mistress of 
the gods," " great goddess, lady of life," " sister of the god, eye of 
Ra, lady of heaven, mistress of the gods," " lady of heaven, mistress 
of the two lands," " sister of the god, the creative goddess who liveth 
within An," etc. The chief centres of her worship were Senu 

„~©, Hebet. Qj ^ (Behbit), Per-mert, lz^u <=>, Re-nefert, 
<===> t=t T^^©, Het-sekhem, Het-Khas, Ta-kehset, and Diospolites. 

In the vignettes of the Theban Recension of the Booh of the 
Dead Ave find Nephthys playing a prominent part in connexion 
with Isis, whose efforts it seems to be her duty to second and to 
forward. She stands in the shrine behind Osiris when the hearts 
of the dead are weighed in the Great Scales in the presence of the 
god; she is seen kneeling on fw"}, by the side of the Tet, from 
which the disk of the Sun is thrust upwards by the " living Ra," 

*-^H , at sunrise ; she is one of the " great sovereign chiefs in Tettu," 
with Osiris, Isis, and Heru-netch-hra-f ; and she kneels at the 
head of the bier of Osiris and assists him to arise. In the address 
which she makes (Chap. cli.A), she says, " I go round about behind 
" Osiris. I have come that I may protect thee, and my strength 
" which protecteth shall be behind thee for ever and ever. The god 
" Ra hearkeneth unto thy cry ; thou, son of Hathor, art made to 

1 See Aeg. Zeitschn'ft, 1864, p. G5. 


"triumph, thy head shall never be taken away from thee, and 
" thou shalt be made to rise up in peace." Like Isis, Nephthys 
was believed to possess magical powers, and Urt-hekau, 
<!=> 5 LJ 1^ ^ §0 ' f * ,e "' " m io n ty one °f words of power," was as 
much a title of the goddess as of her husband, Set-Nubti, the 
great one of two-fold strength, ^=> T\f}^ • Nephthys also, like 
Isis, has many forms, for she is one of the two Maat goddesses, and 
she is one of the two Mert goddesses, and she is one of the two 
plumes which ornamented the head of her father Ra. In her 
birth-place 1 in Upper Egypt, i.e., Bet-Sekhem, or "the house of 
the Si strum," the goddess was identified with Hathor, the lady of 
the sistrum, but the popular name of the city, "Het," i.e., the 
" House," seems to apply to both goddesses. In the Serapeum 
which belonged to the city, or the House of the Bennu, Osiris was 
re-born under the form of Horus, and Nephthys was one of his 
" nursing mothers." The form in which Osiris appeared here was 
the Moon, and as such he represented the left eye of the Bennu or 
Ra, and as he thus became closely associated with Khensu and 
Thoth, to his female counterparts were ascribed the attributes of 
Sesheta and Maat, who were the female counterparts of Thoth. 
Nephthys, as the active creative power which protected Osiris, the 
Moon-god, was called Menkhet, ^ {r, and in allusion to her 

beneficent acts in connection with him the names of Benra-merit 
and Kherseket were bestowed upon her, and the former appears 
to belong to the goddess when she made herself manifest under the 
form of a cat. 

From Plutarch's treatise on Isis and Osiris we may gather 
many curious facts about the Egyptian beliefs concerning 
Nephthys. Thus he tells us (§38) that the Egyptians call the 
" extreme limits of their country, their confines and sea-shores, 
" Nephthys (and sometimes Teleute, a name expressly signifying 
" the end of anything), whom they suppose likewise to be married 
" to Typho. Now as the overflowings of the Nile are sometimes 
" very great, and extend even to the remotest boundaries of the 
" land, this gave occasion to that part of the story, which regards 

1 Nephthys was born on the last of the five epagomenal days. 


" the secret commerce between Osiris and Nephthys ; and as the 
" natural consequence of so great an inundation would be perceived 
" by the springing up of plants in those parts of the country, which 
" were formerly barren, hence they supposed, that Typho was first 
" made acquainted with the injury which had been clone his bed by 
" means of a Mellilot-garland which fell from the head of Osiris 
" during his commerce with his wife, and afterwards left behind 
" him ; and thus, they say, may the legitimacy of Orus the son of 
" Isis be accounted for, as likewise the spuriousness of Anubis, 
" who was born of jNTephthys. So again, when they tell us, that 
" it appears from the tables of the successions of their ancient 
" kings, that Nephthys was married to Typho, and that she was at 
" first barren, if this indeed is to be understood, not as spoken of a 
" mortal woman, but of a goddess, then is there design to insinuate 
" the utter infertility of the extreme parts of their land, occasioned 
" by the hardness of the soil and its solidity." Plutarch tells us, 
moreover, that " on the upper part of the convex surface of the 
" sistrum is carved the effigies of a Cat with a human visage, as on 
" the lower edge of it, under those moving chords, is engraved on 
" the one side the face of Isis, and on the other that of Nephthys." 
The face of Isis represents Generation, and that of Nephthys 
Corruption, and Plutarch says (§ 63) that the Cat denotes the 
moon, " its variety of colours, its activity in the night, and 
" the peculiar circumstances which attend its fecundity making 
"it a proper emblem of that body. For it is reported of 
" this creature, that it at first brings forth one, then two, after- 
" wards three, and so goes on adding one to each former birth till 
" it comes to seven ; so that she brings forth twenty-eight in all, 
" corresponding as it were to the several degrees of light, which 
" appear during one of the moon's revolutions. But though this 
" perhaps may appear to carry the air of fiction with it, yet may 
" it be depended upon that the pupills of her eyes seem to fill up 
" and to grow larger upon the full of the moon, and to decrease 
" again and diminish in their brightness upon its warning — as to 
" the human countenance with which this Cat is carved, this is 
" designed to denote that the changes of the moon are regulated 
" by understanding and wisdom." 
II — s 


From the above paragraphs it is clear that Nephthys is the 
personification of darkness and of all that belongs to it, and that her 
attributes were rather of a passive than active character. She was 
the opposite of Isis in every respect ; Isis symbolized birth, growth, 
development and vigour, but Nephthys was the type of death, decay, 
diminution and immobility. Isis and Nephthys were, however, 
associated inseparably with each other, even as were Horus and 
Set, and in all the important matters which concern the welfare of 
the deceased they acted together, and they appear together in 
bas-reliefs and vignettes. Isis, according to Plutarch (§ 44), 
represented the part of the world which is visible, whilst Nephthys 
represents that which is invisible, and we may even regard Isis as 
the day and Nephthys as the night. Isis and Nephthys represent 
respectively the things which are and the things which are yet to 
come into being, the beginning and the end, birth and death, and 
life and death. 1 We have, unfortunately, no means of knowing 
what the primitive conception of the attributes of Nephthys was, 
but it is most improbable that it included any of » the views on the 
subject which were current in Plutarch's time. Nephthys is not 
a goddess with well-defined characteristics, but she may, generally 
speaking, be described as the goddess of the death which is not 
eternal. In the Book of the Dead (Chap. xvii. 30), the deceased 
is made to say, " I am the god Amsu (or, Min) in his coming 
" forth ; may his two plumes be set upon my head for me." In 
answer to the question, " Who then is this ? " the text goes on to 
say, " Amsu is Horus, the avenger of his father, and his coming 
" forth is his birth. The plumes upon his head are Isis and 
" Nephthys when they go forth to set themselves there, even as his 
" protectors, and they provide that which his head lacketh, or (as 
" others say), they are the two exceeding great uraei which are 
" upon the head of their father Tern, or (as others say), his two 
" eyes are the two plumes which are upon his head." 

This passage proves that Nephthys, although a goddess of 
death, was associated with the coming into existence of the life 
which springs from death, and that she was, like Isis, a female 
counterpart of Amsu, the ithyphallic god, who was at once the type 

1 Religion, p. 735. 


of virility, and reproduction, and regeneration. Isis and Nephthys 
prepared the funeral bed for their brother Osiris, and together they 
made the swathings wherewith his body was swathed after death ; 
they assisted at the rising of the Sun-god when he rose upon this 
earth for the first time, they assisted at the resurrection of Osiris, 
and similarly, in all ages, they together aided the deceased to rise to 
the new life by means of the words which they chanted over his bier. 
In late dynastic times there grew up a class of literature which 
is now represented by such works as the " Book of Respirations," 
the " Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys," the " Festival Songs 
of Isis and Nephthys," the " Litanies of Seker," etc., works which 
supply us with the very words which were addressed to Osiris and 
to all those who were his followers. The goddesses were personified 
by two priestesses who were virgins and who were ceremonially 
pure ; the hair of their limbs was to be shaved off, they were to 
wear ram's wool garlands upon their heads, and to hold tambourines 
in their hands ; on the arm of one of them was to be a fillet 
inscribed " to Isis," and on the arm of the other was to be a fillet 
inscribed "to Nephthys." On five days during the month of 
December these women took their places in the temple of Abydos 
and, assisted by the kher heb, or precentor, they sang a series 
of groups of verses to the god, of which the following are 
specimens : — 

" Hail, lord Osiris. Hail, lord Osiris. Hail, lord Osiris. Hail, 
'lord Osiris. Hail, beautiful boy, come to thy temple straight- 
' way, for we see thee not. Hail, beautiful boy, come to thy 
1 temple, and draw nigh after thy departure from us. Hail, 
' beautiful boy, who leadest along the hour, who increasest except 
' at his season. Thou art the exalted image of thy father Tenen, 
' thou art the hidden essence who comest forth from Atmu. 
'thou lord, thou lord, how much greater art thou than thy 
' father, thou eldest son of thy mother's Avomb. Come thou 
' back again to us with that which belongeth unto thee, and we 
' will embrace thee ; depart not thou from us, thou beautiful 
' and greatly loved face, thou image of Tenen, thou virile one, 
' thou lord of love. Come thou in peace, and let us see thee, 
'our lord, and the two sisters will join thy limbs together, and 


" thou shalt feel no pain, and they shall put an end unto all that 

"hath afflicted thee, even as if it had never been Hail, 

" Prince, who comest forth from the womb. Hail, Eldest son of 
" primeval matter. Hail, Lord of multitudes of aspects and created 
" forms. Hail, Circle of gold in the temples. Hail, Lord of time, 
" and Bestower of years. Hail, Lord of life for all eternity. Hail, 
" Lord of millions and myriads. Hail, thou who shinest both in 
" rising and setting. Hail, thou who makest throats to be in good 
" case. Hail, thou Lord of terror, thou mighty one of trembling. 
" Hail, lord of multitudes of aspects, both male and female. Hail, 
" thou who art crowned with the White Crown, thou lord of the 
"Urerer Crown. Hail, thou holy Babe of Heru-hekennu. Hail, 
"thou son of Ra, who sittest in the Boat of Millions of Years. 
" Hail, thou Guide of rest, come thou to thy hidden places. Hail, 
" thou lord of fear, who art self-produced. Hail, thou whose 
" heart is still, come to thy city. Hail, thou who causest cries 
" of joy, come to thy city. Hail, thou beloved one of the gods 
" and goddesses. Hail, thou who dippest thyself [in Nu], come to 
" thy temple. Hail, thou who art in the Tuat, come thou to thy 
" offerings. . . . Hail, thou holy flower of the Great House. Hail, 
" thou who bringest the holy cordage of the Sekti Boat. Hail, 
"thou Lord of the Hennu Boat, who renewest thy youth in the 
il secret place. Hail, thou Perfect Soul in Neter-khert. Hail, 
" thou holy Judge (?) of the South and of the North. Hail, thou 
" hidden one, who art known to mankind. Hail, thou who dost 
" shine upon him that is in the Tuat and dost show him the 
" Disk. Hail, lord of the Atef Crown, thou mighty one in Suten- 
"henen. Hail, mighty one of terror. Hail, thou who risest in 
" Thebes, who dost flourish for ever. . . . Hail, thou living Soul 
" of Osiris, who art diademed with the moon. Hail, thou who 
" hidest thy body in the great coffin at Heliopolis." 

( 261 ) 



IT has been said above that Nephthys gave birth to a son called 
Anpu, or Annbis, and that his father was, according to some, 
Osiris, and according to others, Set; from another point of view he 
was the son of Ra. The animal which was at once the type and 
symbol of the god was the jackal, and this fact seems to prove 
that in primitive times Anubis was merely the jackal god, and 
that he was associated with the dead because the jackal was 
generally seen prowling about the tombs. His worship is very 
ancient, and there is no doubt that even in the earliest times his 
cult was general in Egypt ; it is probable that it is older than 
that of Osiris. In the text of Unas (line 70) he is associated with 
the Eye of Horus, and his duty as the guide of the dead in the 
Underworld on their way to Osiris was well denned, even at the 
remote period when this composition was written, for we read, 
" Unas standeth with the Spirits, get thee onwards, Anubis, into 
" Amenti (the Underworld), onwards, onwards to Osiris." In the 
lines that follow we see that Anubis is mentioned in connexion 
with Horus, Set, Thoth, Sep, and Khent-an-maati. From another 
passage of the same text we find (line 207 ff.) that the hand, and 
arms, and belly, and legs of the deceased are identified with Temu, 

but his face is said to be in the form of that of Anubis, ^ v< ^a . 

The localities in which Anubis was specially worshipped are 

Abt, the Papyrus Swamps, (1 c^ S ^ ieeei , Sep, "^C, Re-au, 
< 7 => <ffffc®> Heru-ti, ^'^~^©, Ta-hetchet, = ^j[@, Saiut, 


-— 1^%v (111 ^T (Lycopolis), Sekhem, ~^|\ 1^© (Leto- 
polis), 1 etc. In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead he 
plays some very prominent parts, the most important of all being 
those which are connected with the judgment and the embalming 
of the deceased. Tradition declared that Anubis embalmed the 
body of Osiris, and that he swathed it in the linen swathings which 
were woven by Isis and Nephthys for their brother ; and it was 
believed that his work was so thoroughly well performed under 
the direction of Horus and Isis and Nephthys, that it resisted the 
influences of time and decay. In the vignette of the Funeral 
Procession the mummy is received by Anubis, who stands by the 
side of the tomb door ; and in the vignette to Chapter cli. of the 
Booh of the Dead the god is seen standing by the side of the 
mummy as it lies on its bier, and he lays his protecting hands upon 
it. In the speech which is put into the mouth of Anubis, he says, 
"I have come to protect Osiris." In the text of Unas (line 219) 
the nose of the deceased is identified with the nose of Anubis, but 
in the xliind Chapter of the Booh of the Dead the deceased declares, 
" My lips are the lips of Anpu." From various passages it is clear 
that in one part of Egypt at least Anubis was the great god of the 
Underworld, and his rank and importance seem to have been as 
great as those of Osiris. (See Chapter liii.) 

In the Judgment Scene Anubis appears to act for Osiris, with 
whom he is intimately connected, for it is he whose duty it is to 
examine the tongue of the Great Balance, and to take care that 
the beam is exactly horizontal. Thoth acts on behalf of the Great 
Company of the gods, and Anubis not only produces the heart of 
the deceased for judgment, but also takes care that the body which 
has been committed to his charge shall not be handed over to the 
"Eater of the Dead" by accident. The vignette of the xxvith 
Chapter of the Booh of the Dead, as given in the Papyrus of Ani, 
represents the deceased in the act of receiving a necklace and 
pectoral from Anubis, who stands by grasping his sceptre ; in the 
vignette of the Chapter in the Papyrus of Nebseni Anubis is seen 
presenting the heart itself to the deceased, and in the text below 

1 Lanzone, op. cit., p. 68. 

ANUBIS, the God of the Dead. 


Nebseni prays, saying, " May Anubis make my thighs firm so that 
" I may stand upon them." In allusion to his connexion with 
the embalmment of Osiris the god Anubis is called Am Ut, 
-I - J\ C3 , i.e., " Dweller in the chamber of embalmment ; " as 
the watcher in the place of purification wherein rested the chest 
containing the remains of Osiris he was called Kiient Sehet, 
Y i.e., " Governor of the Hall of the God ; " and one of his 
names as the god of the funeral mountain was " Tep-tu-f " 

? i em *^' i,e ' " lie wll ° is upon his hil1 -" In tlie cxlvtn Chapter 
of the Booh of the Dead the deceased says, " I have washed myself 
" in the water wherein the god Anpu washed when he had 
" performed the office of embalmer and bandager ; " and elsewhere 
the deceased is told (clxx. 4) that " Anpu, who is upon his hill, 
" hath set thee in order, and he hath fastened for thee thy 
"swathings, thy throat is the throat of Anubis (clxxii. 22), and 
" thy face is like that of Anubis " (clxxxi. 9). 

The duty of guiding the souls of the dead round about the 
Underworld and into the kingdom of Osiris was shared by Anubis 
with another god whose type and symbol was a jackal, and whose 

name was Ap-uat, ^f^^? or \/?j^^|> i- e -' tne "Opener 
of the ways ; " formerly Anubis and Ap-uat were considered to be 
two names of one and the same god, but there is no longer any 
reason for holding this view. In the vignette to the cxxxviiith 
Chapter of the Booh of the Dead we find represented the scene of 
setting up the standard which supports the box that held the 
head of Osiris at Abydos. On each side of it are a standard with 
a figure of a jackal upon it and a pylon, on the top of which lies a 
jackal ; and as it is quite clear from the groups of objects on each 
side of the standard that we are dealing with symbols either of the 
South and the North, or of the East and the West, we are justified 
in thinking that one jackal represents Ap-uat and the other 
Anubis. Moreover, from the cxlvth Chapter we find that the 
xxist Pylon of the House of Osiris was presided over by seven 
gods, among whom were Ap-uat and Anpu, 1 and as in the xviiith 

1 The others were Tcber or At, Hetep-mes, Mes-sep, Utch-re, and Beq. 


Chapter (F., G.) we have both gods mentioned, and each is depicted 
in the form of a jackal-headed man, we may conclude that each 
was a distinct god of the dead, although their identities are some- 
times confused in the texts. The function of each god was to 
" open the ways," and therefore each might be called Ap-uat, but, 
strictly speaking, Anubis was the opener of the roads of the North, 
and Ap-uat the opener of the roads of the South ; in fact, Anubis 
was the personification of the Summer Solstice, and Ap-uat of the 
Winter Solstice. 

Anubis is called in the texts Sekhem em pet, and is often said 
to be the son of Osiris, and Ap-uat bore the title Sekhem taui, 
and was a form of Osiris himself. When, therefore, we find the 
two jackals upon sepulchral stelae, we must understand that they 
appear there in their character of openers of the ways of the 
deceased in the kingdom of Osiris, and that they assure to the 
deceased the services of guides in the northern and southern 
parts of heaven ; when they appear with the two Utchats thus, 

_£ ^a , they symbolize the four quarters of heaven and of earth, 

and the four seasons of the year. On the subject of Anubis 
Plutarch reports (§§ 44, 61) some interesting beliefs. After 
referring to the view that Anubis Avas born of Nephthys, although 
Isis was his reputed mother, he goes on to say, " By Anubis they 
" understand the horizontal circle, which divides the invisible part 
" of the world, which they call Nephthys, from the visible, to which 
" they give the name of Isis ; and as this circle equally touches 
" upon the confines of both light and darkness, it may be looked 
" upon as common to them both — and from this circumstance arose 
" that resemblance, which they imagine between Anubis and the Dog, 
" it being observed of this animal, that he is equally watchful as 
" well by day as night. In short, the Egyptian Anubis seems to 
" be of much the same power and nature as the Grecian Hecate, a 
" deity common both to the celestial and infernal regions. Others 
" again are of opinion that by Anubis is meant Time, and that his 
" denomination of Kuon does not so much allude to any likeness, 
" which he has to the dog, though this be the general rendering of 
" the word, as to that other signification of the term taken from 


" breeding ; because Time begets all things out of it self, bearing 
" them within itself, as it were in a womb. But this is one of those 
" secret doctrines which are more fully made known to those who 
" are initiated into the worship of Anubis. Thus much, however, 
" is certain, that in ancient times the Egyptians paid the greatest 
" reverence and honour to the Dog, though by reason of his devour- 
" ing the Apis after Cambyses had slain him and thrown him out, 
" when no other animal would taste or so much as come near him, 
" he then lost the first rank among the sacred animals which he had 
" hitherto possessed." Referring to Osiris as the " common Reason 
" which pervades both the superior and inferior regions of the 
"universe," he says that it is, moreover, called "Anubis, and 

" sometimes likewise Hermanubis (i.e., v\ |\ Lil, Heru- 

" em-Anpu) ; the first of these names expressing the relation it has 
" to the superior, as the latter, to the inferior world. And for 
" this reason it is, they sacrifice to him two Cocks, the one white, 
" as a proper emblem of the purity and brightness of things above, 
" the other of a saffron colour, expressive of that mixture and 
" variety which is to be found in those lower regions." 

Strictly speaking, Anubis should be reckoned as the last 
member of the Great Company of the gods of Heliopolis, but as a 
matter of fact his place is usually taken by Horus, the son of Isis 
and of Osiris, who generally completes the divine paut; it is 
probable that the fusion of Horus with Anubis was a political 
expedient on the part of the priesthood who, finding no room in 
their system for the old god of the dead, identified him with a 
form of Horus, just as they had done with his father Set, and 
then mingled the attributes of the two £<xls. Horus and Anubis 
thus became in the new theology a duplicate of the Horus and Set 
in the old, and the double god possessed two distinct and opposite 
aspects ; as the guide of heaven and the leader of souls to Osiris 
he was a beneficent god, but as the personification of death and 
decay he was a being who inspired terror. From an interesting 
passage in the "Golden Ass" of Apuleius (Book xi.) we find that 
the double character of Anubis was maintained by his votaries in 
Rome even in the second century of our era, and in describing the 

2(56 ANUBIS 

Procession of Isis lie says, " Immediately after these came the 
" Deities, condescending to walk npon human feet, the foremost 
" among them rearing terrifically on high his dog's head and 
"neck — that messenger between heaven and hell displaying 
" alternately a face black as night, and golden as the day ; in his 
" left the caduceus, in his right waving aloft the green palm 
" branch. His steps were closely followed by a cow, raised into 
" an upright posture — the cow being the fruitful emblem of the 
" Universal Parent, the goddess herself, which one of the happy 
"train carried with majestic steps, supported on his shoulders. 
" By another was borne the coffin containing the sacred things, 
" and closely concealing the deep secrets of the holy religion." 

This extract shows that even in the second century at Rome 
the principal actors in the old Egyptian Osiris ceremonial were 
represented with scrupulous care, and that its chief characteristics 
were preserved. The cow was, of course, nothing less than the 
symbol of Isis, " the mother of the god," and the coffin containing 
the " sacred things " was the symbol of the sarcophagus of Osiris 
which contained his relics. Before these fitly inarched Anubis in 
his two-fold character, and thus we have types of Osiris and his 
mysteries, and of Isis who revivified him, and of Anubis who 
embalmed him. Had Apuleius understood the old Egyptian 
ceremonies connected with the Osiris legend and had he been able 
to identify all the characters who passed before him in the Isis 
procession, 4ie would probably have seen that Nephthys and Horus 
and several other gods of the funeral company of Osiris were duly 
represented therein. On the alleged connexion of Anubis with 
Christ in the Gnostic system the reader is referred to the interest- 
ing work of Mr. C. W. King, Gnostics and their Remains, Second 
Edition, London, 1887, pp. 230, 279. 

( 267 ) 



IN connexion with the god Horus and his forms as the god of 
the rising sun and the symbol and personification of Light 
must be mentioned a comparatively numerous class of small 
rounded stelae on convex bases, on the front of which are sculptured 
in relief figures of the god Horus standing upon two crocodiles. 
These curious and interesting objects are made of basalt and other 
kinds of hard stone, and of calcareous stone, and they vary in 
height from 3 ins. to 20 ins. ; they were used as" talismans by the 
Egyptians, who placed them in their houses and gardens, and even 
buried them in the ground to protect themselves and their 
property from the attacks of noxious beasts, and reptiles, and 
insects of every kind. In addition to the figures of Horus and of 
the animals over which he gained the victory, and the sceptres, 
emblems, etc., which are sculptured upon cippi of Horus, the 
backs, sides, and bases are usually covered Avith magical texts. 
The ideas suggested by the figures and the texts are extremely old, 
but the grouping and arrangement of them which are found on the 
stelae under consideration are not older than the XXVIth Dynasty ; 
it is doubtful if this class of objects came into general use very 
much earlier than the end of the period of the Persian occupation 
of Egypt. The various museums of Europe contain several 
examples of cippi, but the largest, and finest, and most important, 
is undoubtedly that which is commonly known as the " Metternich 
Stele ; " l it was found in the year 1828 during the building of a 
cistern in a Franciscan monastery in Alexandria, and was pre- 
sented by Muhammad 'Ali Pasha to Prince Metternich. We are, 
fortunately, enabled to date the stele, for the name of Nectanebus I., 

1 See Mettemichstele, ed. Golenischeff, Leipzig, 1877, pi. 3, 1. 48 fE. 



the last but one of the native kings 
of Egypt, who reigned from B.C. 378 
to B.C. 360, occurs on it, and it is clear 
from several considerations that such a 
monument could have been produced 
only about this period. On the front 
of the stele (see page 271) we have the 
following figures and scenes : — 

1. The solar disk wherein is seated 
the four-fold god Khnemu, who re- 
presents the gods of the four elements, 
earth, air, fire, and water, resting 
between LJ, which is supported on a 
lake of water ; on each side of it stand 
four apes, with their paws stretched 
out in adoration. No names are given 
to the apes here, but we may find 
them in a text at Edfu 1 where they 

called : — 1. Aaan, 


2. Bentet, 
Sept, ^ 

5. Ap 

> *^. 



8. Utennu, 

D X J3 


3. Hetet- 

4. Qeften, 
6. As- 

o © 

Side of the Stele. 

The Bentet apes praised the morning 
sun, and the Utennu apes praised the 
evening sun, and the Sun-god was 
pleased both with their words and 
with their voices. On the right 
hand side is a figure of king Nec- 
tanebus kneeling before a lotus 
standard, with plumes and mendts, 
and on the left is the figure of 

1 Duemiclien, Tempelinschriften, i., 26. 



the god Thoth holding a palette in 
his left hand. 

2. In this register we have (a) 
Ptah-Seker-Asar standing on croco- 
diles, the gods Amsu and Khepera 
standing on /=d pedestals, Khas, 
a lion -headed god, Thoth, Serqet 
and Hathor grouped round a god 
who is provided with the heads of 
seven birds and animals, and four 
wings, and two horns surmounted by 
four uraei and four knives, and who 
stands upon two crocodiles, (b) Ta- 
urt holding a crocodile by a chain or 
rope which a hawk-headed god is 
about to spear in the presence of 
Isis, Nephthys, and four other deities, 

3. Isis holding Horus in her 
outstretched right hand, and stand- 
ins: on a crocodile. Thoth. Standard 
of Nekhebet. Horus, with a human 
phallus, and a lion, on a lake (?) 
containing two crocodiles. Seven 
halls or lakes, each guarded by a 
o-od. A lion treading on a crocodile, 
which lies on its back, four gods, 
a lion standing on the back of a 
crocodile, a vulture, a god embrac- 
ing a goddess, and three goddesses. 

4. Horus spearing a crocodile 
which is led captive by Ta-urt. The 
four children of Horus. Neith and 
the two crocodile gods. Harpocrates 
seated upon a crocodile under a 
serpent. A lion, two scorpions and 
an oryx, symbols of Set. Seven 

Side of the Stele. 


serpents having their tails pierced by arrows or darts. A king 
in a chariot drawn by the fabulous Akhekh animal which gallops 
over two crocodiles. Horus standing on the back of the oryx, 
emblem of Set. 

5. A miscellaneous group of gods, nearly all of whom are 
forms of the Sun-god and are gods of reproduction and 

6. A hawk god, with dwarf's legs, and holding bows and 
arrows. Horus standing on an oryx (Set). A cat on a pedestal. 
An-her spearing an animal. Uraeus on the top of a staircase. The 
ape of Thoth on a pylon. Two Utchats, the solar disk, and a 
crocodile. Ptah-Seker-Asar. The Horus of gold. Serpent with 
a disk on his head. A group of solar gods followed by Ta-urt 
and Bes. 

7. In this large scene Horus stands with his feet upon the 
backs of two crocodiles, and he grasps in his hands the reptiles and 
animals which are the emblems of the foes of light and of the 
powers of evil. He wears the lock of youth, and above his head is 
the head of the old god Bes, who here symbolizes the Sun-god at 
eventide. The canopy under which he stands is held up by Thoth 
and Isis, each of whom stands upon a coiled up serpent, which has 
a knife stuck in his forehead. Above the canopy are the two 
Utchats, with human hands and arms attached, and within it by 
the sides of the god are: — 1. Horus-Ra standing on a coiled up 
serpent. 2. A lotus standard, with plumes and mendts. 3. A 
papyrus standard surmounted by a figure of a hawk wearing the 

y>l Crown. 

On the back of the Stele we have a figure of the aged Sun-god 
in the form of a man-hawk, and he has above his head the heads of 
a number of animals, e.g., the oryx and the crocodile, and a pair 
of horns upon which rest W , and eight knives. He has four 
human arms, to two of which wings are attached, and in each hand 
he grasps two serpents, 11, two knives, ^^^^, and "life," ■¥•, 
i ' stability," u, and "power," j; and numbers of figures of gods. 
His two other human arms are not attached to wings, and in one 
hand he holds the symbol of " life," and in the other a sceptre. 



From the head of the god proceed jets of fire, 1 1 , and on each side 
of him is an Utchat, which is provided with human hands and 


The Metternich Stele (Obverse). 

arms. The god stands upon an oval, within which are figures of a 
lion, two serpents, a jackal, a crocodile, a scorpion, a hippopotamus, 


and a turtle. Below this relief are five rows of figures of gods aud 
mythological scenes, many of which are taken from the vignettes 
of the Booh of the Dead. The gods and goddesses are for the 
most part solar deities who were believed to be occupied at all times 
in overcoming the powers of darkness, and they were sculptured 
on the Stele that the sight of them might terrify the fiends and 
prevent them from coining nigh unto the place where it was set up. 
There is not a god of any importance whose figure is not on it, and 
there is not a demon, or evil animal, or reptile who is not depicted 
upon it in a vanquished state. 

The texts inscribed upon the Stele are as interesting as the 
figures of the s;ods, and relate to events which were believed to 
have taken place in the lives of Isis, Horus, etc. The first compo- 
sition is called the " Chapter of the incantation of the Cat," 1 and 
contains an address to Ra, who is besought to come to his daughter, 
for she has been bitten by a scorpion ; the second composition, 
which is called simply " another Chapter," has contents somewhat 
similar to those of the first. The third text is addressed to the 
" Old Man who becometh young in his season, the Aged One who 
" maketh himself a child again." The fourth and following texts 
contain a narrative of the troubles of Isis which were caused by 
the malice of Set, and of her wanderings from city to city in the 
Delta, in the neighbourhood of the Papyrus Swamps. The 
principal incident is the death of her son Horus, which took place 
whilst she was absent in a neighbouring city, and was caused by 
the bite of a scorpion ; in spite of all the care which Isis took in 
hiding her son, a scorpion managed to make its way into the presence 
of the boy, and it stung him until he died. When Isis came 
back and found her child's dead body she was distraught and 
frantic with grief, and was inconsolable until Nephthys came and 
advised her to appeal to Thoth, the lord of words of power. She 
did so straightway, and Thoth stopped the Boat of Millions of Years 
in which Ra, the Sun-god, sailed, and came down to earth in 
answer to her cry ; Thoth had already provided her with the words 
of power which enabled her to raise up Osiris from the dead, and 



5 Uh- 

AAAA *? 1 J=\l 



he now bestowed upon her the means of restoring Horus to life, by 
supplying her with a series of incantations of irresistible might. 

^2?HTa<£ P£ n~WWW£T^K,±wt\i£:{ : %.&Z) 

:W.UA^L €«SS«PWKr**T5/i rXSMZjlgU<h?£<& 






I I D. r~r~* -Zt~L. I I 





agiwus4^ , ^^^rgvfifcWfl:»si^?2 o ^ti»'i^: 


> 5 


The Metternicli Stele (Reverse). 

These Isis recited with due care, and in the proper tone of voice, 
and the poison was made to go forth from the body of Horus, and 
his strength was renewed, his heart once more occupied its throne, 

II — T 


and all was well with him. Heaven and earth rejoiced at the sight 
of the restoration of the heir of Osiris, and the gods were filled 
with peace and content. 

The Avhole Stele on which these texts and figures are found is 
nothing but a talisman, or a gigantic amulet engraved with magical 
forms of gods and words of power, and it was, undoubtedly, placed 
in some conspicuous place in a courtyard or in a house to protect 
the building and its inmates from the attacks of hostile beings, both 
visible and invisible, and its power was believed to be invincible. 
The person who had been stung or bitten by a scorpion or any 
noxious beast or reptile was supposed to recite the incantations 
which Thoth had given to Isis, and which had produced such 
excellent results, and the Egyptians believed that because these 
words had on one occasion restored the dead to life, they would, 
whensoever they were uttered in a suitable tone of voice, and with 
appropriate gestures and ceremonies, never fail to produce a like 
effect. A knowledge of the gods and of the magical texts on the 
Stele was thought to make its possessor master of all the powers of 
heaven, and of earth, and of the Underworld. 

( 275 ) 


IF we consider for a moment it will at once be apparent from 
the geographical position of Egypt that her people must 
have been brought in contact with a large number of foreign gods, 
and that in certain places a few must have become more or less 
identified with Egytian gods of similar attributes and characteristics. 
As a rule Orientals have always been exceedingly tolerant of alien 
gods, and the Egyptians formed no exception to the rule ; there is, 
moreover, in the Egyptian inscriptions, no evidence that they ever 
tried to suppress the gods of the races they conquered, though we 
may assume that they never failed, whenever it was possible, to 
carry off the images of foreign gods, because in so doing they 
displayed the superior power of the gods of Egypt, and destroyed 
the religious and political importance of the cities and towns 
wherein the shrines of the foreign gods were situated. It is not at 
present possible to decide which gods were indigenous to the 
Valley of the Nile, and which were of Libyan origin, but there is 
no doubt that a number of Libyan gods were adopted by the 
dwellers in the Western Delta, in predynastic times, and that they 
had become to all intents and purposes Egyptian gods under the 
rule of the kings of the 1st Dynasty. Among such deities may be 
mentioned Net, or Neith, of Sal's, Bast of Bubastis, and it is very 
probable that Osiris and his cycle of gods, though perhaps under 
different names, were also of Libyan origin. Under the IV th and 
Vth Dynasties the cult of Ra, the Sun-god, spread with great 
rapidity in the Delta and in the neighbourhood of Heliopolis, and 
his priests, as we have seen, obtained almost kingly influence in the 



country. There is no reason for doubting that the Sun was 
worshipped in the earliest times in Egypt, but the form of his 
worship, as approved and promulgated by the priests of Heliopolis, 
appears to have differed from that which was current in other 
parts of the country, and it is probable that it possessed something 
of an Asiatic character. The foreign gods who succeeded in 


The goddess Qetesh standing on a lion between Min and Keshpu. 

obtaining a place in the affections of the Egyptians were of Libyan 
and Semitic origin, and there is no evidence that they borrowed 
any deity, except Bes, from Nubia, or the country still further to 
the south of Egypt. 

First among the foreign deities who are made known to us 


by the Egyptian inscriptions is Anthat, d 1 (] ^ f) n , ] 

a sroddess 

who is called the lady of heaven, and the mistress of the gods, and 
who was said to conceive offspring but not to bring them to the 
birth ; she is declared to have been produced by Set, but it is 
probable that this origin was assigned to her only after her cult 
was well established in Egypt. She is depicted in the form of a 
woman seated on a throne or standing upright ; in the former 
position she grasps a shield and spear in her right hand and wields 


a club in her left, and in the latter she wears a panther skin and 
holds a papyrus sceptre in the right hand and the emblem of " life " 
in her left. She wears the White Crown with feathers attached, 
and sometimes this has a pair of horns at the base. Anthat was, 
undoubtedly, a war goddess, and her cult seems to have extended 
throughout Northern and Southern Syria, where certain cities and 

1 Variant forms of her name are Annutliat, /v ^y vN ^\ A (I IX , 

and Antit, 


towns, e.g., Bath-Anth, J A^? ~* ^^ ■ n^v^ , and Qarth-Anthu, 
|~zil "%\ "^"^ s=> 1 \J> , were dedicated to her worship. 1 The 

worship of the goddess Anthat appears to have made its way into 
Egypt soon after the Egyptians began to form their Asiatic 
Empire, and from an inscription published by Virey 2 we learn that 
a shrine was built in her honour at Thebes in the reign of Thothmes 
III. This, however, is only what might be expected, for Thothmes 
III. must have brought large numbers of Syrians with him into 
Egypt, and many of them undoubtedly found a home at Thebes. 
The goddess was honoured by Rameses II. of the XlXth Dynasty, 
and this monarch went so far as to call one of his daughters Banth- 

Anth, ("fe?, | |Jsl» *- e *' daughter of Anth. Finally we may 
note in passing that a goddess called Anthretha, gg^ | (j jJL , 

is mentioned with Sutekh in the great treaty between the Kheta 
and the Egyptians, and it is probable that she and Anthat are one 
and the same goddess. 

In connexion with Anthat the goddess Astharthet, 

=^ (j < > ° J) t i.e., Ashtoreth, is sometimes mentioned in 
Egyptian texts, and she is called " mistress of horses, lady of the 
chariot, dweller in Apollinopolis Magna" (Edfu), | £ ^rz^rz^ ^ j 

^-^^^nfj ° ^% s=5 il^. 3 Conformably to this description 

the goddess is represented in the form of a woman with the head 
of a lioness, which is surmounted by a disk, and she stands in a 
chariot drawn by four horses and drives over her prostrate 
foes. The cult of ilstharthet was comparatively widespread in 
Egypt at the time when the priest-kings began to reign, and it 
nourished in the Delta, at least, until Christian times. It cannot, 
however, have been introduced into Egypt much earlier than the 
beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and it was probably not well 
established until the reign of Amen-hetep III. In a letter from 

1 See Miiller, W. M., Asien unci Europa, p. 195. 

2 Tombeau cle Khem {Memoir es Miss. Arch. Fr., torn, v., p. 368). 

3 See Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1869, p. 3 ff. ; Naville, Mythe cVHorus, pi. 4. 



Tushratta, king of Mitani, to this king he refers to the going down 
of "Ishtar of Nineveh (i.e., Ashtoreth, or Astharthet), lady of the 
world," into Egypt, both during his own reign and that of his 
father, 1 and he seems to indicate that her worship in Egypt had 
declined, and begs Amen-hetep to make it to increase tenfold. 
From this it would appear that the Egyptians adopted the worship 
of the Syrian goddess at or about the time when Thothmes III. 
was engaged in conquering Ruthennu and Palestine and Syria. 
In Egypt Astharthet, or 
Ashtoreth, or Ishtar, was 
identified with one of the 


forms of Hathor, or 






was regarded 
as a Moon-goddess, 
as a terrible and destroy- 
ing goddess of war. As 
a war-goddess she was the 
driver of the rampant 
war-maddened horses and 
the guide of the rushing 
chariot on the field of 
battle, and this considera- 
tion shows that as a god- 
dess of horses she was 
unknown in Egypt be- 
fore the XVI Ilth Dynasty. 
The Egyptians learned 
to employ the horse in war from the Semites of the Eastern Desert, 
and their knowledge of the value of that animal for charging and 
for drawing war-chariots is not older than about B.C. 1800. 

Closely akin to Astharthet was the goddess Qetesh, \ *~* (X ," 

who was also called the " mistress of all the gods, the eye of Ra, 

1 The Tell el-Amarna Tablets in the British Museum, p. xlii. 




^H' Qet 







without a second," 

^ A ^ I I I I I I ^ I I WAAA O 

She, like Astharthet, was regarded in Egypt as a form of Hathor, 
the goddess of love and beauty, and as a Moon-goddess. She is 
represented in the form of an absolutely naked woman, Avho stands 
upon a lion ; on her head she wears a crescent and disk, O, which 
prove her connexion with the Moon. The later representations 
of Qetesh depict her in the same attitude, but they give her the 
peculiar headdress of Hathor, and she wears a deep necklace or 
collar and a tight-fitting garment which is held up on her shoulders 
by two straps, and which extends to her ankles. In her right 

hand she holds lotus flowers and 
a mirror (?), and in her left two 
serpents. It is important to 
note that, like Bes, she is always 
represented full face. On a stele 
in the British Museum (No. 191), 
we see the goddess, who is here 

called "Kent (^™Pn)> lady of 
heaven," standing on a lion 
between Amsu, ^f~, or Min, 
and Reshpu, and with these gods 
she appears to form a Semitic 
triad, but it is not clear which of 
these two gods was her son, and 
which was her husband. In any 
case, Qetesh must have been wor- 
shipped as a nature goddess, and 
it was probably the licentiousness of her worship, at all events in 
Syria, which gave to the Hebrew word nvfij) the meaning which 
it bears in the Bible. 1 

Another foreign goddess of interest is Aasith, 




who is represented in the form of a woman, armed with shield and 
club, riding a horse into the battle field. In her Midler 2 sees a 

1 Gen. xxxviii. 21, 22 ; Dent, xxiii. 18 ; Numbers xxv. ] ; Hosea iv. 14. 

2 Asien unci Europa, p. 316. 


female form of the hunter Esau, wy, who, under the form Usoos, 
was regarded as a god who wore skins and was appeased by means 
of blood offerings. That she was a goddess of war and of the 
desert is clear from a relief, which is found on a stele near the 
building beside the temple set up by Seti I. at Redesiyeh in the 
Eastern Desert, on the road to the gold mines of Mount Zabara. 
The greatest of all the Syrian gods known to the Egyptians 

was Bar, J TsJ, or Pa-Bar, AK J p^l, i.e., Baal, the 

^tf?j of the Hebrews. Bar appears to have been a god of the 
mountain and the desert, and his worship was introduced into 
Egypt under the XVIIIth Dynasty. Like most of the Semitic 
gods and goddesses he was primarily a god of war and battle, and 
he may have been a personification of the burning and destroying 
heat of the sun and blazing desert wind. To the Egyptians of the 
Delta he soon became familiar, and as he was supposed to be the 
god who supported their foes the Syrians in many a hard-fought 
battle they regarded him with a certain awe and reverence. Of 
his form and worship we know nothing, but the Egyptians placed 
after their transliterations of his name a figure of the fabulous 
animal in which the god Set became incarnate, and it is clear 
that they must have believed Bar and Set to have qualities 
and attributes in common. Rameses II. boasts in his triumphal 
inscriptions that when he put on his panoply of war, and mounted 
his chariot, and set out to attack the Kheta soldiery he was like 
the god Bar, and we are justified in assuming from this and similar 
passages that the king of Egypt was proud to compare himself to 
the mighty Syrian war-god. Bar was worshipped in the Delta, 
chiefly in the neighbourhood of Tanis, where Rameses II. carried 
out such extensive building operations, and where a temple of the 
god existed. 

Here for the sake of convenience may be mentioned the 

goddess Bairtha, J'^llQrfj! i- e< > Ba'alath, or Beltis, of 
Tchapuna, J ^\ p °V 1 $ > in ful1 Bairtha Tchapuna or Ba'alath- 
Sephon, who may be regarded as the female counterpart of the 
Ba'al-Seph6n of the Hebrew Scriptures, but not as the wife of Bar. 



The city here referred to is on the borders of Egypt (see Exodus 
xiv. 2). Another city or district of the same name was situated in 
" Northern Phoenicia," * and is mentioned in an inscription of 
Tiglath-Pileser II. under the form Ba-'-li Sa-pu-na ^ *^zj 4fc*-*f- 
>- fc:£E= y<| ^ ^>— ^^T- ^- n a fragmentary inscription of Esarhaddon 
(Kuyunjik fragment, No. 3500, col. iv., line 10) the god Ba'al- 
Sephon is mentioned, together with other Phoenician gods, in a 
series of curses, and these are invoked to bring down upon the 
ships an evil wind which shall destroy both them and their rigging. 

In this fragment allusion is also 
made to Baal Sameme (&£& ^?) 
and -Baal Malagi, and all three are 
said to be the " gods across the 
river," w-J Jw^ tfl &£%E ]} £?, 
Hani ebir ndri. 2 

On the stele in the British 
Museum, No. 191, as has already 
been said, we meet with another 
Syrian god called Reshpu, 

D y^cjjj hi s cu ^ enjoyed a wide 
popularity in Syria, where he was 
regarded as a god of war. Signor 
Lanzone compares him to the Apollo 
Amyclaeus of the Greeks. 3 In the 
Egyptian texts he is described as 
the " great god, the lord of eternity, 
" the prince of everlastingness, the 
" lord of two-fold strength among 
the company of the gods ; great god, lord of heaven, governor of 


"the gods, c | |<=> |o| j^^ 


@ w 

ft£] = ^o\ 

© 1 1: 

o III I I c 

D o 

The chief centre of his wor 

1 Miiller, Asien mid Eur op a, p. 315. 

2 I owe this reference to Mr. R. C. Thompson of the British Museum. 

3 Dizionario, p. 483. 


ship was at Het-Reshp, J r^n Jn, in the Delta, but it is very 

probable that he was specially worshipped at many small provincial 
shrines on the eastern frontier of Egypt. He is represented in the 
form of a warrior who holds a shield and spear in his left hand, and 
a club in his right ; on his head he wears the White Crown, round 
the base of which is bound a turban. Above his forehead, project- 
ing from his turban, is the head of a gazelle, which appears to be a 
very ancient symbol of the god, and to indicate his sovereignty 
over the desert. Reshpu is connected with the god who was 
known to the Phoenicians under the name of =!#"}, and was, no 
doubt, a god of burning and destructive fire, and of the lightning. 
Opinions differ as to the pronunciation of the name *)$?, some 
reading " Reshef," i.e., "lightning," and others " RashsMf," i.e., 
" he who shoots out fire and lightning " ; the Egyptian transcrip- 
tion Reshpu supports the first opinion, and from every point of 
view it seems to be the correct one. 

The existence of yet another Syrian god has been pointed out 

by Midler, 1 who in the Egyptian Atuma, n ^ v\ a □ , or Athuma, 

j\ (l v\ , sees the equivalent of the D7N of the Hebrew 
Scriptures ; the female counterpart of the god appears under the 
form of Atuma, (j gA ^ -Jbva 3 . Finally, among the Western 
Syrians Miiller has quoted the existence of two goddesses called 

Ennukaru, 5^^=^^ < 7 > ^ ancl Amait, ^^I](l\^- 

In the list of the gods whose names are found at the end of 

the copy of the treaty which Rameses II. made with Kheta-sar, 

the prince of the Kheta, are found a number of Sutekh, 1 v\ „ Hj , 

gods of various cities, among them being Sutekh of Arenna, Sutekh 
of Thapu-Arenuta, Sutekh of Paireqa, Sutekh of Khisasapa, Sutekh 
of Saresu, Sutekh of Khirepu (Aleppo), Sutekh of Rekhasua, and 
Sutekh of Mukhipaina. In the paragraphs on the god Set it has 
been shown that for all practical purposes Sutekh and Set were 
one and the same god in the eyes of the Egyptians, and the 
fabulous Set animal was as much a symbol of Sutekh as he was of 

1 Asien und'Europa, p. 316. 



Set. Sutekh was supposed to be, more or less, a god of evil, but 
the Egyptians attempted to obtain his favour, even as they did 
that of Set, by means of offerings and prayers. 

Among the foreign gods known to the Egyptians is usually 

mentioned Bes, J I 5 , who according to some is of Semitic, and 

according to others of African origin ; 1 we may note, however, 
that the name of the god appears to be Egyptian, and it seems to 
have been bestowed upon him in very early times because of the 
animal's skin which he wore; the animal itself was called "Besa" 

or " Basu." 2 He is usually de- 
picted in the form of a dwarf with 
a huge bearded head, protruding 
tongue, flat nose, shaggy eye- 
brows and hair, large projecting 
ears, long but thick arms, and 
bowed legs ; round his body he 
wears the skin of an animal of the 
panther tribe, and its tail hangs 
down and usually touches the 
ground behind him ; on his head 
he wears a tiara of feathers, 
which suggests a savage or semi- 
savage origin. He is sometimes 
drawn in profile, like the other 
Egyptian gods, but usually he 
appears full face, like the god- 
dess Qetesh. As a god of music 
and the dance he is sometimes 
represented playing upon a harp ; 3 as a god of war and slaughter, 
and as a destroying force of nature he carries two knives 
in his hands ; as a warrior he appears in a short military 
tunic, which is fastened round his body by a belt, and he 

1 Mtiller, Asien und Europa, p. 310 ; Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient 
Egyptians, p. 159. 

2 J ^Ci B ES ' J \^v\ 1> Basu = Felis Cynailurus; see Aeg. Zeit. ii. 10. 

3 Lanzone, Dizionario, pll. 76, 77. 


BES 285 

holds in his left hand a shield and a short sword in his rierht. 
Figures of Bes are found carved upon the handles of mirrors, on 
Jeohl vessels, and on pillows, all of which indicate that in one aspect 
at least he was associated with rest, and joy, and pleasure. From 
a number of scenes on the walls of the temples and from bas-reliefs 
we see that Bes was supposed to be present in the chambers and 
places wherein children were born, and he seems to have been 
regarded as a protector of children and youths, and a god who 
studied to find them pleasure and amusement. 

According to Midler, 1 two figures of the god were found at 
Kahun, and, if these really belong to the period when that city was 
nourishing, Bes must have been honoured there as early as the 
Xllth Dynasty. Taken by itself, however, this evidence is not 
worth a great deal, because the 
figures may have been placed in the 
tombs at Kahun during burials of a 
much later date. One of the oldest 
representations of Bes, as Prof. 
Wiedemann has pointed out, is 
found in a relief in the famous 
temple of Hatshepset at Der al- 
Bahari, where he appears in the 
chamber wherein the birth of the 
great queen is supposed to be 
taking place. In this chamber Bes - 

Meskhent, the goddess of birth, presides, and we see the goddesses 
who act as midwives to the queen of Thothmes L, and those who 
are nurses, and the gods of the four quarters of the earth, etc, 
waiting to minister to Hatshepset and to her Ka, or double, which 
was, of course, born when she was. By the side of the couch stand 
Bes and Ta-ukt, the former with his well-known attributes, and 
the latter represented in the form of a hippopotamus standing on 
her hind legs, and leaning with her fore legs upon the emblem of 
magical protection, ^ . What Bes and Ta-urt were to do for the 
princess is not apparent, but as we find one or both of these deities 

1 Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 310. 

286 BES 

represented in the lying-in rooms of Egyptian queens, it is clear 
that their presence was considered to be of great importance both 
to mother and child. In the Heliopolitan and Theban Recensions 
of the Book of the Dead the name of Bes does not occur, but in one 
of the vignettes to the cxlvth Chapter (§ xxi.) of the Saite 
Recension this god is seen guarding one of the pylons of the house 
of Osiris in the Underworld. At some period under the New 
Empire the original attributes of Bes were modified, and he 
assumed the character of a solar god and became identified with 
Horus the Child, or Harpocrates ; little by little he was merged in 
other forms of the Sun-god, until at length he absorbed the 
characteristics of Horus, Ra, and Temu. As Horus, or Harpocrates, 
he wore the lock of hair, which is symbolic of youth, on the right 
side of his head, and as Ra-Temu he was given the withered cheeks 
and attributes of an old man. On the Metternich Stele we see the 
head of the " Old Man who renews his youth, and the Aged One 
" who maketh himself once again a boy," placed above that of 
Horus, the god of renewed life and of the rising sun, to show that 
the two heads represent, after all, only phases of one and the same 

After the XXVIth Dynasty and during the Ptolemaic period 
we find from certain bronze figures, numerous examples of which 
are found in the various Museums of Europe, that Bes was merged 
wholly in Horus, and that the Egyptians bestowed upon him the 
body and wings of a hawk united to the body of a vigorous young 
man, who, however, had the head of a very aged man surmounted 
by the group of heads with which we are familiar from the Cippi of 
Horus. On the Metternich Stele (see above, p. 273) we see him 
wearing the plumes of Shu and of the other gods of light and air, 
and the horns of Amen or of the Ram of Mendes, and above these 
are eight knives and the emblem of million of years, and he holds 
in his hands all the emblems of sovereignty and dominion which 
Osiris holds, besides serpents, which he crushes in his grasp. He 
stands upon an oval wherein are grouped specimens of all the 
Typhonic beasts, and we may gather from his attitude that he is 
lord of them all. In the vignette to the xxviiith Chapter of the 
Book of the Dead a monster, who somewhat resembles Bes, is 

The God BES. 

BES 287 

seen standing before the deceased, though apparently not in a 
threatening attitude ; he holds a knife close to his breast in his 
right hand, and he clasps the root of his tail with his left. There 
is no indication in the text to show who this monster is, but it 
seems very probable that it is Bes. In the vignette under con- 
sideration the creature has a huge head with long and shaggy 
hair, but, although his body is large and his limbs massive, he is 
not represented as a dwarf; he has, apparently, come with his 
knife to cut out the heart of the deceased, and to carry it away 
from him. The papyrus in which it is found, viz., that of Nefer- 
uben-f, which is preserved in Paris, probably dates from the 
XVIIIth Dynasty, and if the monster be really Bes, or some such 
form of him as Hit, | M ofl, it is important to note that he had 
found a place in the Theban Recension of the Booh of the Dead at 
that early period of its history. 

It is difficult to understand the change of view on the part of 

the Egyptians which turned the god of mirth, and laughter, and 

pleasure into an avenging deity, but it may be explained by 

assuming that he only exhibited his terror and ferocity to the 

wicked, while to the good in the Underworld he was a true friend 

and merry companion. In the texts, especially those of the late 

period, Bes is sometimes mentioned in connexion with Neter Ta, 

or the " Divine Land," or " Land of the God," i.e., Arabia, and as 

this name is also used in connexion with Punt, and is applied to 

the adjacent lands, attempts have been made to prove that the 

god is of Arabian origin. This is, however, extremely improbable, 

for his characteristics are much more those of an African than 

Asiatic deity. The figure of Bes suggests that his home was a 

place where the dwarf and pygmy were held in esteem, whilst his 

head-dress resembles those head-dresses which were, and still are, 

worn by the tribes of Equatorial Africa, and this would lead us to 

place his home in that portion of it which lies a few degrees to the 

north of the Equator. The knowledge of the god, and perhaps 

figures of him, were brought from this region, which the Egyptians 

called the " Land of the Spirits," to Egypt in the early dynastic 

period, when kings of Egypt loved to keep a pygmy at their 

courts. The earthly kinsmen of the god who lived to the soutli 

288 MERUL 

of Egypt were, no doubt, well known even to the predynastic 
Egyptians, and as the dynastic Egyptians were at all times familiar 
with the figure of Bes those of the late period may be forgiven for 
connecting him with the "Land of the God," or Punt, whence, 
according to tradition, came the early people who invaded the Nile 
Valley from the east, or south-east, and settled in Egypt at no 
great distance from the modern city of Kena. Bes wears an 
animal's tail, which is a striking characteristic of the early men of 
Punt, but so does every Egyptian god, and every god, when once 
he had been included among the gods of Egypt, whether originally 
Libyan, or Syrian, or Nubian, was endowed with an animal's tail 
and a plaited beard, which are the traditional attributes of the 
people of Punt. In his original conception Bes is certainly 
African, and his cult in Egypt is coeval with dynastic civilization ; 
the name of the god continued in use long after he himself was 
forgotten, and some famous Copts bore it, among them being 
Besa, the disciple of the great monk Shenuti, cyertoY+. 

A Nubian god of interest and of some local importance is 

Merul or Meril, *<^l v\ _2^, or ?\ <=> M _£=&, who was the 

son of Horus and Isis ; he was the third member of the tfiad of 

the city of Termes, or Telmes, ©, a city the site of 

which is marked by the modern village of Kalabsheh in Nubia, 
situated about thirty-five miles to the north of Syene. At Dabod 
also he was the third member of the local triad, which consisted of 
Seb, Nut, and Merul. In the figures of the god reproduced by 
Lanzone 1 he is depicted in the form of a man, with or without a 
beard, and he wears the White Crown with plumes, or the triple 
crown with horns and uraei, or a crown composed of a pair of 
horns, with two plumes and a solar disk between them, and uraei. 
His titles are : — " Great god, governor (or dweller in) the White 
Mountain," i|^Q^£]i^; "son of Horus, great god, lord of 
Telmes," "^\ ' ^\ ' 1 t ^37 ^== ; " Great Sekhem, governor of 

the two lands of the West," ^l^^fl^fe^^;" Beautiful 

1 Dizlonario, pll. 122, 123. 


bov who proceedeth from the son of Isis," 8 ^§*> fa f j;^^ / Q J c 

A /WWW J (i ^ JJ O ' 

and "holy child of the son of Osiris," a 4^- jp) ^ /wwa ^ ^H^. A 
text quoted by Brugsch l speaks of Merul as coming from Ta-neter, 

i "s I o©' i,e *' the on botl1 sides of tne southern end of the 

Red Sea, and the coast of Africa which is further to the south. 
Thus it seems that Merul is not of Egyptian origin, and it is 
probable that the worship of the god is very ancient. The 
variant forms of his name are: — 1= *" K t= i. or " t=x <===> ®^ c 

^ _£s& (|(| 5o^, and ^ <=> ^ ', i.e., Menruil, Menlil, and Mer- 
uter ; from the first two of these was formed the classical name of 
the god — Mandulis. The centres of the worship of the god were 
at Telmes and Philae ; at the former place the temple of Merul 
was rebuilt by Augustus on the site of an earlier building, but the 
ruins of the little shrine of the god at Philae, which stood behind 
the colonnade of the Temple of Ari-hes-nefer, suggests that the 
building was the work of one of the early Ptolemies, perhaps of 

In connexion with the question of the cult of foreign gods in 
Egypt, and of the gods of Egypt in foreign lands, reference may 
here be made to a theory which has recently been put forward 2 to 
the effect that several of the gods of Egypt were worshipped as 
idols by the Arabs of the pre-Islamic times. According to this 
the Egyptian god Tern, ^ ^ ^j , = the Arabic idol Tim, r* 
Tehuti (Thoth), ^%, = Ta'ut, -^u= ; Iusaas, J\ " 

Ya'uth, 4>j*£ ; Reret, < _ > % , = Lat, win ; Uatchit, 

'Azza, ^\ ; Menat, l\ , = Men at, SU* ; Meteni, f\ ^^ Q fl 
Medan, WM ; Hap-re, | § ^ ^ ^, = Habal, J*; Bes, J (1 *\ 
Buss, y-j ; Bennu, J Q ^ ^g& , = Bctwanat, &^ 5 Bar, J *a 
Ba'al, J» ; and so on. The theory is of interest, but bevond a 

1 See Brugsch, Geographic, p. 954. 

2 See Ahmed-Bey Kamal, Les Uoles Arabes et les Divinites Egyptiennez 
(Recueil, xxiv., p. 11 ft\). 

II — U 


certain similarity between the Egyptian and Arabic names little 
proof has been brought forward in support of it. It is, of course, 
quite possible that the knowledge of several of the gods and 
goddesses of Egypt should have found its way into Arabia in early 
times ; indeed this is only what is to be expected. We know that 
already in the Illrd Dynasty the turquoise mines of Sinai were 
worked for the benefit of the kings of Egypt, and that the goddess 
Hathor was especially worshipped in the Peninsula of Sinai long 
before the close of the Vlth Dynasty. From Sinai the knowledge 
of Hathor, and Sept, and of other Egyptian gods worshipped at 
Sarbiit al-Khadem and other mining centres would spread to the 
north and south, and it is tolerably certain that it would reach 
every place where the caravans carried torquoises for barter. 
Under the Middle and New Empires this knowledge would become 
very widespread, and might have reached the tribes in the extreme 
south of the Arabian Peninsula. On the other hand, we have no 
proof that the pre-Islamic Arabs adopted Egyptian gods, or that 
they even attempted to understand their attributes and cult. 
Before the theory already referred to can be accepted it must be 
shown that the Egyptian and Arabian gods whose names are 
quoted above are really identical, and that it has more to rest 
upon than similarities of names. The pre-Islamic gods were pro- 
bably indigenous, and the pre-Islamic tribes being Semitic, their 
gods would be, naturally, of a character quite different from that 
of the gods of Egypt, and the attributes of the Semitic gods would 
be entirely different from those of the Egyptian gods. Whatsoever 
borrowing of gods took place under the early dynasties was from 
Egypt by Arabia and not from Arabia by Egypt, and this is true 
for all periods of Egyptian history, with the exception of the late 
Ptolemaic period, when a few local and unimportant Arabian gods 
appear to have been adopted at certain places in Egypt. The 
pre-Islamic Arabs were worshippers of stocks and stones, and it is 
exceedingly doubtful if they were sufficiently developed, either 
mentally or spiritually, before the period of the XXVIth Dynasty 
to understand the gods of Egypt and their attributes, or to adopt 
their cult to their spiritual needs which, after all, can only have 
been those of nomadic desert tribes. 

( 291 ) 
















-The Gods of the Twenty-eight finger-breadths of the 

Royal Cubit 

Ra, O . 

Shu, p. 

KHENT, £3. 

Seb, <^. 
Xut, O^. 
Asar, j] . 

Ast, r . 
Set, 3-J. 
Xebt-het, Tj . 

Heru, v\, . 

Mest, — h— . 


tuamatef, ^ 



a d 

16. Sep, ^L. 

17. Heq, j^. 

18. Armaua, =f|^. 

-C2>- <^> 

19. Maa-en-tef. 

20. Ar-ren-f-tchesef, 

21. Hak (?) _£>. 

22. Septu, (\\§^- 

23. Seb, *. 

24. An-Her, ^ F=q. 

25. Her-aua, v\ \~^\- 

26. Sheps, ^sL 

27. Amsu (or Min), ^, 

28. Uu, ^^. 


II. — The Gods and Goddesses of the Days of the Month. 

1. . 1st hour of the 1st day of the Moon : Shu, (J £ ^ . 

2. Ilnd „ 

3. IUrd „ 

4. IVth „ 

5. Vth „ 

6. Vlth 

7. Vllth „ 

8. VHIth 

n n 

9. IXth 

10. Xth 

11. Xlth 

12. Xllth 

11 11 

11 11 

11 11 

11 11 

11 11 










Heru-sa-Ast, v^ 

AST, j|°. 

Sekhet, fy • . 

I ^ VJ 

Uatchit, |(j(j ^. 



Aa[x], ~ 

M V 

Hetet, ^ 




X _£^ 

=> To' 



1 . 1st hour of the night of the XHIth day of the Moon : Shu, p ^ . 

„ „ [Tefnut, 

2. Ilnd 

3. Illrd 

4. IVth 

5. Vth 

6. Vlth 







Seb (Qeb), 

Nut, ° 


Anpet, (j ^ 
Khent, ^ 



III. — The Gods and Goddesses of the Months of the Year. 


1. eouoYT 

TiM ° . Goddess Tekhi 1 

\\ . 

1 Yar., ^ ^L? 5 Tekh-heb. 




2. n*om = 

3. <\eujp = 

4. x ot * K — 

5. tujKi = 

6. ute^'P = 

7. cpAJutertuje = 

8. c|>ApuioYei = 

9. n^x cjurf = 

10. n<\uum = 

11. ennn = 

12. jmecuupH = 



God Ptah-aneb-res-f 1 


Goddess Het-hert 



Goddess Sekhet 2 

o O' 

^ 0' 

o © 

God Amsu, or Min 3 
God Rekeh-ur 4 
God Rekeh-netches 

Goddess Rennutet 

God Khensu 
God Khenthi 5 
Goddess Apt g 

God Heru-khuti 7 

• 1^ 

/VWW\ I _21 

dlh ] 111- 

IV. — The Birthdays of the Gods and Goddesses of the Five 

Epagomenal Days. 

1. Day I. 

2. Day II. 

v£? ® , The Birthday of Osiris. 
Oil, The Birthday of Horus. 

Milium , r\ i— i -_ 

1 Variants, /ww^ Menkhet and v ^ / ( ^ , Heb-apt. 

2 Var., M <©> LJ , Ka-her-ka-heb. 

3 Var., 



1 Var., 


O rJT > Makhiar. 


(](]], Heru. 


5 Variants, 


6 Variants, (1 U l) e» ? Apt-hent and <j£? (j X I, Heb-api-hkxi-s. 

7 Variants, v^y- ^2^7, Apt-Renpit and ^ZS^ ^ , Heb-tep. 

<£X ^ ^ 





Day III. 


The Birthday of Set. 


Day IV. 


The Birthday of Isis. 


Day V. 


The Birthday of Nephthys 

V. — The Gods and 

1. First Hour . 

2. Second Hour 

3. Third Hour . 

4. Fourth Hour 

5. Fifth Hour . 

6. Sixth Hour . 

7. Seventh Hour 

8. Eighth Hour 

9. Ninth Hour . 

10. Tenth Hour . 

11. Eleventh Hour 

12. Twelfth Hour 

Goddesses of the Hours of the Day. 
Amseth . . HYP 11' 

Hap . 




Armai . 

Maa-tef-f . 




Ari-nef Nebat. 1 


D • 

1\) AA/WV* 

IA www 







VI. — The Gods and Goddesses of the Hours of the Night. 

The deities of the hours of the night are the same as those of 
the hours of the day, and their names follow each other in the 
order in which they occur as gods of the hours of the day. 

1 Var., An-erta-nef-nebat, 




VII. — The Gods and G-oddesses who watch before and 


of the Day and of the Night. 

By Day 

Before Osiris 

Behind Osiris 

By Nighl 

i Before Osiris 

Behind Osiris 

Hour 1. 



Hour 1. 

Thoth and Anep 








Anep and Ap-ual 








Heru and Thoth Tuamutef 







Heru and Ast 
















Shu and Seb 








Thoth and Anep 








Heru and those 
in his train 















Heru and those 
in his train 








Neteru ent ha- 







Heru and Seb 



VIII. — The Gods of the Four Winds. 
1. The North Wind was called Qebui, a J X^2, or 

A ^^ I 

North Wind. 

North Wind. 


2. The South Wind was called Shehbui, "^ J XN 2^3 




jE H^ A 

South Wind. 

West Wind. 

3. The Bast Wind was called Henehisesui, ^ ® [Ifl 

4 2 ^ or 

4. The West Wind was called Hutchaiui, 8 ® J [](j ^y 2 



East Wind. 

East Wind. 

IX. — The Gods of the Senses. 

1. Saa, n*^^\ d^a^j), the god of the sense of Touch or 
Feeling and of knowledge and understanding, is depicted in the 



ordinary form of a man-god, and he has upon his head the sign 
^m, which is the symbol of his name. One of the earliest 
mentions of this god occurs in the text of Unas (line 439), where it 
is said that the dead king has " taken possession of Hu and hath 
gained the mastery over Saa," s^p ' 8 ^\ Jk. [HJ ® f\ 
P (] *mm j^ j^. . In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead, 
Saa, or Saa, appears in the Judgment Scene among the gods who 
watch the weighing of the heart of the deceased in the Great 
Balance, and he is mentioned in the xviith Chapter as one of the 
gods who came into being from the drops of blood which fell from 
Ra when he mutilated himself. From the same Chapter we learn 
that it was he who made the pun on the name of Ra, the Cat, 

God of God of the 
Touch. Intelligence. 

God of God of 
Seeing. Hearing. 

The gods of the Senses. 

which he declared to be " Mail," 

because it was " like 

(man, U tj y> - ) that which he made. Saa with Thoth, and Sheta, 
and Tem formed the " souls of Khemennu " (Hermopolis), 1 and Saa 
had a place in the Boat of Ra (cxxxvi.B 12), with Hu and other 
gods. In Chapter clxix. (line 19), Saa is declared to protect the 

members of the deceased by his magical powers, (1 v\ ^m Jj v\ 
• Q ^^j although what he was exactly supposed to do 

for him is unknown ; in this passage he is mentioned in connexion 
with the goddess Sesheta, the " lady of writing," and one of the 
female counterparts of Thoth. In Chapter clxxiv. (line 2), Saa is said 
to have been begotten by Seb, and to have been brought forth by 

1 See Chapter cxvii. 


the company of the gods, and this statement supplies us with the 
reason why he is grouped among the gods of the cycle of Osiris. 
The texts make it clear that Saa was the personification of the 
intelligence, whether of a god or of a human being, and the 
deceased coveted the mastery over this god because he could give 
him the power to perceive, and to feel, and to understand. At the 
end of the clxxivth Chapter (lines 16, 17), a " Great Intelligence," 

Saau-ur, and an " Intelligence of the 


Amenti of Ra," 1 1 (1 ^\ s^m ft *" ""ffl , Saa- Amenti-Ra, are 

2. Hu, 8 "v\ = j\, or = J), the god of the sense of 

Taste is depicted in the ordinary form of a man-god, and he also 
has upon his head the sign *=, which is the symbol of his name. 
He is mentioned in the text of Unas with Saa, and he appears 
with him in the Judgment Scene, and he was present together 
with Amen, Thoth, Nekhebet, Uatchet, and Saa, when Isis brought 
forth her son Horus in the papyrus swamps of the Delta. Like 
Saa, the god Hu came into existence from a drop of blood which 
fell from Ra when he mutilated himself. Hu was, however, not 
only the personification of the sense of taste in god and man, but 
also became the personification of the divine food upon which the 
gods and the beatified saints lived in heaven. Thus in the 
lxxxth Chapter of the Booh of the Bead the deceased says, " I 
" have taken possession of Hu in my city, for I found him therein," 
and in Chapter clxix. (line 22) it is said to the deceased, " Hu is 
in thy mouth." In some passages it is difficult to decide whether 
the hu mentioned in the texts refers to the god of the sense of 
Taste, or to the divine food hu. 

3. Maa, "~~J 3, the god of the sense of Sight, is depicted in 
the ordinary form of a man-god, who has upon his head an eye, 
<s>-, which is both the emblem of his chief attribute and the 
symbol of his name. 

4. Setem, ^ T , the god of the sense of Hearing, is depicted 
in the ordinary form of a man-god, who has upon his head an ear, 
^ , which is both the emblem of his chief attribute and the symbol 


of his name. The gods of the Four Senses appear together in a 
relief which was made for Ptolemy IV. at Edfu. In this we have 
the Sun's disk on the horizon placed in a boat wherein are the 
gods Heru-merti, Ap-uat, Shu, Hathor, Thoth, Neith, and Heru- 
khent-khathet ; the king stands in front of the boat and is offering 

Maat, \ft, to the god. Behind him are the gods of the senses of 

Taste and Touch, and behind the boat stand the gods of the senses 
of Sight and Hearing. An interestino- variant form of the god 
Setem is reproduced by Signor Lanzone, from which we see that 
he sometimes had the head of a bull with the body of a man ; the 
text which accompanies the figure describes the god as " the 
dweller in Pa-Shu" (i.e., Dendera), and calls him the "bull, lord 
of strength." * 

X. — The Soul-God. 

The mvthoWical and religious texts contain indications that 
the Egyptians believed in what may be described as a " "World- 
Soul," which they called Ba, Jsk J|; its symbol was a bearded 

man-headed hawk, and it was identified with more than one god, 
for there was a Soul of Ra, a Soul of Shu, 2 a Soul of Seb, a Soul of 
Tefnut, a Soul of Osiris, and " the Soul of the Great Body which 
is in Sa'is, [i.e.,] Neith." In the Booh of the Dead (xvii. 109 ff.) 
we find that the Soul of Ra and the Soul of Osiris together 
form the double divine soul which inhabited the Tchafi, 

(fe? *vT~ "^^W w w\ ' wno dwelt m T e tt u - The existence of a 
World-Soul presupposed the existence of a World-Body, which 
is of course the material universe ; and the type of this was, 
according to the priests of Heliopolis, the body of Osiris, and 
according to the priests of Sa'is, the goddess Xeith ; in other cities 
the priests, no doubt, identified the World-Body with their local 
gods. Men and gods were supposed to contain the same component 
parts. Man possessed:— 1. A physical body (^1^, hhat). 2. A 

1 Dizionario, pi. 384, No. 2. 3 Brugscli, Diet. G< : o<j., p. 77G. 


soul ffefc, or J\ , ba). 3. A heart (® , db). 4. A double (U, 
ha). 5. An intelligence f^^, Ichu). 6. Power (y , sekhem). 
7. A shadow (|, hhaibit). 8. A spiritual body Ml a 8 Q, sdh). 

9. A name ( , ren) ; and the gods possessed divine counter- 

parts of all these. Thus Khepera was " strong in his heart " l 
when he began to create the world, and according to one version 
of the Egyptian legend of Creation this god was united to his 
shadow. A god had only one heart and one shadow, etc., but he 
might possess several souls and " doubles," and we know that the 
souls of Ka were seven in number, and his doubles fourteen. 
The names of these last were: — 1. Heq, v^ ; "intelligence." 

2. Nekht, U=4, "strength." 3. Khu, m, "splendour." 4. Usr, 
" , "power." 5. Uatch, J, "vigour." 6. Tchefa, <|v, "abund- 
ance." 7. Sheps, ijJ, "wealth." 8. Senem, ^, "interment." 

9. Sept, ^, "provision." 10. Tet, jj, "stability." 11. Maa,-<e>-, 

"sight." 12. Setem, 4), "hearing." 13. Sa, <mm, "intelligence." 

14. Hu, *=, "taste." Similarly the texts show that the 

Egyptians believed in the existence of a divine Khu, and of a 
divine Sekhem, etc. 

XL Goddesses and Gods of the Twelve Hours of the 



Hour I. ^p£frS^* . 
^ Villi * o 

II. ■*■ 

„ III. 


O o o 


30 <=> O 

* . 









Hour V. ^7 
VI. w [ 




IX. ^! — eP>*. 

<=> w 

XL 4. 


^ o 




wwa 11 

^ Q 







mut- neb-set. 





I. $<=>(), > 

11 f J^ 

] w 






IX. ->^* 
— a 1 ~ 

* . 





1 s 1 

! * 
















XII. — The Goddesses and Gods of the Twelve Hours 

of the Day. 


L 81 




. . NuNUT. 


<=> Q 




. Shu. 

. . Hu. 

el . Sau. 


IV. ^ . . Seshetat. 

V. ^ — ■— J . Xesbet. 

TTT M X7 ^ t - 

VL I © o • ■ ' A?ABIT - 

vii. ^_^ (](] ©inn • Nekiu - 

VIII. M ~ . • Kheperu. 


. . . Tehuti. 

(2 O 



IX. W 1=3=3 


. Tcheser-shetat 



<Tt) i Heru-em-au-ab. 

o u • 

. . Khensu. 

. . AST. 

x. t;h;- sa ™ t - ^V\ 

xi. p§ 








o * 



XIII. — The Planets and their Gods. 1 

1. Jupiter, the "star of the South," ^c JLv, was called 
under the XlXth and XXth Dynasties Heru-ap-sheta-taui, 
= , and in the Graeco-Roman period Heru-ap-sheta, 

D ^^ *, or Heru-pe-sheta, ^ 3 Q l ~^~' *. This planet 

was without a god. 

2. Saturn, the " star of the West which traverseth heaven," 



is ° ^, was called " Heru-ka-pet," * 

1 See Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 65 ff. ; Aegyptologie, p. 336. 




" Horus, Bull of heaven," under the XlXth and XXth Dynasties, 
and in the Graeco-Roman period Heru-p-ka and Heru-ka, 

^ D ^[ , and ^ ^j x . The god of this planet was Horus. 

3. Mars, the "star of the East of heaven," x * ~| D °, which 
is described as the "[star] which journeyeth backwards in travelling," 
1 1 \ ^j U&L J^ ^Z~^Z~ -^> was called " Heru-khuti," ^\ s , under 
the XlXth and XXth Dynasties, and in the Graeco-Roman period 
" Heru-tesher," ^ ' * <^, i.e., "the Red Horus." The god of I 
this planet was Ra, G. 

Ven lis. 





4. Mercury was called Sebku, [1 J] ZS % x, under the XlXth I 

and XXth Dynasties, and Sebek, P J S, or Sebek, P j ^T^, 1 in the 

Graeco-Roman period. The god of this planet was Set, H q x • 

I i 1 j 

5. Venus was called the " star of the ship of the Bennu- 
Asar, j I Jx | ^ ^ni J JjjJ)' under the XlXth and 

XXth Dynasties, and " Pi-neter-Tuau," i.e., the "god of the 
morning," in the Graeco-Roman period. The god of this planet 
was Osiris. As an evening star Venus was called Sbat uatitha, 

X <^ 

1 ^[^^H^*- 



XIV. — The Dekans and their Gods. 1 

The Dekans. 

1. Tepa-Kenmut . . 

Ptolemaic Variants. 2 

f~ K— 1 5^ 3 


1. Tepa-Kenmut. 

2. Kenmut 


2. Kemnut. 


3. Kher-khept-Kenmut ^ f^ 

3. Kher-khept-Kenmut. 

4. Ha-tchat . . . f __g) 


141 AA/WV\ S^ , 

4. Ha-tchat. 

-=S A* 

5. Pehui-tchat 

5. Pehui-tchat. 

6. Themat-hert . . 

w & ~k 


w & 


6. Themat-hert. 

a <o 


_J> *• 

1 See Lepsins, Chronologie, p. 69 ; Brugsch, Thesaurus, p. 137 ff. ; Aegtjpt- 
ologie, p. 340. 

2 The Greek transcriptions are as follows : — 


The Dekans. 
7. Themat-khert . 


<=> <=> 


* n# 

7. Themat-khert. 


Ptolemaic Variants. 

8. Ustha. 

8. USTHA H^]1* 

9. Beeatha . . . . /nf) *. 

□ 02 


9. Bekatha. 

10. Tepa-khentet . 

11. Khentet-hert . 


10. Tepa-Khentet. 

® l 



rilh *■ 

11. Khentet-hert. 

12. Khentet-khert . r]Tk 

13. Themes-en-khentet s== 

tf -55- * 

12. Khentet-khert. 





* tf 

13. Themes-en-khentet. 

14. Sapt-khennu . . ^ '-' 

^ ■> 




8 CnTXN€ 


n — x 



The Dekans. 

Ptolemaic Variants. 

15. Her-ab-uaa . . . * <0> s^* 



O s^^c. 

15. Her-ab-uaa. 

16. Shesmu . . 

17. Kenmu . . 

18. Semtet . 

19. Tepa-semt 

21. Sasa-Sert. 

16. Shesmu. 


m — /wv^m 2 

/WW\A >1( , 



* . tfr 

19. Tepa-semt. 

20. Sert 

21. S AS A- SERT . . . 


20. Sert. 



22. Kher-khept-sert. 

22. Kher-khept-sert . A» l^*! 

Ci * 

s c CPC0 r CICPOJ 8 



The Dekans. 

23. Khukhu 


Ptolemaic Variants. 


23. Khukhu. 

2-i. Baba. 

24. Baba . . . 

25. Khent-heru . 







25. Khent-heru. 

26. Her-ab-khentu . . 

27. Khent-kheru . . 

26. Her-ab-khentu. 






* • 

* * 

27. Khent-kheru. 

28. Qet. 

28. Qet . . . 

29. Sasaqet . . 




29. Sasaqet. 

30. Art. 

30. Art 



1 TnHXY 2 XY 3 TnHBlOY 4 BIOY, TniBlOY 


31. Khau 


The Dekans. Ptolemaic Variants. 



31. Khau. 

32. Remen-heru-an-Sah. 

32. Remen-heru-an-Sah ""* * % h %% 

AAA/W <^> Jl ill IS X C 

33. Mestcher-Sah . . | ^ ffs ^ l^ x 

/^--& . 2 



33. Mestcher-Sah. 3-4. Remeu-kher-Sah 

34. Remen-eher-Sah . "^ J^ Jj. x 

35. A-Sah 


fl o X' 


35. A-Sah. 

36. Sah |^ x 

37. Septet . . . . A ^ . 5 

36. Sah. 

* a 

37. Septet. 

1 €P(0, APOY 2 P€M€NAAP€ 3 0OCOAK 



The Gods of the Dekans. 

1. See, 1k J J **, or Hapi-Asmat, %,%v (j fl ^ °°° o , or 


2. Ba, 5^£, or Isis. 

3. Khentet-khast, ' (1 ^ , or Isis, or the Children of Horus. 

4. Ast (Isis), r °, or Tuamutef, or the Children of Horus. 

5. Nebt-tep-ahet, ® 5r53> or ^ ne Children of Horus. 

6. Mestha-Hapi, " = "|(1 §(1(1, or Tuamutef. 

7. Qebh-sennuf, KB' ' ', or Tuamutef. 

8. Tuamutef, * \\ ° • 

9. Tuamutef, Qebhsennuf, or Hapi. 

10. Tuamutef, Hapi. 

11. Heru, ^ ***. 

12. Set, [1~***. 

13. Heru, ^ *** . 

14. Ast Nebt-het, n^ |T . 

15. Set, [i , or Ur, 

' I era' 

16. Heru, v\ , or Ur 

17. Mestha, Hapi, Tuamutef, Qebhsennuf, ~ J(| 

-^ ^ rs; n i i i *** 

18. Heru, ^*. 

19. Hapi, ^^ (| D (](] ^ ***) . 

20. Ast, jj- 

21. Tuamutef, Qebhsennuf. 

22. Qebhsennuf. 







tljamutef, qebhsennuf. 
Mestha, Hapi. 

Heru, vj 

Heru, V\ 


I oooo 

***** x 


30. Mestha, Hapi, Qebhsennuf, Tuamutef, Qebhsennuf, Hapi. 

31. Hapi. 

32. Mestha. 

33. Tuamutef, Qebhsennuf. 

Maat-Heru, Heru, 


35. Maat-Heru, Heru 

36. Maat-Heru 

37. Maat-Heru Ast, 


XV. — The Star-gods behind Sothis and Orion. 

1§><I|§=x, or Shetu, c:s ^ , w. 

1. Shethu, 



2. Nesru, — "— _£=£ 


3. Shepet, ^ D x. 

4. Apsetch, 



5. Sebshes, H J x • 

6. Uash-neter, c 1 £) , 

1 Variant for Nos. 29 and 30, 
No. 29, 

j| o — W fft fr variant of 

aaaaaa ******; variant of No. 30, Hapi, Qebhsennuf. 


M a 

~ a 

P « 

is 9 

^ a 2 










































































,3 75 


XVI. — The Star-gods of the Southern and Northern Heavens. 

(Seep. 313.) 

1. The hippopotamus Hesamut, 8 r 1 ^ juNj or Reret, ^^j 
up the back of which climbs a crocodile without name ; Dr. Brugsch 
identifies this representation with Draco. In a list of the hours 
the various parts of the body and members of the hippopotamus 

goddess are mentioned, e.g., 1. _f _f ***** <=>. 2. ^ il £. 

2. The bull Meskheti, ffj ® ^J this was the Egyptian 

equivalent of our Great Bear. 

3. Horus the Warrior An, , who holds in his hand a 


weapon with which he is attacking the Great Bear. 

4. A man standing upright and wearing a disk on his head ; 
without name. 

5. A man standing upright; he holds a sjDear which he is 
driving into a crocodile. This figure is without name. 

6. A hawk ; without name. 

7. The goddess Serqet, I , in the form of a woman. 

. |\ n r—l O- .« /WW\A n MVWS\ 

8. The lion Am (?), Q-y--2», or ^ , oXN -fl- n ' with 
eighteen stars. 

9. The crocodile Serisa, R < ~ :> ^ <=ss^ . 

XVII. — From the famous circular representation of the 
heavens, commonly known as the " Zodiac of Dendera," which was 
formerly in the second room of the Temple Roof at Dendera, but 
which is now preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, 
we learn that the Egyptians had a knowledge of the Twelve Signs 
of the Zodiac. It is wrong, however, to conclude from this, as 
some have done, that the Egyptians were the inventors of the 
Zodiac, for they borrowed their knowledge of the Signs of the 
Zodiac, together with much else, from the Greeks, who had 
derived a great deal of their astronomical lore from the Baby- 
lonians ; this is certainly so in the matter of the Zodiac. It is at 




present a subject for conjecture at what period the Babylonians 
first divided the heavens into sections by means of the constella- 
tions of the Zodiac, but we are fully justified in assuming that the 
earliest forms of the Zodiac date from an exceedingly primitive 
time. The early dwellers in Babylonia who observed the heavens 
systematically wove stories about the constellations which they 
beheld, and even went so far as to introduce them into their 
national religious literature, for Babylonian astrology and theology 
are very closely connected. Thus in the Creation Legend the 
brood of monsters which were spawned by Tiamat and were 
intended by her to help her in the fight which she was about to 
wage against Marduk, the champion of the gods, possessed astro- 
logical as well as mythological attributes, and some of them at 
least are to be identified with Zodiacal constellations. This view 
has been long held by Assyriologists, but additional proof of its 
accuracy has recently been furnished by Mr. L. W. King in his 
"Seven Tablets of Creation," 1 wherein he has published an 
interesting Babylonian text of an astrological character, from which 
it is clear that Tiamat, under the form of a constellation in the 
neighbourhood of the Ecliptic, is associated with a number of 
Zodiacal constellations in such a manner that they may be identified 
with members of her mythical monster brood. The tablet in the 
British Museum from which Mr. King has obtained this text is not 
older than the Persian period ; but there is little doubt that the 
beliefs embodied in it were formulated at a far earlier time. That 
certain forms of the Creation Legends existed as early as B.C. 2300 
there is satisfactory evidence to show, and the origins of the 
systematized Zodiac as used by the later Babylonians and by the 
Greeks are probably as old ; whether the Babylonians were them- 
selves the inventors of such origins, or whether they are to be 
attributed to the earlier, non-Semitic, Sumerian inhabitants of the 
country cannot be said. It is, however, quite certain that the 
Greeks borrowed the Zodiac from the Babylonians, and that they 
introduced it into Egypt, probably during the Ptolemaic period. 
The following are the forms of the Signs of the Zodiac as given at 

1 Vol. I., page 204. 



1. Aries. 

4. Cancer. 

6. Virgo. 

7. Libra. 

8. Scorpio. 

9. Sagittarius. 

10. Capricornns. 

11. Aquarius;. 



12. Pisces. 



a • j, p cb . h 

^ -^ * i S «• « g 2 ? 

r* Tto.'tJi'fp^^to.'K 

C3 Wg'^^tfpq^G^NPP 


§ £ O H 

5o S P 



FP f-i 

•"S p '* rt 

E= C" 111 ^ I 1 

ii x ^ ^ II u 

' ! I i ! I i 1 1 I I ! 




^ \ 111 AT P \ 11 


M i TT n U 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 

ef •£ * il li 11 11 11 ii 11 11 11 11 11 

O -- - £ g 

-^ th ^ pq - x- 

^i bJD p H w „ . 

" "C ^ <g g ^ - 

72 © » . H- p- 11 -2 111 

O Jh < ^ — * 5 w "^L S A1A 

n^s ^u £ „ 4< g > 2 1 

si % 

o 1 ° g I ^ g pf T B ° .f T 

g i< K o ? ^ ^ ^ 

3 .S ^^X-^-"-^^^^^ ii 

" pq 5 to. Si 

^ o o^o^ J 3 ? 5 

&fl SpS^CǤCOPhP^ go 

d ^ 

5 i-H c4 co -^ >o co i>I od as o *-^ <m 1 

• V — ^— i—i s 


XVIII. — In the Second Corridor of the Tomb of Seti I. 
are the following names of gods, with figures: 1 — 1. Temtemtch, 

cS|\ c^ f\ 1. 2. KHENTI - QERER, rf[k & <=> . 3. 

JS^ J$^ { ' 11111 o \\ <=> 

Netch-baiu, ct -^ T ^ (^ i . 4. Nef-em-baiu, ^w^ Xp. |\ 
^^|. 5. Senki, ™(j(]o. 6 - Ba-Ra, c^^'S. 
7. Tem, £ s '=. 8. Shu, oa($^. 9- Seb, "|^J. 10. 1st, 
jo. ll. Heru, ^. 12. Remi, ^I^Jtjfff. 13. Aatiu, 

- a 11(1 v\. 14. Entuti, y\ . 15. Ament, (1 """* rx/v °- 

16. Aakebi, (1 l^^^ J M ^. 17. Khenti-Amenti, ,|Tk 

. 18. Madti, \i ^ ~ 19. Tebati, <^ <t^ ~ 20. Shai, 

]L 21. Amen-khat, (]™| ^ !. 22. Tuati, *° u . 

11 1 AA/W^ U Q^ I 7 CTZ1 

23. Tchemtch-hat, ^ j^ ^ | ^ j • 24 * -~ VpER ( ? ) " TA > 
3^. 25.Thenti, ™^\ 26. Khepi,. • (](). 27. Sekheper- 

— > Pfl^kiS: ».^™, Ol- 29. Aax, 

() □(](]. 30. Mau-aa, I^'^jI- 31. Metu-khut-f, J <* 

^©^_. 32. Auai, i]^^()(]. 33. Senk-hra, ^© *, 

|\ AA/VA\ £^ » o s ->. -\ 

34. Antheti, IL <S 35. Theta-enen, Li.. 36 Besi- 

shemti, JP^™^. 37. Semaahut, fl^f^^. 38. 
Kheperi, S M. 39. Ka-Ateni, <=> © h ° M . 10. Sekhem- 

V*3 1 1 H I 1 AAA/W\ I 

42. Sehetch-khatu, (1 i 8 ^ ^ % ° . 43. Khepera, 6| <=> (1 . 

TIT ^ ^ AAftAAA ^prf 

44. Nut, . 45. Tefnut, . 46. Nebt-het, <a, 

47. Nu, ^\ 48. Huaaiti, | f] ^^ (]()"• 49. Nethert, 

1 See Lefebure, ics Hypog^es Boyaux de Thebes, Paris, 1886, pt. i., pi. 15 it. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 


28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 

46. 45. 44. 43. 42. 41. 40. 39. 38. 


55. 54. 53. 52. 51. 50. 49. 48. 47. 





s 65. 64. 63. 62. 61. 60. 59. 58. 57. 56. 

74. 73. 72. 71. 70. 69. 68. 67. 66. 




50. Seraa, <= 

A <=* w 

52. Amen-ha, 

f e =0). 55. Serqi, 

51. Qererti, 
53. Kheprer, S . 54. Aaai, 
56. Sekhen-ba, 


4* - AWM 

fc^gj. 57. Reehi, ^|f)f[. 58. Shepi, ffiDlji). 59. 

Seshetai, ™()(j. 60. Hai, ^ o M 3 . 61. Maa-uat, ^ : 

62. Hetchuti, \\^ • 63. Uben, ^J^X- 64 

^ in 

Then - aru, 


66. Qa - ba, a 
68. Amam-ta, 


65. Her-ba, ^ £^£ ^ 

67. Netchesti, ~~ 

7 /W 

69. Ketuiti, 


70. Urshiu, 


. 71. Aana-tuati, 

* w 


. 72. Nehi, 

|(][j. 73. Neb-baitt, 

74. Neb-senku, 

XIX. — The Names of the Days op the Month and their Gods. 

Heb-enti-paut, or 

1. ©O^E7 

^ w 

2. , ^^ 7 - 

3. /hng<37. 

4. * 


T^^ 7 - 

Day of Thoth. 

Day of Heru-netch-tef-f. 
Day of Osiris. 






8 ® Q ' 
' I ^SP' 

9. ^5 



^P, Heb-per-setem. Day of Amset. 
Heb-khet-her-khau. Day of Hapi. 

Heb-en-sas. Day of Tuamutef. 

Heb-teoa. Day of Qeblisennuf. 

Heb-tep-[abet] Day of Maa-tef-f. 

Heb-kep. Dayof Ari-tchet-f, 

II — Y 


10. PQq/^. Heb-saf. Day of Ari-ren-f-tcliesef, 

CZDi ~T~ 

11. *Y I '^_J. Heb-satu. Day of Netchti-ur.^J 5 J^ 

12. £ ^2' C=ffi ^- Heb-Heru-en- Day of Netch-an (?), "^ j£l. 

STy~~~>- '""ft* J f^\ /^ /VWVNA 

13- Mq m'^ 2 ^ 7 - Heb-maa-set. Day of Teken-en-Ra,^^ ^ . 

14. -^^i ~^X ^~^7. Heb-sa. Day of Hen-en-ba, y I 

15 fl ^c ^ Heb-ent-met-tua. Day of Armauai, 


16. jtj5^^E7. Heb-mesper-sen. Dayof Shet-f-met-f, 6 *^ I * 

Day of Heru-her-uatch-f, 

17. I[g]^3[7. Heb-sa. *x 

18. l\ I (j ^7. Heb-aah. Day of Ahi, 

19. ^ Jl i . Heb-setem-metu-f. Day of An-mut-f, 

20. *Z£?. Heb-anep. Day of Ap-uat, \f a £^5. 

21. A _^. Heb-aper Day of Anpu (Anubis). 

22. _S> (\^ • Heb-peh-Sept. Day of Nai, g (](] ^ 

23. ^[1 JL,. Heb-tenat. Day of Na-ur, ° |j$jl X ^£7. 

24. Z °T^7. Heb-qenh. Day of Na-tesher, ' 

25. ^ S ^ 7 * Heb-setu. Day of Shem, ™ 

26. ^ ^E? . Heb-pert. Day of Ma-tef-f, °^ *fL . 

27. ^nnj^. Heb-usheb. Day of Tun-abui, ^S \\. 

28. J^ ® v oy - Heb-set-ent-pet. Day of Khnemu. 

d <^ ^ 

29. I *W . Heb-ari-sekhem(?) Day of Utet-tef-f, <©. 

„ c — j Day of Heru-netch-tef-f or 

30. <<£? 9 , ,. Heb-nu-pet. __ , / ^^ 

© ^27 ' * Nehes fD ■ 



XX. The gods and mythological beings who are mentioned in 
the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead. 1 


Aseb . 

Ashu . 






Aahet . 



Aah . 

Asar . 

Ast . 






Ap-uat-resu -sekhem- taui 





t rr 1 /VSAA/v\ 

<dl^> MAAM 




rn '~- 2> 


o i o 





v m 

D X ^ I 


V ~ 



1 The passages in which these names occur are given in the Vocabulary to my 
edition of the Book of the Dead. (Chapters of Coming Forth by Day, London, 1898.) 


Ap-si Q_LIU 

Am-beseku . 



Amen .... 

Amen-Ra, . 

Arnen-Ra-Heru-khuti . 



Ainsu (or, Min) . 




An-heri-ertit-sa . 


AAAA r^ 

r^ q 




AA/WVS. I i fc t 



An . 



Anpu . 
An-mut-f . 




An-Her .... J\f=^. 

An-hetep-f . 
Ari-Maat . 




Ari-si . 

Ah . 

AM . 

Ahiu . 


Aheti . 



Astes . 



Aqen . 

Aqeh . 

Akau . 


ft =* 

AAAAAA - rflj II 






o \\ 






Ata-re-am- tcher - qemtu-ren- 
par-sheta .... 

Atem .... 

Aten .... 


Aa-kheru . 

Au-a .... 




Ahau-hrau . 


Apep . 

Aapef . 











Ci (j> 


rvn x 



d. i i in 


i i 





I ^ I 


D □ 







JS^ 1 ( e== u) 




Ankhet - pu-ent-Sebek-neb 
Bakhau . 


Anti .... 

Aha-an-urt-nef . 




Aqan . 

Aati . 


Ua . 







Uaau .... 

Ui . . 






0— => 






-<S>- d 

J\ i 








I 7\ 









Unti . 

Ur-at . 










Usert .... 






Ireqai . 


Bai . 

Bati . 


ISO a 




I I I 111 



©I A 

^ $Qx& 



C7 o 




\\ D 

^ V. 





Bast . 

Basti . 

Bab a . 

Bah . 

Bebi . 


Pa-rehaqa-khep er u 


Penti . 





Pestu . 

Peti . 

Petra . 

Ptali . 


.... j%,^. 


' ' ' (J 








l -A' 




<=> w 


□ ? 






^ \\ 
D ^ 



Ptah-Seker . 


Maa-anuf . 

Maa-atef-f-kheri-beq-f . 

Maati-f-em-shet . 

Maa-em- kerh-an-nef-em-hru 




Maaiu-su (?) 

Maa-thet-f . 

Maat . 

Maati . 




Ment . 





**\ Q AA/WV 

4> 1}> 















I I 








• Hi 





Ment . 


Mer . 

Mert . 

Merti . 


Meris . 

Mert . 

Meh-urt . 


Mehi . 




Meht . 



Mes-sepekh . 


Metu-ta-f . 


Metes-sen . 

r 1 ^ a J\ 






_ _n 


/WW\A \U \ 


• —jsn^i^ 

(1 o|_a 


^^- I 1 \\ 

> r\ /VWsAA 




N asaqbubu 

Nak . 







Nut . 









Neb-s . 

Xeba . 









o ^ 


/wwv\ ^> 

<— ^ \\ £J H *« ' I AAAAAA " I 


I • w e 




J 1(1 



vfl 11 1 n~ 



Nem . 

Nemu . 




Ner . 

Nerau . 

Neri . 









Neka . 




Neti (?) 

Net (Neith) 





/WWV\ ,*? 


/WW\A d 
©©J '' 



B <=>S 



Neti-she-f . 


Neteqa-hra-khesef-at u 

Netit . 


Netcliefet . 








Ra . 





Rut-en-Ast . 



Remi . 




^ \\ I s 

^ w 

AA/W\A , 

^ A 





/wvw\ ^, 








// /WV\AA c:J 



III I ^a=n 

s\ , — , ^^ n a ^ d 








Rerek . 

Rerti . 

Rehu . 

Rehui . 

Rehti . 






Rekes (?) 

Reqi . 







Ha-kheru . 



Sc=£sJ£xs <=> S\ $\ \ 

Will ill I 

I . 




8"]'] AAAAAA % 

a v — V_ -<2>- 

w ^ w 









Hu-kheru . 


Hai . 


H apt-re 

H arpukakashareshabaiu 

Hapi (Nile) 
Hapi . 
Hapiu (Apis) 
Hu . 
Hui . 
Hit . 
Hem-nu (?) 
Henbi . 


□ w 

A T=\ 




X ^ 

a □ 











Henti (Osiris) 







Heri-sep-f . 



Heru . 

Herui (Horus and Set) 

Herui-senui (Horus and Set) 

Heru-ai (?) 







Hra-nefer . 

Hra-f-ha-f . 

Hehi . 


II — z 

<=> \\ 

d \ ) | -iA 

<§> w 





<=> ftAj 

L i 

\\ □© 







a | 

I I 









E etep-ka 




H etch-re 



Kharsatha . 

Khu-kheper-ur . 


Khut . 














1 I 

o <= 





J/WWV\ <?\ 





q \\ 






Kher . 


Kherserau . 



K hesef-hra- ash - kher u. 







Sabes . 


Sah (Orion) 


Saqenaqat . 



Seba . 



a. \\ I 1 rv^S) 



i . 
tin i 







T on y f * 

Sebau . 
Sebek . 
Sebek . 
Sepa . 
Sepes . 
Sept . 


Sept-mast- en-Rerti . 

Semu-taui . 

Semu-heh . 

Smam . 




Ser-kheru ' . 






Sekhem-ur . 

Sekhem-em-ab-f . 








r=v)^ w 





Sekhemet-ren-s-em-iibut-s . 

Sekhen-ur . 

Sekber-at . 








Seker . 




Seqet bra . 

Set . 


Setek . 


Shapuneterarika . 



T ^ si* 

^^A w ^ D 








i i i 






Sharesharekhet . 


Shakanasa . 

Shu .... 

Shefit .... 





Sheta-hra . 




Kaharesapusaremkaherremt . 



Kehkehet . 

Iflil \\ _£s& 




8 (Uf 

AAA* 1 1))1 


D ^ 



5^\ -<2>- 

1 I 

I <3 


^— p-a 








Qahu . 
Qerti . 
Qetu . 
Ta-ret . 
Taiti . 
Tait . 


Temu . 
















A C O 

<=> w 





da 11-^ Br 

o ^ 


S^ D©^' 



D N\ 

n i w i 

o a 



Tu-menkh-rerek . 

Tuamutef . 

Tun-pehti . 

Teb-lira-keha-at . 

Tena . 














i ra 








^ 2" 



( 345 ) 


THE Egyptian texts prove beyond all doubt that the 
Egyptians worshipped individual animals, and birds, and 
reptiles from the earliest to the latest times, and in spite of the 
statements to the contrary which are often made this custom must 
be regarded as a survival of one of the most popular forms of the 
religion of the predynastic peoples of the Nile Valley. At first 
animals were worshipped for their strength and power, and because 
man was afraid of them, but at a later period the Egyptians 
developed the idea that individual animals were the abodes of gods, 
and they believed that certain deities were incarnate in them. 
This idea is extremely ancient, and the Egyptian saw no absurdity 
in it, because at a very early period he had made up his mind that 
a god was always incarnate in the king of Egypt, and if this were 
so there was no reason why the gods should not become incarnate 
in animals. Animals which formed the abodes of gods, or were 
beloved by them, were treated with especial reverence and care, 
and apartments for their use were specially constructed in the 
temples throughout the country. When a sacred animal, i.e., the 
abode of a god, died, he was buried with great ceremony and 
honour, and, in dynastic times at least, his body was mummified 
with as much care as that of a human being. Immediately after 
the death of a sacred animal in a temple another beast was chosen 
and, having been led into the temple and duly installed there, the 
homage and worship of his predecessor were transferred to him. 
The new animal was a reincarnation of the god, i.e., a new 
manifestation and reappearance of the deity of the temple, and as 
such he was the visible symbol of a god. Of the manner in which 


sacred animals were thought to make known the will of the gods 
who were incarnate in them little can be said, but the priests of 
each animal must have formulated some system which Avould satisfy 
the devout, and they must have had some means of making the 
animals move in such a way that the beholder would be made to 
think that the will of the god incarnate was being revealed to him. 
We may assume, too, that when sacred animals became too old and 
infirm to perform their duties they were put to death either by 
the priests or at their command, and also that care was taken, so 
far as possible, to keep in reserve an animal which could take the 
place of that which was in the temple in the event of its sudden 
death. The monuments of the predynastic and archaic periods of 
Egyptian history which have been discovered during the last few 
years prove that Neith, Hathor, and Osiris were worshipped in the 
earliest times, and the traditions recorded by Greek and Roman 
writers supplement this first-hand evidence by a series of statements 
about the cult of animal gods in Egypt which is of the greatest 
importance for our purpose here. 

One of the oldest animal cults in Egypt was that of Hap, 
n ^f^ ' wnom ^ ne Greeks call Apis, and whose Avorship is coeval 
with Egyptian civilization. Apis was, however, one of many bulls 
which were worshipped by the Egyptians throughout the Nile 
Valley, and it is greatly to be regretted that the circumstances 
which led up to his occupation of such an exalted position among 
the animal gods of Egypt are unknown. According to JElian, 1 
Hapi, or Apis, was held in the greatest honour in the time of 
Mena, the first historical king of Egypt, but Manetho 2 says that it 
was under Kaiekhos, i.e., Ka-kau, M i c =v), a kins: of the Hnd 
Dynasty, that Apis was appointed to be a god. Herodotus (iii. 28) 
and jElian call Apis "Eua^o^, and the former describes him as the 
" calf of a cow which is incapable of conceiving another offspring ; 
" and the Egyptians say that lightning descends upon the cow from 

Ae'yet oe tis to>i> Trpo<pr]Tojv Aoyos ov 7racriv eKnvcrTOS, on apa [M?)cis] o tujv 
ALyv7TTiwv (3ao-L\ev<; (.Trevoqcn. £u>oj/ wore ae/Sew €fJ.(f>v^ov, etra /xevTOi npoeiXero ravpuv, 
a.7rdvT(A)v uypaiorarov etvai avrov 7re77-io-Teu/cajs. Dc Nat. Animal, xi. 10. 
3 See Cory's Ancient Fragments. 


" heaven, and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, 
" which is called Apis, has the following marks : it is black, and 
" has a square spot of white on the forehead ; and on the back the 
" figure of an eagle : and in the tail double hairs : and on the 
" tongue a beetle." Pliny relates (viii. 72) that the Apis Bull 
was distinguished by a conspicuous white spot on the right side, 
in the form of a crescent, and he adds that when the animal had 
lived a certain number of years, it was destroyed by being drowned 
in the fountain of the priests. A general mourning ensued upon 
this, and the priests and others went with their heads shaven until 
they found a successor ; this, however, Pliny says, did not take 
long, and we may therefore assume that an Apis was generally 
kept in reserve. As soon as the animal was found, he was brought 
to Memphis, where there were two Thalami set apart for him ; to 
these bed-chambers the people were wont to resort to learn the 
auguries, and according as Apis entered the one or the other of 
these places, the augury was deemed favourable or unfavourable. 
He gave answers to its devotees by taking food from the hands of 
those who consulted him. Usually Apis was kept in seclusion, but 
whensoever he appeared in public he was attended by a crowd of 
boys who sang hymns to him. Once a year a cow was presented 
to him, but it is said that she was always killed the same day that 
they found her. The birthday of Apis was commemorated by an 
annual festival which lasted seven days, and during this period no 
man was ever attacked by a crocodile. In front of the sanctuary 
of Apis was a courtyard which contained another sanctuary for the 
dam of the god, and it was here that he was turned loose in order 
that he might be exhibited to his worshippers (Strabo, xvii. 31). 
Diodorus tells us (i. 85) that Apis, Mnevis, the Ram of Mendes, 
the crocodile of Lake Moeris, and the lion of Leontopolis were kept 
at very considerable cost, for their food consisted of cakes made of 
the finest Avheat flour mixed with honey, boiled or roasted geese, 
and live birds of certain kinds. 

The sacred animals were also washed in hot baths, and their 
bodies were anointed with precious unguents, and perfumed with 
the sweetest odours ; rich beds were also provided for them to 
lie upon. When any of them died the Egyptians were as much 


concerned as if they had lost their own children, and they were wont 
to spend largely in burying them ; when Apis died at Memphis of 
old age in the reign of Ptolemy Lagus his keeper not only spent 
everything he had in burying him, but also borrowed fifty talents 
of silver from the king because his own means were insufficient. 
Continuing his account of Apis Diodorus says, " After the splendid 
" funeral of Apis is over, those priests that have charge of the 
" business seek out another calf as like the former as possibly they 
" can find ; and when they have found one, an end is put to all 
"further mourning and lamentation, and such priests as are 
" appointed for that purpose, lead the young ox through the city 
" of Nile, and feed him forty days. Then they put him into a 
" barge, wherein is a golden cabin, and so transport him as a god 
" to Memphis, and place him in Vulcan's grove. During the forty 
" days before mentioned, none but women are admitted to see him, 
" who being placed full in his view, pluck up their coats and 
" expose their persons. Afterwards they are forbidden to come 
" into the sight of this new god. For the adoration of this ox, 
" they give this reason. They say that the soul of Osiris passed 
" into an ox ; and therefore, whenever the ox is dedicated, to this 
" very day, the spirit of Osiris is infused into one ox after another, 
" to posterity. But some say, that the members of Osiris (who 
" was killed by Typhon) were thrown by Isis into an ox made of 
" wood, covered with ox-hides, and from thence the city Busiris 
" was called." 

In his account of Apis (xi. 10) iElian states that Apis was 
recognized by twenty-nine distinct marks, which were known to 
the priests, and that when it was known that he had appeared 
they went to the place of his birth and built there a house towards 
the East, and the sacred animal was fed therein for four months. 
After this period, at the time of new moon, the priests made ready 
a barge and conveyed the new Apis to Memphis, where fine 
chambers were set apart for him, and spacious courts for him to 
walk about in, and where moreover, a number of carefully chosen 
cows were kept for him. At Memphis a special well of water 
was provided for Apis and he was not allowed to drink of the 
waters of the Nile because they were supposed to be too fattening. 


Curiously enough the animals which were sacrificed to Apis were 
oxen, and according to Herodotus (ii. 38, 41) if a single black hair 
was found upon any one of them the beast was declared to be 
unclean. " And one of the priests appointed for this purpose 
" makes this examination, both when the animal is standing up 
" and lying down ; and he draws out the tongue, to see if it is pure 

" as to the prescribed marks He also looks at the hairs of 

" his tail, to see whether they grow naturally. If the beast is 
" found pure in all these respects, he marks it by rolling a piece of 
" byblus round the horns, and then having put on it some sealing 
" earth, he impresses it Avith his signet : and so they drive him 
" away. Anyone who sacrifices an unmarked animal is punished 
" with death." When an ox of this class was to be offered up to 
Apis it was led to the altar and was slain after a libation of wine 
had been poured out ; its head was next cut off and its body was 
flayed. If the head was not sold it was thrown into the river and 
the following words were said over it : — " If any evil be about to 
" befal either those who now sacrifice, or Egypt in general, may 
"it be averted on this head." Plutarch (De hide, §50) and 
Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. 14, 7) agree in stating that Apis was 
only allowed to live a certain number of years, which was probably 
twenty-five, and it seems that if he did not die before the end of 
this period he was killed and buried in a sacred well, the situation 
of which was known to a few privileged persons only. 

The Egyptians connected Apis, both living and dead, with 
Osiris, and their beliefs concerning the two gods were very closely 
associated. The soul of Apis was thought to go to heaven after 
the death of the body in which it had been incarnate, and to join 
itself to Osiris, when it formed with him the dual god Asar-Hapi 
or Osiris- Apis. Early in the Ptolemaic period the Greeks ascribed 
to Asar-Hapi the attributes of their god Hades, and Graecized the 
Egyptian name under the form " Serapis " ; both Egyptians and 
Greeks accepted Serapis as the principal object of their worship, 
and after about B.C. 250 this god was commonly regarded as the 
male counterpart of Isis. It has already been said that the cult 
of Hapi or Apis is very ancient, and there seems to be no doubt 
that in one place or another the bull was always worshipped 


in Egypt as the personification of strength and virility and of 
might in battle. Osiris, as a Avater god, poured the Nile over the 
land, and Hapi provided the strength which enabled the Egyptians 
to plough it up ; when theological systems began to be made in 
Egypt this ancient god was incorporated in them, and at Memphis 
we find that he was regarded as the " second life of Ptah," 

T // V K ' anc ^ a ^ s0 as ^ e son °^ sn ^ s - From scenes on coffins, 
stelae, etc., we know that he possessed the attributes of Osiris the 
great god of the Underworld, especially after the XXVIth Dynasty, 
for he is often represented bearing a mummy upon his back, and 
" Bull of Amenti " is a common name of Osiris. Egyptian bronze 
figures of the Apis Bull represent the god as a very powerful 
beast, with massive limbs and body. A triangular piece of silver 
is fixed in the forehead, a disk and a uraeus are placed between 
the horns, above the fore and hind legs are cut in outline figures 
of vultures with outstretched wings, and on the back, also cut in 
outline, is a representation of a rectangular cloth with an orna- 
mental diamond pattern. Herodotus (iii. 28) says that the patch of 
white on the forehead of Apis was square, Xevkov TeTpayuvov, and 
that the figure of an eagle was on the back, eVi Se rod vanov, alerbv 
eiKao-fxevov ; of the beetle which he says was on the tongue of Apis 
and the double hairs in the tail the bronze figures naturally show 
no traces. 

Of the tombs in which the Apis bulls were buried under the 
Early and Middle Empires nothing is known, but the discovery of 
the famous Serapeum at Sakkara, called by Strabo (xvii. 1, § 33) 
the " temple of Sarapis," which, he says, was " situated in a very 
" sandy spot, where the sand is accumulated in masses by the 
" wind," revealed the fact that so far back as the XVIIIth Dynasty 
the bodies of the Apis bulls were mummified with great care, and 
that each was buried in a rock-hewn tomb, above which was a 
small chapel. In the reign of Rameses II. a son of this king, 
called Kha-em-Uast, made a subterranean gallery in the rock at 
Sakkara, with a large number of chambers, and as each of these 
was occupied by the mummied Apis in his coffin its entrance was 
walled up, and the remains of the sacred animals were thus 
preserved for a very long period. Psammetichus I. hewed a 


similar gallery in the rock, and its side-chambers were prepared 
with great care and thought ; the two galleries taken together are 
about 1200 feet long, 18 feet high, and 10 feet wide. Above 
these galleries stood the great Temple of the Serapeum, and 
close by was another temple which was dedicated to Apis by 
Nectanebus IT., the last native king of Egypt. In the Serapeum 
of Kha-em-Uast and Psammetichus I. a number of Egyptian holy 
men lived a stern, ascetic life, and it appears that they were 
specially appointed to perform services in connexion with the 
commemorative festivals of the dead Apis bulls. Details of the 
rules of the order are wanting, but it is probable that the scheme 
of life which they lived there closely resembled that of the followers 
of Pythagoras, many of whom were celibates, and that they 
abstained from animal food, and had all things in common. 1 It is 
interesting to note the existence of the monks of the Serapeum, 
because they form a connecting link between the Egyptian priests 
and the Christian ascetics and monks who filled Egypt in the 
early centuries of our era. The worship of Apis continued in 
Egypt until the downfall of paganism, which resulted from the 
adoption of Christianity by Constantine the Great and from the 
edicts of the Emperor Theodosius. 

As Apis was the sacred Bull of Memphis and symbolized the 
Moon, so Mnevis was the sacred Bull of Heliopolis and typified 
the Sun, of which he was held to be the incarnation. The ancient 
Egyptians called the Bull of Heliopolis Ur-mer, ^^ LP y^, 
and described him as the " life of Ra " ; he is usually depicted in 
the form of a bull with a disk and uraeus between his horns, but 
sometimes he appears as a man with the head of a bull. According 
to Manetho, the worship of Mnevis was established in the reign of 
Ka-kau, a king of the Ilnd Dynasty, together with that of Apis 
and the Ram of Mendes, but there is no doubt that it is coeval 
with Egyptian civilization, and that it was only a portion of the 
great system of adoration of the bull and cow as agricultural gods 
throughout Egypt. Strabo mentions (xvii. 1, § 22) that the people 

1 See Zeller, History of Greek Philosophy, London, 1881, vol. i., pp. 306-352 ; 
Hitter and Preller, Historic Phil-Qraece el Rontanae, 1878. 


of Momemphis kept a sacred cow in their city just as Apis was 
maintained at Memphis, and Mnevis at Heliopolis, and adds, 
" these animals are regarded as gods, but there are other places, 
" and these are numerous, both in the Delta and beyond it, in 
" which a bull or a cow is maintained, which are not regarded as 
" gods, but only as sacred." Mnevis, like Apis, was consecrated 
to Osiris, and both Bulls were " reputed as gods generally by all 
the Egyptians ; " Diodorus explains (i. 24, 9) this fact by pointing 
out that the bull was of all creatures the " most extraordinarily 
" serviceable to the "first inventors of husbandry, both as to the 
u sowing of corn, and other advantages concerning tillage, of which 
" all reaped the benefit." The cult of Mnevis was neither so 
widespread nor so popular as that of Apis, and Ammianus 
Marcellinus says (xxii. 14, 6) that there is nothing remarkable 
related about him. A curious story is related by iElian (De Nat. 
Animal, xii. 11) to the effect that king Bocchoris once brought 
in a wild bull to fight against Mnevis, and that the savage 
creature in attempting to gore the sacred animal miscalculated his 
distance, and having entangled his horns in the branches of a 
persea tree, fell an easy victim to Mnevis, and was slain by him. 
The Egyptians regarded this impious act with great disfavour, and 
probably hated him as they hated Cambyses for stabbing Apis. 

Among the Egyptians another sacred bull was that of 
Hermonthis (Strabo, xvii. 1, 47) which, according to Macrobius 
(Saturn, i. 26) was called Bacchis (or Bacis, or Basis, or Pacis), 
and according to iElian (xii. 11) Onuphis ; the latter name is 
probably a corruption of some Egyptian name of Osiris Un-nefer. 
This bull was black in colour, and its hair turned a contrary way 
from that of all other animals, olvtlcli 8e avrco rpt^e? yj-rrep ovv toIs 
d\Xot? eiaiv ; it was said to change its colour every hour of the 
day, and was regarded as an image of the sun shining on the other 
side of the world, i.e., the Underworld. The Egyptian equivalent 

of the name Bacis, or Bacchis, is Bakha, J **-=» ^rrj , and this 

bull is styled the " living soul of Ra," ^? T W Wi aQ d the " bull 
" of the Mountain of the Sunrise (Bakhau), and the lion of the 
" Mountain of the Sunset." He wears between his horns a disk. 


from which rise plumes, and a uraeus ; over his hindquarters is 
the sacred symbol of a vulture with outspread wings. 1 

At several places in the Delta, e.g., Hermopolis, Lycopolis, 
and Mendes, the god Pan and a goat were worshipped ; Strabo, 
quoting (xvii. 1, 19) Pindar, says that in these places goats had 
intercourse with women, and Herodotus (ii. 46) instances a case 
which was said to have taken place in the open day. The 
Mendesians, according to this last writer, paid reverence to all 
goats, and more to the males than to the females, and particularly 
to one he-goat, on the death of which public mourning is observed 
throughout the whole Mendesian district ; they call both Pan and 
the goat Mendes, and both were worshipped as gods of generation 
and fecundity. Diodorus (i. 88) compares the cult of the goat of 
Mendes with that of Priapus, and groups the god with the Pans 
and the Satyrs. The goat referred to by all these writers is the 
famous Mendean Ram, or Ram of Mendes, the cult of which was, 
according to Manetho, established by Kakau, a king of the Ilnd 

In the hieroglyphic texts he is called Ba-neb-Tet, ^^ ^^ 
u ^ , from which name the Greek Mendes is derived, and he is 
depicted in the form of a ram with flat, branching horns which are 
surmounted by a uraeus ; pictures of the god of this kind are, of 
course, traditional, and since goats of the species of the Ram of 
Mendes are not found on Egyptian Monuments after the period 
of the Ancient Empire, we can only conclude that they were 
originally copied from representations of the Ram Avhich were in 
use before about B.C. 3500. Ba-neb-Tet, or Mendes, was declared 
to be the " soul of Rii," but allowance must be made for the 
possibility that the Egyptians did not really believe this statement, 
which may only have resulted from a play upon the words ba 
" ram," and ba " soul." The cult of the Ram of Mendes was of 
more than local importance, and his priesthood was a powerful 
body. The ram which was adored at Mendes was distinguished by 
certain marks, even as was Apis, and was sought for throughout 
the country with great diligence ; when the animal was found he 

1 See Lanzone, Diztonarto, pi. 70. 

ii — a a 


was led to the city of Mendes, and a procession of priests and of 
the notables of the city having been formed he was escorted to the 
temple and enthroned therein with great honour. From the Stele 
of Mendes l we learn that Ptolemy II. , Philadelphus, rebuilt the 
temple of Mendes, and that he assisted at the enthronement of two 
Rams, and in a relief on the upper portion of it two Ptolemies and 
an Arsinoe are seen making offerings to the Ram, and to a ram- 
headed god, and his female counterpart Hatmehit. The cult of 
the Ram lasted at Mendes until the decay of the city, after which 
for a short period it was maintained at Thmuis, a neighbouring 
city, which increased in importance as Mendes decreased. In 
primitive times the Ram of Mendes was a merely local animal god, 
or perhaps only a sacred animal, but as the chief city of its cult 
increased in importance the god was identified, first, with the great 
indigenous god Osiris, secondly, with the Sun-god Ra, and thirdly, 
with the great Ram-god of the South and of Elephantine, i.e., 

Among the animals which were worshipped devoutly as a 
result of abject fear must be mentioned the crocodile, which the 

Egyptians deified under the name of Sebek, I J ^z^> gg^ , or 

Sebeq, I a J |§\, and which was called Souchos, Hov^os, by the 

Greeks. In primitive times when the canals dried up this 
destructive beast was able to wander about the fields at will, and 
to eat and kill whatsoever came into its way, and the Egyptians 
naturally regarded it as the personification of the powers of evil 
and of death, and the prince of all the powers of darkness, and the 
associate of Set, or Typhon. According to Herodotus (ii. 69), 
crocodiles were sacred in some parts of Egypt, but were diligently 
killed in others. At Thebes and near lake Moeris they were held 
to be sacred, and when tame the people put crystal and gold ear- 
rings into their ears, and bracelets on their fore paws, and they fed 
them regularly with good food ; after death their bodies were 
embalmed and then buried in sacred vaults. Herodotus says they 
were called ^a/xi/zon, a word which is, clearly, a transliteration of 

1 Mariette, Monuments Divers, pi. 42; Aeg. Zeit., 1871, pp. 81-85; 1875, 
p. 33. 



the Egyptian word _|^Pf()()^j> emsehiu. Strabo gives an 
interesting account of his visit to the famous city of Crocodilopolis, 
which in his day was known by the name Arsinoe, and was the 
centre of crocodile worship; and tells us (xvii. 1, §38), that the 
sacred crocodile there " was kept ajDart by himself in a lake ; it is 
" tame, and gentle to the priests, and is called Zoi>xos. It is fed 
" with bread, flesh, and wine, which strangers who come to see 
" it always present. Our host, a distinguished person, who was 
" our guide in examining what was curious, accompanied us to the 
" lake, and brought from the supper table a small cake, dressed 
" meat, and a small vessel containing a mixture of honey and milk. 
' ; We found the animal lying on the edge of the lake. The priests 
" went up to it ; some of them opened its mouth, another put the 
" cake into it, then the meat, and afterwards poured down the 
" honey and milk. The animal then leaped into the lake, and 
" crossed to the other side. When another stranger arrived with 
" his offering, the priests took it, and running round the lake, 
" caught the crocodile, and gave him what was brought in the 
" same manner as before." 

In their pictures and reliefs the Egyptians represented the 
god Sebek in the form of a crocodile-headed man who wore either 
a solar disk encircled with a uraeus, or a pair of horns surmounted 
by a disk and a pair of plumes ; sometimes a small pair of horns 
appears above the large ram's horns. Frequently the god is 
depicted simply in the form of the animal which was sacred to 
him, i.e., as a crocodile. What exactly were the attributes of 
Sebek in early dynastic times we have no means of knowing, but 
it is probable that they were those of an evil and destructive 
animal ; before the end of the Vlth Dynasty, however, he was 
identified with Ra, the Sun -god, and with the form of Ra who 
was the son of Xeith, and with Set the opponent and murderer of 
Osiris. According to the late Dr. Brugsch, Sebek was a four-fold 
deity who represented the four elemental gods, Ra, Shu, Seb, and 
Osiris, and this view receives support from the fact that in the 
vignettes to the xxxist and xxxiind Chapters of the Book of the 
Dead, the deceased is seen repulsing four crocodiles. The same 
scholar thought that the name of the god was derived from a root 


which signifies " to collect, to bring together," and that he was 
called " Sebek " because he was believed to gather together that 
which had been separated by the evil power of Set, and to give 
a new constitution and life to the elements which had been severed 
by death. 1 This view may be correct, but it certainly cannot be 
very old, and it cannot represent the opinions which the pre- 
dynastic Egyptians held concerning the god. That, however, 
Sebek was believed to be a god who was good to the dead is clear, 
and it was held that he would do for them that which he had done 
in primitive times for Horus. 

From the cviiith Chapter of the Booh of the Dead, we learn 
that Sebek, Temu, and Hathor were the Spirits of the West, and 
that Sebek dwelt in a temple which was built on the Mount of the 
Sunrise, and that he assisted Horus to be re-born daily. In the 
Pyramid Texts, Sebek is made to restore the eyes to the deceased, 
and to make firm his mouth, and to give him the use of his head, 
and to bring Tsis and Nephthys to him, and to assist in the over- 
throw of Set, the enemy of ev<ery " Osiris." He opened the doors 
of heaven to the deceased, and led him along the bypaths and 
ways of heaven and, in short, assisted the dead to rise to the new 
life, even as he had helped the child Horus to take his seat upon 
the throne of his father Osiris. The centre of the cult of Sebek 
was Ombos, p^i M 'Z, Nubit, where he was held to be the father 

of Heru-ur, and was identified with Seb, and was called, "Father 
" of the gods, the mighty one among the gods and goddesses, the 
"great king, the prince of the Nine Bow Barbarians." As Sebek- 
Ra-Temu he was the power of the sun which created the world, 
and he is styled, " the beautiful green disk which shineth ever, the 
" creator of whatsoever is and of whatsoever shall be, who proceeded 
" from Nu, and who possesses many colours and many forms." 2 
Other important seats of the cult of Sebek were : — 1. Silsila (Khennu, 

Nip v\ @) , where he was adored with Tern, Nu, Heru-ur, and 

Heru-Behutet ; 2. Pa-khent ( Asf r|TK ), where he was wor- 
shipped with Amen-Ra ; 3. Latopolis, where he was identified 

1 Religion und Mythohxjie, p. 5S8. 2 Brugscli, Religion, p. 591. 

The God AN-HERU. 


with Heqa, the son of Shu-Khnemu-Ra and Tefhut-Nebuut-Sekket- 
Neith; 4. Smen ( 1 ©), where he was merged in Ra and was 


held to be the father of Horus ; 5. Pa- Sebek, near Hermonthis, 
where he formed the chief member of the triad of Sebek-Seb, Nut- 
Hathor, and Khensu ; 6. Hermonthis, where he was merged in 
Menthu, and as Sebek-Seb became the counterpart of Menthu-Ra 
and Amen-Ra, and the head of the company of the gods of 
Hermonthis and Thebes ; at Tuphium, near Thebes, where he was 
worshipped under the form of a crocodile, with a sun-disk and the 
feathers of Amen upon his head ; 7. Krokodilonpolis-Arsinoe, 
the Shetet, c ^ ^ , and Ta-Shetet, , of the hieroglyphic 

texts, which was situated near Lake Moeris, and was called the 
" city of Sebek " par excellence. In the north of Egypt the chief 
sanctuaries of Sebek were Prosopis, Sai's, Metelis, Onuphis, and 
the city of Apis, which was situated in the Libyan nome ; x in this 
last-named place Osiris was worshipped under the form of a 
crocodile, aud Isis under the usual form of Isis. 

From the statements made about the crocodile by classical 
writers, it is easy to see that several fantastic notions were current 
about the animal in the later period of dynastic history. Thus 
Ammianus Marcellinus, after describing the strength of the 
crocodile (xxii. 15) says, "savage as these monsters are at all 
" other times, yet as if they had concluded an armistice, they are 
" always quiet, laying aside all their ferocity, during the seven 
" days of festival on which the priests at Memphis celebrate the 
" birthday of Apis." Herodotus (ii. 68) and Diodorus (i. 35), like 
Aristotle, declare that the crocodile has no tongue, an error which 
was wide-spread in ancient times, and which was commonly 
believed even in the Middle Ages ; it was also thought to eat no 
food during the coldest months of the year, and to be blind in the 
water. Many crocodiles were killed by an animal called the 
" hydrus " in the following manner. It is related that a little 
bird called the trochilus was in the habit of entering the mouth of 
the crocodile as it lay asleep with its jaws open " towards the 
west," and of picking out the leeches which clung to its teeth and 

1 For a list of Sebek shrines see Lanzone. Dizionario, pp. 1033-1036. 


gums. The hydrus, or ichneumon, perceiving this, would also 
enter the crocodile's mouth, and crawl along through the throat 
into its stomach, and having devoured its entrails, would crawl 
back again ; the hydrus also is declared to have been in the habit 
of searching for the eggs of the crocodile, which were always laid 
in the sand, and of breaking the shell of every one which it found. 
Notwithstanding the reverence in which the crocodiles were held 
in many parts of Egypt numbers of people made a living by 
catching them and killing them. According to Herodotus (ii. 70) 
and other writers, a hook baited with the chine of a pig was let 
down by the fishermen into the river, while a young pig was held 
on the bank and beaten until it squealed ; the crocodile, hearing 
the noise, made its way towards the sound of the little pig's cries, 
and coming across the bait on the hook, straightway swallowed it. 
Then the men hauled in the line and the crocodile was soon landed, 
and its eyes having been plastered up, it was slain. Crocodiles 
at one time were regarded as the protectors of Egypt, and 
Diodorus held the view (i. 35) that but for them the robbers from 
Arabia and Africa would swim across the Nile and pillage the 
country in all directions. 

The crocodile played a prominent part in Egyptian mythology, 
in which it appears both as the friend and foe of Osiris; one 
legend tells how the creature carried the dead body of Osiris upon 
its back safely to land, and another relates that Isis was obliged to 
make the little ark in which she placed her son Horus of papyrus 
plants, because only by this means could she protect her son from 
the attack of the crocodile god Sebek. The later Egyptian 
astrologers always considered the animal to be a symbol of the 
Sun, and it is probable that to its connexion with the Sun-god 
the statements of iElian (x. 21) are due. This writer remarks 
that the female crocodile carried her eggs for sixty days before she 
laid them, that the number of the eggs was sixty, that they took 
sixty days to hatch, that a crocodile had sixty vertebrae in its 
spine, and sixty nerves, and sixty teeth in its mouth, that its life 
was sixty years, and that its annual period of fasting was sixty 
days. Among other curious but mistaken views about the 
crocodile, Plutarch (De hide, §75) mentions that the animal was 


looked upon as the image of God, and he explains the supposed 
absence of a tongue by saying that "divine reason needeth not 
speech." He credits the animal with great wisdom and fore- 
knowledge, in proof of which he declares that in whatsoever part 
of the country the female lays her eggs, so far will be the extent 
of the inundation for that season. All the above mentioned views 
are interesting as showing how legends of the animal gods and 
their powers grew up in the later period of dynastic history, and 
how mythological ideas were modified in the course of the 
centuries which witnessed the decay of the old religion of Egypt. 

Like the crocodile, the Hippopotamus was worshipped by the 
primitive Egyptians, and the hippopotamus goddess was called 

Rert, or Rertu, <z>I^L, and Ta-urt, ^ "v\ ^§D n , Apet, 

i W, Sheput, , etc., and was, practically, identified as a 

form of every great goddess of Egypt, irrespective of the probability 
of her being so. In predynastic times the hippopotamus was 
probably common in the Delta, and the red and yellow breccia 
statue of the animal which was made in the archaic period, and is 
now preserved in the British Museum (No. 35,700), proves that its 
cult is coeval with Egyptian civilization. According to certain 
theological systems the hippopotamus goddess was the female 
counterpart of Set, and the mother of the Sun-god, or of An-her, 
whom she brought into the world at Ombos ; for this reason that 

city was called the " Meskhenet," ffl [' r— 1» or " birth-house," 
of Apet. On the whole, the hippopotamus goddess was a 
beneficent creature, and she appears in the last vignette of the 
Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead as a deity of the 
Underworld, and a kindly guardian of the dead. She holds in her 
right forepaw an object which has not yet been satisfactorily 
explained, and her left rests upon the emblem of " protective, 
magical power," V ; on the other hand, the monster Am-mit, which 
appears in the Judgment Scene, has the hindquarters of a hippo- 
potamus, a fact which reminds us that the destructive power of 
the animal was not forgotten by the Egyptian theologians. 

The cult of the Lion was also very ancient in Egypt, and it 


seems to have been tolerably widespread in early dynastic times ; 
the animal was worshipped on account of his great strength and 
courage, and was usually associated with the Sun-god, Horus or 
Ra, and with deities of a solar character. Under the New Empire 
the chief centre of the cult of the lion was the city of Leontopolis 
in the Northern Delta, but it is quite certain that sacred lions 
were kept in the temples at many places throughout Egypt. 
iElian mentions (xii. 7) that lions were kept in the temple at 
Heliopolis, and goes on to say that in the Lion City (Leontopolis) 
the sacred lions were fed upon the bodies of slaughtered animals, 
and that from time to time a calf was introduced into the lion's den 
so that he might enjoy the pleasure of killing prey for himself; 
whilst he was devouring his food the priests, or men set apart for the 
purpose, sang songs to him. The original home of the lion in Egypt 
was the Delta, where he lived under conditions similar to those 
which existed in Southern Nubia and in the jungles of the rivers 
Atbara and Blue Nile ; the deserts on each side of the Nile 
between Khartum and the Mediterranean Sea of course also 
contained lions, but probably not in very large numbers. In 
Egyptian mythology the lion plays a comparatively prominent 
part, and one of the oldest known Lion-gods is Aker, 

who was supposed to guard the gate of the dawn through which 
the Sun-god passed each morning ; Aker is mentioned in the 
Pyramid Texts (e.g., Unas, lines 498, 614), and from the 
j)assages in which his name occurs it is clear that his position and 
attributes were even under the Early Empire well defined. In 
later days the Egyptian mythologists believed that during the 
night the sun passed through a kind of tunnel which existed in 
the earth, and that his disappearance therein caused the night, 
and his emerging therefrom caused the day ; each end of this 
tunnel was guarded by a Lion-god, and the two gods were called 
Akeeu (or Akerui) "^ ^ I , or "|\ ^^ %> s^a A ! . In the 

Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead (Chapter xvii.) we 
find the Akeru gods represented by two lions which are seated 
back to back, and support between them the horizon with the 
sun's disk on it, cQd; in the later theology they are called Sef and 


Tuau, i.e., " Yesterday " and " To-day " respectively. Because 
the Egyptians believed that the gates of morning and evening 
were guarded by Lion-gods, they placed statues of lions at the 
doors of their palaces and tombs to guard both the living and the 
dead, and to keep evil spirits and fleshly foes from entering into 
the gates to do harm to those who were inside them. To such 
lion guardians they sometimes gave the heads of men and women, 
and these are familiar to us under the name which was given to 
them by the Greeks, i.e., " Sphinxes." 

The oldest and finest human-headed lion statue is the famous 

"Sphinx" at Gizeh (in Egyptian Hu, 8 \\ _2s&), which was 

regarded as the symbol of the Sun-god Ra-Temu-Khepera-Heru- 
khuti, and was made to keep away evil spirits from the tombs 
which were round about it. The age of this marvellous statue is 
unknown, but it existed in the time of Khephren, the builder of 
the Second Pyramid, and was, most probably, very old even at 
that early period. It may be noted in passing that the " Sphinx " 
at Gizeh was intended to be a guardian and protector of the dead 
and of their tombs, and nothing else, and the idea of Plutarch and 
others that it typified the enigmatical wisdom of the Egyptians 
and strength and wisdom is purely fanciful. The men who made 
the Sphinx believed they were providing a colossal abode for the 
spirit of the Sun-god which they expected to dwell therein and 
to protect their dead ; it faced the rising sun, of which it was a 
mighty symbol. The original idea of the man-headed lion statue 
has no connexion with the views which the Greeks held about their 
monstrous being the Sphinx, who is declared to have been a 
daughter of Orthus, or Typhon, and Chimaera, or of Typhon and 
Echidna ; moreover, Greek sphinxes are winged, and their heads 
and breasts are always those of a woman, whilst Egyptian 
lion statues have sometimes the heads of men, and some- 
times the heads of sheep or rams. The " Sphinx " at Gizeh is 
probably the product of the beliefs of a school of theologians which 
existed when the cult of the lion was common in the Delta or 
Northern Egypt, but tradition perpetuated the idea of " protection " 
which was connected with it, and the architectural conservatism 


of the Egyptians caused reproductions of it to be made for all the 
great temples in the country in all periods of its history. 

It is a moot point whether the lion was generally hunted in 
Egypt or not, but it is improbable ; on the other hand Ave find 
that Amen-hetep III. boasts of having shot with his own bow one 
hundred and two lions during the first ten years of his reign, but 
these were undoubtedly lions of Mitanni and not of Egypt. The 
bas-reliefs and texts prove that Rameses II. and Rameses III. each 
possessed a tame lion which not only accompanied them into battle, 
but also attacked the enemy ; it is probable, however, that these 
kings valued their pet lions more as symbols of the Sun-god and of 
his protective power, than as effective combatants. In the Theban 
Book of the Dead the double lion-god who is so often mentioned 

under the name <sflj}\ i is, of course, Shu and Tefnut 

or two gods who were identified with them. Other lion-gods bore 

the names Ari-hes-nefer, n -o>- Oil iJj, Nefer-Tem, T ^ Jn 

Hebi, rDAflfj, Heru-neb-Mesen, ?sj -^7 , Ma-hes 

y §y '-^-j etc.; lioness-goddesses were Pakheth, .Bsa 

Sekhet, fly ® J), Menat, a*ww^ ? Renenet, S^^IA, Sebqet 

f 1 A J O I ' UET-HEEAU, lg I U ^, ASTHERTET, ^ ^ ^ 

and a form of Hathor, and another of Nekhebet. The destroying 
power of the Lion-god is alluded to in the figure of the monster 
Am-niit, which was part crocodile, part lion, and part hippo- 
potamus. The vignettes to the cxlvith and cxlviith Chapters of 
the Book of the Dead show that lion-headed deities guarded certain 
of the halls and pylons of the Underworld, and some connexion of 
the Lion-god with the dead is certainly indicated by the fact that 
the head of the bier is always made in the form of the head of a 
lion, and that the foot of it is frequently ornamented with a repre- 
sentation of a lion's tail. For an account of Bast, the great 
goddess of Bubastis, who was depicted with the head either of 
a lioness, or of a cat, the reader is referred to the section on the 

In connexion with the lion must be mentioned the Lynx 

The Goddess URT-HEKAU. 


and Cat, for each of these animals played an interesting part in 
Egyptian mythology. The lynx was called in Egyptian Maftet, 
^g^ c±p , or Jp j^ c^p < y^ iK . ; the former spelling being that of the 
Pyramid Texts, and the latter that in use in the Theban Recension 
of the Book of the Dead. The animal is like a large cat and has 
a small patch of hair on the tip of each ear, and its disposition is, 
on the whole, benevolent. In the text of Unas (line 548) allusion 
is made to its attack upon the serpents An-ta-f, h A ™~* A 

and Tcheser-tep, ^ II W 7 ® |^ , and it is evident from this that 
the Lynx-god was a friend of the dead. In the Theban Recension 
of the Book of the Dead, Maftet takes part with the gods, including 
Serqet and Maat, in overthrowing the fiend Apep (Chaps, xxxiv., 
xxxix., cxlix. § 7), and we must therefore assume that the lynx 
was a destroyer of serpents, and that the Lynx-god was supposed 
to ward off the attacks of serpents from the dead. 

The Cat was sacred to Bast, the goddess of Bubastis, and was 
regarded as her incarnation ; its cult is very ancient, and as a 
personification of the Sun-god the animal played a prominent part 
in Egyptian mythology. Thus in the xviith Chapter of the Book of 
tltf Dead mention is made of a Cat which took up its position by the 
Persea tree in Heliopolis on the night when the foes of Osiris were 
destroyed, and in the commentary which follows it is stated that 
this " male Cat " was Ra himself, and that he was called " Mau," 

y (1 v\ ISy , by the god Sa, and the vignette depicts the Cat in the 

act of cutting off the head of the serpent of darkness. In the 
cxxvth Chapter the deceased says (line 11) in the usually received 
text, " I have heard the mighty word which the Ass spake unto 
" the Cat in the House of Hapt-re," but what that word was is not 
stated. The Ass and the Cat are forms of the Sun-god, and it is 
probable that the deceased learned from them the words which 
would enable him, like them, to vanquish the powers of darkness. 
From a stele reproduced by Signor Lanzone, 1 we find that prayers 
were offered to tiro cats by the two women who dedicated it, but 
whether these represented two forms of the Cat-god, or two pet 

1 Biziouario, pi. 107. 


animals only is not clear. The cat is here called Mait, | (](j d^, 
instead of "Mau," as is usual. Another stele 1 contains reliefs 
in which worship is offered to a swallow and a cat, and the 
monuments and inscriptions contain abundant evidence that the 
greatest reverence was paid to the cat throughout Egypt, even 
as classical writers say. According to Diodorus (i. 83) the 
Egyptians fed their cats on bread and milk and slices of Nile fish, 
and they called the animals to their meals by special sounds. When 
a cat died its master had it placed in a linen sheet and taken to 
the embalmers, who treated the body with spices and drugs, and 
then laid it in a specially prepared case. Whosoever killed a cat, 
wittingly or unwittingly, was condemned to die, and an instance is 
cited by Diodorus in which a certain Roman who had killed a cat 
was attacked in his house by the infuriated populace and was slain. 

Herodotus narrates (ii. 68) that "When a conflagration 
" takes place a supernatural impulse seizes on the cats. For the 
" Egyptians, standing at a distance, take care of the cats, and 
" neglect to put out the fire ; but the cats making their escape, 
" and leaping over the men, throw themselves into the fire ; and 
" when this happens great lamentations are made among the 
" Egyptians. In whatsoever house a cat dies of a natural death, 
" all the family shave their eyebrows only ; but if a dog die, they 
" shave the whole body and the head. All cats that die are 
"carried to certain sacred houses, where being first embalmed, 
" they are buried in the city of Bubastis." 

Among the Egyptians several kinds of Apes were regarded as 
sacred animals, but the most revered of all was that which was 
the companion of Thoth, and which is commonly known as the 
Dog-headed Ape. This animal seems to have been brought in 
old, as in modern, times from the country far to the south of 
Nubia, but whether this be so or not it is certain that the Cyno- 
cephalus ape found its way into Egyptian mythology at a very 
early period. In the Judgment Scene he sits upon the standard 
of the Great Scales, and his duty was to report to his associate 
Thoth when the pointer marked the middle of the beam. Classical 

1 Dizionario, pi. 118. 


writers rightly discuss this ape in connexion with the moon, and 
we know that sacred cynocephali were kept in many temples 
which were dedicated to lunar gods, e.g., of Khensu at Thebes ; 
certain classes of apes were regarded as the spirits of the dawn 
which, having sung hymns of praise whilst the sun was rising, 
turned into apes as soon as he had risen. The cult of the ape is 
very ancient, and is probably pre-dynastic, in which period dead 
apes were embalmed with great care and buried. 

In dynastic times the Elephant could not have been a sacred 
animal in Egypt because he had long before withdrawn himself 
to the swamps and lands of the reaches of the White and Blue 
Niles. The Island opposite Syene was not called " Elephantine " 
because the elephant was worshipped there, but probably because 
it resembled the animal in shape, just as the city on the tongue of 
land at the junction of the White and Blue Niles was called 
"Khartum," i.e., "elephant's trunk" on account of its resemblance 
in shape to that portion of an elephant's body. It is, however, 
quite certain that great reverence must have been paid to the 
elephant in predynastic times, because on the top of one of the 
standards painted on predynastic pottery x we find the figure of 
an elephant, a fact which indicates that it was the god either of 
some great family or district. 

The existence of the Bear in Egypt has not been satisfactorily 
proved, and it is unlikely that this animal was indigenous. In a 
passage in the Fourth Sallier Papyrus, 3 which was translated by 
Chabas, it is said that when Horus and Set fought together they 
did so first in the form of two men, and that they then changed 
themselves into two bears (ils se frapperent l'un l'autre etant sur la 
plante de leurs pieds, sous la forme de deux hommes ; ils se 
changerent en deux ours, etc.). Now the word rendered "bears" 

by Chabas is tell, <=^> J (](] V, which he compared with the well- 
known Hebrew word, nil, " bear " ; but he appears to have for- 
gotten the Hebrew word 2X], " wolf," with which tebi is most 

1 See J. de Morgan, Recherches sur les Oriyines, Paris, 1897, p. 93. A carnelian 
elephant amulet is preserved in the British Museum (4th Eg. Room, Table Case P, 
No. 626 [14,608]). 

2 Chabas, Le Calendrier, p. 28. 


]3robably connected, and which provides a more reasonable sugges- 
tion for translating the Egyptian text correctly. That bears did 
exist in Egypt in the Predynastic and Archaic Periods is proved 
by the green slate or schist model of a bear which is preserved in 
the British Museum (3rd Eg. Room, Table-case L, No. 29,416). 
According to Herodotus (ii. 67) there were bears in Egypt, though 
he says they were few, ra<> 8e ap/crou<?, iovcras, cnraviaq, and as he 
mentions them with wolves it is probable that the animals to which 
he refers were not bears but a species of wolf. 

The Dog, though a very favourite animal of the Egyptians, 
ajopears never to have been regarded as a god, although great 
respect was paid to the animal in the city of Cynopolis ; on the 
other hand Herodotus tells us (ii. 66) that in " whatsoever house a 
" cat dies of a natural death, all the family shave their eyebrows 
" only ; but if a dog die, they shave the whole body and head .... 
" All persons bury their clogs in sacred vaults within their own 
" city." If any wine, or corn, or any other necessary of life 
happened to be in a house when a dog died its use was prohibited : 
and when the body had been embalmed it was buried in a tomb 
amid the greatest manifestations of grief by those to whom it 
belonged. If we accept the statement of Diodorus (i. 85) that a 
dog was the guardian of the bodies of Osiris and Isis, and that 
dogs guided Isis in her search for the body of Osiris, and protected 
her from savage beasts, we should be obliged to admit that the dog 
played a part in Egyptian mythology ; but there is no reason for 
doing so, because it is clear that Diodorus, like many modern 
writers, confounded the dog with the jackal. The dog, like the 
jackal, may have been sacred to Anubis, but the mythological and 
religious texts of all periods prove that it was the jackal-god who 
ministered to Osiris, and who acted as guide not only to him but 
to every other Osiris in the Underworld. 

Like the dog, the Wolf enjoyed considerable respect in 
certain parts of Egypt, e.g., the Wolf-city, Lycopolis, but there is 
reason for thinking that ancient writers confounded the wolf with 
the jackal. Thus Herodotus tells us (ii. 122) of a festival which 
was celebrated in connexion with the descent of Rhampsinitus into 
the Underworld, and says that on a certain day " the priests 


" having woven a cloak, blind the eyes of one of their number 
" with a scarf and having conducted him with the cloak on him to 
" the way that leads to the temple of Ceres, they then return ; 
" upon which, they say, this priest with his eyes bound is led by 
" two wolves to the temple of Ceres, twenty stades distant from 
" the city, and afterwards the wolves lead him back to the same 
"place." The two wolves here referred to can be nothing but 
representatives of the jackal-gods Anpu and Ap-uat, who played 
very prominent parts in connexion with the dead. Another 
legend recorded by Diodorus (i. 88) declares that when Horus was 
making ready to do battle with Set, his father's murderer, Osiris 
returned from the Underworld in the form of a wolf to assist him 
in the fight. It is important to note here the statement of 
Macrobius, who says (Saturn, i. 19) that Apollo, i.e., Horus, and 
the wolf were worshipped at Lycopolis with equal reverence, for 
it connects the wolf with Horus and Set, and indicates that these 
gods fought each other in the forms of wolves and not of bears. 
Legends of this kind prove that the Egyptians did not carefully 
distinguish between the wolf, jackal, and dog. 

At a very early period the Jackal was associated with the 
dead and their tombs, because he lived in the mountains and 
deserts wherein the Egyptians loved to be buried. The principal 
jackal-gods were Anpu (Anubis) and Ap-uat ; for accounts of 
these the reader is referred to the sections which describe their 
history and attributes. 

The Ass, like many animals, was regarded by the Egyptians 
both as a god and a devil. In a hymn to Ra as found in the 
Papyrus of Ani (sheet 1, line 14), the deceased says, "May I 
"journey forth upon earth, may I smite the Ass, may I crush the 
" serpent-fiend Sebau ; may I destroy Apep in his hour," a passage 
which proves that the animal was associated with Apep, and Set, 
and the other gods of darkness and evil. On the other hand, the 
xlth Chapter of the Book of the Dead is entitled the " Chapter of 
driving back the Eater of the Ass," and its vignette shows us the 
deceased in the act of spearing a monster serpent which has 
fastened its jaws in the back of an ass. Here the ass is certainly 
a form of the Sun-god, and the serpent is Hai, a form of Apep, 

368 THE PIG 

and it is clear from this that the ass was at one period held to be 
a god. In the cxxvth Chapter we are told that the Ass held a 
conversation with the Cat, and the passage in which the statement 
occurs affords additional proof that the ass was a symbol of the 
Sun-god. The probable explanation of the existence of these two 
opposite views about the ass is that Egyptian opinion changed 
about the animal, and that the later form of it held the ass to be 
a devil and not a god as in the oldest times. Plutarch records a 
legend (De hide, § 31) to the effect that Typhon, i.e., Set, escaped 
from out of the battle with Horus on the back of an ass, and that 
after he had got into a place of safety he begat two sons, Hiero- 
solymus and Judaeus ; but no reliance can be placed on a state- 
ment which is so absurd on the face of it. 

The Pig possessed a reputation for evil in Egypt, as in many 
other countries of the East, and the Egyptians always associated 
the animal with Set or Typhon. The cxiith Chapter of the Booh 
of the Dead supplies us with the reason why it was held in such 
abomination, and tells us that Ra said to Horus one day, " Let me 
" see what is coming to pass in thine eye," and having looked, he 
said to Horus, " Look at that black pig." Thereupon Horus 
looked, and he immediately felt that a great injury was done to 
his eye, and he said to Ra, " Verily, my eye seemeth as if it were 
" an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow." The text goes on 
to say that the black pig was no other than Suti, who had trans- 
formed himself into a black pig, and had aimed the blow which 
had damaged the eye of Horus. As the result of this the god Ra 
ordered his companion gods to regard the pig as an abominable 
animal in future. According to Herodotus (ii. 47), if an Egyptian 
had only his garment touched by a pig he would go straightway 
to the Nile and plunge into it to cleanse himself from pollution. 
The same writer tells us that swineherds were the only men who 
were not allowed to enter any of the temples, and that the 
Egyptians sacrificed the pig to the moon and Bacchus only. The 
poor, through want of means, used to make pigs of dough, and 
having baked them, they would offer them up as sacrifices, but 
the wealthy, having seen the tip of the tail of the animal and its 
spleen, and caul, and fat from the belly burnt in the fire, would 


eat the flesh at the period of full moon, but at no other time, 
Horapollo (ii. 37) says that the hog was the symbol of a filthy 
man, and iElian, in his account of the pig (De Natura Auiunilium, 
x. 16), after stating that it eats human flesh, goes on to say that 
the Egyptians abominated it more than any other animal. On the 
other hand, they kept pigs and did not sacrifice them too 
abundantly, because they employed them to tread the grain into 
the ground with their feet. According to the Rubric to the 
cxxvth Chapter of the Booh of the Dead, the vignette was to be 
drawn in colour upon " a new tile moulded from earth upon which 
" neither a pig nor any other animal hath trodden." Why, how- 
ever, the pig should be especially mentioned is hard to say. From 
one point of view the pig was a sacrosanct animal, and it is clear 
that the idea of its being holy arose from its connexion with Osiris ; 
the texts, unfortunately, do not explain its exact connexion with 
this god, and it is doubtful if the Egyptians of the dynastic period 
themselves possessed any definite information on the subject. 

Though representations of the Bat, called in the texts setcha- 

l-hemu, H J '^ e |\ ^ , and taki c^> "%\ S (1(1 , have been found 

in Egyptian tombs, proof is wanting that it was worshipped by 
the Egyptians of the dynastic period ; a green slate model of a 
bat was, however, found with other predynastic remains in Upper 
Egypt, and it seems that it must have been regarded at least as a 
sacred creature. 

Among small animals the Shrew-mouse and the Hedgehog 
were considered to be sacred, but the texts afford no informa- 
tion about the parts which they played in Egyptian mythology ; 
figures of both animals in porcelain and bronze have been 
found in the tombs. According to Herodotus (ii. 67) the shrew- 
mouse was sacred to the goddess Buto, i.e., Uatchit, and all 
mummies of the animal were buried in her city ; one legend about 
it declared that Uatchit took the form of the shrew-mouse that she 
might be the better able to escape from Typhon, who was seeking 
to destroy Horus, the son of Osiris, after he had been committed 
to her charge. Curiously enough, the shrew-mouse was thought 
by the Egyptians to be a blind animal, and Plutarch declares 
ii — b b 


(Symp. iv. 5) that it was held to be the proper symbol of darkness ; 
in connexion with this it is interesting to note that the inscriptions 
on the bronze figures of the animal identify it with Heru-khent- 
an-maa, i.e., the " Blind Horus," or, " Horus who dwelleth in 

The Ichneumon, in Egyptian Jchatru, T "v\ ° "v\ , in Coptic 

cy<^eoY?\, as a destroyer of snakes and the eggs of crocodiles, has 
formed the subject of many curious legends which have been 
preserved by classical writers. 1 Pliny says that " it plunges itself 
" repeatedly into the mud, and then dries itself in the sun : as soon 
" as, by these means, it has armed itself with a sufficient number 
" of coatings, it proceeds to the combat. Raising its tail, and 
"turning its back to the serpent, it receives its stings, which are 
" inflicted to no purpose, until at last, turning its head sideways, 
" and viewing its enemy, it seizes it by the throat." The 
ichneumon was said to destroy not only the eggs of the crocodile, 
but also the animal itself. According to Strabo, their habit was 
to lie in wait for the crocodiles, when the latter were basking in 
the sun with their mouths wide open ; they then dropped into 
their jaws, and eating through their intestines and belly issued 
forth from the dead body. Diodorus declares that the ichneumon 
only breaks the eggs with the idea of rendering a service to man, 
and thinks that the creature derives no benefit itself from its act, 
and he goes on to say that but for the ichneumon the number of 
crocodiles would be so great that no one would be able to approach 
the Nile. Several figures of the iclmeumon in bronze have been 
found in the tombs, but the texts supply no information about the 
beliefs which the Egyptians entertained about this remarkable 
animal. Modern naturalists have shown that there is no truth in 
the statement that it is immune from the effects 'of snake-bite, or 
that having been bitten it has recourse to the root of a certain 
plant as an antidote ; the fact is that its great agility and quickness 
of eye enable it to avoid the fangs of the serpent, and to take the 
first opportunity of fixing its own teeth in the back of the reptile's 

1 Herodotus, ii. 67; Diodorus, i. 87; Strabo, xvii., i. 39; Plutarch, Be 
Iside, § 74 ; iElian, vi. 38 ; Aristotle, Hist. Anim., ix. 6 ; Pliny, viii. 36. 


neck. It is very fond of eggs, and for this reason seeks out those 
of the crocodile with great avidity, but it loves equally well the 
eggs of poultry, and in consequence it sometimes bears an evil 
reputation among the keepers of hens, turkeys, etc. 

The Hare was worshipped as a deity, and in the vignette of 
the Elysian Fields we see a hare-headed god, and a snake-headed 
god, and a bull-headed god sitting side by side ; a hare-headed 
god also guards one of the Seven Halls in the Underworld. The 
Hare-god was probably called Unnu. 1 

Among the birds which were worshipped by the Egyptians, 
or held to be sacred, the following were the most important : — 
1. The Bennu, ^^, a bird of the heron species which was 
identified with the Phoenix. This bird is said to have created 
itself, and to have come into being from out of the fire which 
burned on the top of the sacred Persea Tree of Heliopolis ; it 
was essentially a Sun-bird, and was a symbol both of the risino- 
sun and of the dead Sun-god Osiris, from whom it sprang, and 
to whom it was sacred. The Bennu not only typified the new 
birth of the sun each morning, but in the earliest period of 
dynastic history it became the symbol of the resurrection of 
mankind, for a man's spiritual body was believed to sprint 
from the dead physical body, just as the living sun of to-day had 
its origin in the dead sun of yesterday. The Bennu sprang from 
the heart of Osiris, and was, in consequence, a most holy bird ; in 
a picture reproduced by Signor Lanzone, 2 it is represented sitting 
on the branches of a tree which grows by the side of a sepulchral 
chamber. In the lxxxiiird Chapter of the Booh of the Dead, 
which provides the formula for enabling the deceased to take the 
form of the Bennu, this bird says, " I came into being from unformed 
" matter. I came into existence like the god Khepera. I am the 

" germs of every god," ° Vvft c ^^ | ^37* According 

° J ° 7 ^^^ $>± A ^=^" III I ° 

to Herodotus (ii. 77), the phoenix only made its appearance once in 

1 " Unnut, lady of Unnut," -^> O ^ ^37 ^> @ , i s the female form 

, «...',*« @ Q "^ ^ © 

oee Lanzone, JJizumario, pi. o2. 

- D!;:iortarto, pi. 70. 


five hundred years ; his plumage was partly golden-coloured and 
partly red, and in size and form he resembled an eagle. He came 
from Arabia, and brought with him the body of his father, which 
he had enclosed in an egg of myrrh, to the temple of the sun, and 
buried him there. Pliny says (x. 3) that when the phoenix 
became old he built a nest of cassia and sprigs of incense, and that 
having filled it with perfumes he lay down and died. From his 
bones and marrow there sprang a small worm which in process of 
time changed into a little bird, which, having buried the remains 
of its predecessor, carried off the nest to the City of the Sun. 

2. The Vultuee was the symbol of the goddesses Nekhebet, 
Mut, Neith, and others who were identified with Nekhebet ; the 
cult of the vulture is extremely ancient in Egypt, and dates 
probably from predynastic times, for one of the oldest titles of the 
Pharaohs of Egypt is " Lord of the city of the Vulture (Nekhebet, 
or Eileithyiapolis), lord of the city of the Uraeus" (Uatchet, or 
Buto), and it is found engraved on monuments of the late pre- 
dynastic and early archaic periods. iElian, in describing the 
vultures (ii. 46), says that they hover about the dead and dying, 
and eat human flesh, and that they follow men to battle as if 
knowing that they would be slain. According to this writer, all 
vultures are females, and no male vulture was ever known ; to 
obtain young they turn their backs to the south, or south-east 
wind, which fecundates them, and they bring forth young after 
three years. 

3. The Hawk was sacred to Horus, Ra, Osiris, Seker, and to 
other cognate gods, and its worship was universal throughout Egypt 
in predynastic times ; the centre of the cult of the Hawk-god was 
Hieraconpolis, or the " Hawk City." The hawk was not only a 
Sun-bird but, when represented with a human head, was symbolic 
of the human soul. According to Herodotus (ii. 65), death was 
the punishment of the man who killed a hawk or an ibis, and 
Diodorus records (i. 83) that the sacred hawks were maintained 
at the public expense, and that they would come to their keepers 
when called, and would catch the pieces of raw meat which they 
threw to them in full flight. The Egyptians venerated two 
species, i.e., the golden hawk, j] h ^^* ^tQ /ww^ f^H^ an( j ^he 


sacred hawk, J (1 ^z^> vv 1 <=> 3 ; from the lxxviith Chapter of 

the Book of the Dead it may be gathered that the former was 
supposed to be four cubits wide, and that it was identified with 
the Bennu, or Phoenix, is proved by the words in the texts which 
are put into the mouth of the deceased, " I have risen, and I have 
" gathered myself together like the beautiful hawk of gold, which 
" hath the head of a Bennu, and Ra entereth in day by day to 
" hearken unto my words." The divine hawk was, as we learn 
from the lxxviiith Chapter, the offspring of Tern, and the symbol of 
the One God, and of Horus as the successor of his father Osiris, to 
whom " millions of years minister, and whom millions of years 
" hold in fear ; for him the gods labour, and for him the gods toil 
" millions of years." 

4. The Heron, x ^, was certainly a sacred bird, and that 

AA/WVA \\ 

its body was regarded as a possible home for a human soul is 
proved by the lxxxivth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, which 
was composed with the view of helping a man to effect a trans- 
formation into a heron. 

5. The Swallow also was a bird wherein the human soul 
might reincarnate itself, and the object of the lxxxvith Chapter of 
the Book of the Dead was to enable it to do so ; the Rubric of the 
Chapter declares that if it be known by the deceased, " he shall 
" come forth by day, and he shall not be turned back at any gate 
" in the Underworld, and that he shall make his transformations 
" into a swallow regularly and continually." In the opening 
words the deceased is made to say, " I am a swallow, I am a 
" swallow, I am the Scorpion, the daughter of Ra," a fact which 
seems to show that the swallow was connected with the Scorpion- 
goddess [Serqet. From a tablet at Turin, which is published by 
Signor Lanzone, 1 we see that offerings were made to the swallow ; 
the bird is seen perched upon a pylon-shaped building, before 
which stands a table loaded with offerings, and above are a few 
short lines of text in which it is called the " beautiful swallow," 

^, T ^fe . According to Plutarch, the goddess Isis 

1 Bizionario, pi. 118. 

374 GOOSE 

took upon herself the form of a swallow when she was lamenting 
the death of Osiris. 

6. The Goose, or at least one species of it, was sacred to 
Amen-Ra, a fact which is hard to explain. In a drawing 
o-iven by Signor Lanzone l we have a vase of flowers resting 
upon the ends of two pylon-shaped buildings, and on each of 

these stands a goose with its shadoAv, T, behind it, or by its 

side ; the five lines of the text above read, " Amen-Ra, the beautiful 
Goose," and " the beautiful Goose of Amen-Ra." In another scene 
which is likewise reproduced 2 by Lanzone, is depicted a goose with 
its shadow standing on a building as before, and opposite to it 
is seated Amen-Ra ; before the god and the goose is a table of 
offerings. The words above the god read, " Amen-Ra, the hearer 
of entreaty," and those over the goose are " the beautiful Goose, 

greatly beloved," Q = °^^Mi,^P = r^~= T' 
In the earliest time the goose, or rather gander, was associated 
with Seb the erpdt, a , of the gods, who is called in the Boole 

of the Dead "the Great Cackler" (Chapters liv., lv.). The goose 
was a favourite article of food in Egypt, and was greatly in 
request for offerings in the temples ; according to Herodotus 
(ii. 37) a portion of the daily food of the priests consisted of goose 
flesh. The goose is said to have been sacred to Isis, and the centre 
of the great trade in the bird was X-iqvo^oaKiov, or XrjvofiocrKia 
(Chenoboscium or Chenoboscia), i.e., the " Goose pen," a town in 
Upper Egypt, which was situated in the nome Diospolites, and was 
quite near to the marshes wherein large numbers of geese were 
fattened systematically. The Copts gave the name of " Sheneset " 
to the town, and this has been identified with the Egyptian 

Isn^ r| , " Het-sa-Ast," by Brugsch; 3 on the other hand 
M. Amelineau thinks that the Greek name Chenoboskion is derived 
from the words y TqTqT ^j\ * — D /wwvv lbs, ' n^> which, he says, 
are equivalent in meaning to " the place where the geese are 
fattened." The meaning of the goose as a hieroglyphic is " child " 

1 Dizionario, pi. 22. = Ibid., pi. 361. s Diet. Geog., p. 659. 

IBIS 375 

or "son," and Horapollo goes so far as to say (i. 53) that it was 
chosen to denote a son from its love to its young, being always 
ready to give itself up to the hunter if only they might be pre- 
served, and that owing to this trait in its character the Egyptians 
revered it. 

7. The Ibis was universally venerated throughout Egypt, and 

the centre of its cult in very early times was the city of Khemennu, 

or Hermopolis, where the bird was associated with the Moon 

and with Thoth, the scribe of the gods. 1 It seems to have been 

worshipped in the first instance because it killed snakes and 

reptiles in general in large numbers, and it was thought to destroy 

the winged serpents, which, it was declared, were brought over 

into Egypt from the deserts of Libya by the west wind. Herodotus 

tells us that he once went to a certain place in Arabia, almost 

exactly opposite the city of Buto, to make inquiries concerning 

the winged serpents. On his arrival he " saw the back-bones and 

' ribs of serpents in such numbers as it is impossible to describe ; 

• of the ribs there were a multitude of heaps, some great, some 

'small, some middle-sized. The place where the bones lie is at 

' the entrance of a narrow gorge between steep mountains, which 

' there open upon a spacious plain communicating with the great 

' plain of Egypt. The story goes, that with the spring, the 

' winged snakes come flying from Arabia towards Egypt, but 

' are met in this gorge by the birds called ibises, who forbid their 

' entrance and destroy them all. The Arabians assert, and the 

' Egyptians also admit, that it is on account of the service thus 

' rendered that the Egyptians hold the ibis in so much reverence. 

' The ibis is a bird of a deep black colour, with legs like a crane ; 

'its beak is strongly hooked, and its size is about that of the 

' landrail. This is a description of the black ibis which contends 

' with the serpents. The commoner sort, for there are two quite 

' distinct species, has the head and the whole throat bare of 

' feathers ; its general plumage is white, but the head and neck 

' are jet black, as also are the tips of the wings and the extremity 

' of the tail ; in its beak and legs it resembles the other species. 

1 See /Elian, Be Nat. Annual., x. 29; Horapollo, i. 10, 36; Herodotus ii., 
p. 75 ; Diodorus, i. 83 ; Plutarch, Be Iside, § 75 ; etc. 


•' The winged serpent is shaped like the water-snake. Its wings 
•' are not feathered, but resemble very closely those of the bat." l 

Among the reptiles which were deified by the Egyptians, 
or were regarded as sacred creatures, may be mentioned the 
folio win or : — 1. The Tortoise or Turtle, which probably came 
from Nubia, and was worshipped or revered through fear. The 
Tortoise-god Apesh, C) c |£§>, was associated with the powers of 
darkness, and night, and evil, and a place was assigned to him in 
the heavens with their representatives. In the clxist Chapter of 
the Book of the Dead mention is made of the Tortoise, or Turtle, 
in such a way, as to suggest that he was an enemy of Ra, and the 
formula " Ra liveth, the Tortoise dieth," is given four times, once 
in connexion with each of the four winds of heaven. The tortoise 
Sheta, ° a '^^^j is also mentioned in the lxxxiiird Chapter, 
wherein the deceased is made to declare that he has germinated 
like the things which germinate, and has clothed himself like 
the tortoise. 

2. Of the Serpent and Snake many varieties were worshipped 
by the Egyptians for the sake of the good qualities which 
they possessed, and many were revered through fear only. In 
predynastic times Egypt was overrun with serpents and snakes 
of all kinds, and the Pyramid Texts prove that her inhabitants 
were terribly afraid of them ; the formulae which are found in the 
pyramid of Unas against snakes are probably older than dynastic 
times, and their large numbers suggest that the serpent tribes were 
man's chief enemies. The cult of the uraeus, or asp, is extremely 
ancient, and its centre was the city of Per-Uatchet, or Buto, where 
a temple was built in honour of the Uraeus-goddess Uatchet, 

|J U (J 14^, in early dynastic times. This city enjoyed with that 

of Nekhebet a position of peculiar importance among the 
Egyptians, and one of the oldest royal titles is " Lord of Nekhebet, 
lord of Uatchet," i.e., lord of the Vulture-city, lord of the Uraeus- 
city. The cities of Nekhebet and Uatchet were in fact the 
ecclesiastical centres of the Southern and Northern kingdoms of 

1 Rawlinson's Herodotus, vol. ii., pp. 12-i, 125. 


The Goddess SERQET. 


Egypt, and they were first founded in primitive times when the 
vulture and the uraeus were especially worshipped. The great 
enemy of Horus, and Ra, and Osiris, and also of the deceased in 
the Underworld was the monster serpent Apep, or Apophis, which 
directed the attacks on gods and men of numbers of serpent broods, 
and which was held to be the personification of all evil ; on the 
other hand the uraeus was the symbol of divinity and royalty, for 
the walls of the abode of Osiris were surmounted by "living uraei," 
and the god Ra wore two uraei upon his forehead, and every king 
is represented with a uraeus upon his forehead. In primitive times, 
when man coveted the powers of various birds and reptiles, and 
when he appears to have wished to be able to assume their forms 
after death, the priests provided a number of formulae which would 
enable him to do this, and among them was one which gave the 

deceased the power of becoming the serpent Sata, 1^ " , and 

which read, " I am the serpent Sata whose years are many. I die 
" and I am born again each day. I am the serpent Sata which 
" dwelleth in the uttermost parts of the earth. I die and I am 
" born again, and I renew myself, and I grow young each day." l 
In religious texts the uraeus is associated with Isis and Nephthys, 
but this is due to the fact that in comparatively late times these 
goddesses were identified with Uatchet, the uraeus-goddess, who 
was at one time or another absorbed into all the great goddesses, 
many of whom were regarded as benevolent and beneficent deities 
and the protectors of a man's house, and land and crops, and 

3. The Scorpion was venerated in Egypt at a very early 
period, and the scorpion-goddess Serqet or Selqet was in some 
of her aspects associated with the powers of evil, and in others 
with the goddess Isis. In the xxxiind Chapter of the Booh of the 
Dead she appears as a friend of the deceased, and in the xliind 
Chapter his teeth are identified with those of the goddess. From 
the legend of Isis which is told on the Metternich Stele we learn 
that this goddess was accompanied on her journey by Seven 
Scorpions, and that the child Horus was stung by a scorpion which 

1 Booh of the Bead, Chapter Ixxxvii. 


made its way to him in spite of all the precautions which the 
goddess had taken. According to iElian (x. 19), the scorpions of 
Coptos were of a most formidable character, and whosoever was 
bitten by one of them died of a certainty; in spite of this, however, 
they respected Isis so much that they never stung the women 
who went to the temple of the goddess to pray, even though they 
walked with their feet bare or prostrated themselves on the 
ground. This statement is useful as showing that the scorpion 
was sacred to Isis. 

4. The xxxvith Chapter of the Book of the Dead mentions 
a kind of beetle called Apshait, n ToTqT 'yx (](] ^> which was 

supposed to gnaw the bodies of the dead. In one vignette of the 
Chapter the deceased is seen threatening it with a knife, and in 
the other the creature is represented in the form of an ordinary 
scarabaeus which is being speared by him. The Apshait is 
probably the beetle which is often found crushed between the 
bandages of poorly made mummies, or even inside the body itself, 
where it has forced its way in search of food. 

5. In the lxxvi th and civth Chapters of the Book of the Bead an 
insect called Abit, ^ J (]() - "^ , or Bebait, J J %^ \\ - »&, 
is mentioned which is said to lead the deceased into the " House of 
the King," and to bring him "to see the great gods who are in 
the Underworld " ; this creature is probably to be identified with 
the praying Mantis (mantis religiosa) about which so many legends 
are current. 

6. The Frog appears to have been worshipped in primitive 
times as the symbol of generation, birth, and fertility in general ; 

the Frog-goddess Heqet, | JN, or Heqtit, | flfl^Jj? was 
identified with Hathor, and was originally the female counterpart 
of Khnemu, by whom she became the mother of Heru-ur. The 
great antiquity of the cult of the frog is proved by the fact that 
each of the four primeval gods Heh, Kek, Nau, and Amen is 
depicted with the head of a frog, while his female counterpart has 
the head of a serpent. The cult of the frog is one of the oldest in 
Egypt, and the Frog-god and the Frog-goddess were believed to 
have played very prominent parts in the creation of the world. 


According to Horapollo (i. 25), the frog typified an imperfectly 
formed man, j4.7rXo.aTou Se dvOpcunov ypd(f)OVT€<$ fidrpayov ^ojypcufxiv- 
<Tiv, because it was generated from the slime of the river, whence 
it occasionally happens that it is seen with one part of a frog, and 
the remainder formed of slime, so that should the river fall, the 
animal would be left imperfect ; the half-formed creatures referred 
to by Diodorus (i. 10) seem to have been frogs. JElian also 
declares (ii. 5G) that in a shower which once fell upon him there 
were half- formed frogs, and that whilst their fore parts were 
provided with two feet their hind parts were shapeless ! 

7. With the Grasshopper ideas of religious enjoyment seem 
to have been associated, for in the Book of the Dead (Chap, cxxv.) 
the deceased says, " I have rested in the Field of the Grasshoppers " 

(MA ^ ^*= ^ vv y^) Sekhet-Saxehemu), wherein was 
situated the " northern city ; " it lay to the south of Sekhet-hetep. 
The grasshopper is mentioned as early as the VTth Dynasty, and 
in the text of Pepi II. (line 860) the king is said to " arrive in 

heaven like the grasshopper of Ra," □ | j\ ^^ (a '111 v°J u ] 

8. Chief among insects in importance was the Beetle, or 
Scarabaeus, which was called by the Egyptians kheprerd, 

{trf h^£' anc ^ was ^ ie svmD °l °f Khepera, 0<cr>n,jj, the 

great god of creation and resurrection. The Beetle-god is repre- 
sented at times with a beetle upon his head, and at others with a 
beetle for a head ; as Khepera' s attributes have already been fully 
described we need only repeat here that he was the " father of the 
gods," and the creator of all things in heaven and earth, that he 
was self-besrotten and self-born, and that he was identified with the 
rising sun, and new birth generally. The beetle or scarabaeus 
which was modelled by the Egyptians in such large numbers 
belongs to the family called Scarahaeidae (Coprophagi), of which 
the Scarabaeus saner is the type. These insects compose a very 
numerous group of dung-feeding Lamellicorns, of which, however, 
the majority are inhabitants of tropical countries. A remarkable 
peculiarity exists in the structure and situation of the hind legs, 


which are placed so near the extremity of the body, and so far 
from each other as to give the insect a most extraordinary 
appearance when walking. 

This peculiar formation is, nevertheless, particularly serviceable 
to its possessors in rolling the balls of excrementitious matter in 
which they enclose their eggs ; wherefore these insects were 
named by the first naturalists Pilulariae. These balls are at first 
irregular and soft, but, by degrees, and during the process of 
rolling along, become rounded and harder ; they are propelled by 
means of the hind legs. Sometimes these balls are an inch and a 
half, or two inches in diameter, and in rolling them along the 
beetles stand almost upon their heads, with the heads turned from 
the balls. These manoeuvres have for their object the burying of 
the balls in holes, which the insects have previously dug for their 
reception ; and it is upon the dung thus deposited that the larvae 
feed. It does not appear that these beetles have the instinct to 
distinguish their own balls, as they will seize upon those belonging 
to another, in case they have lost their own ; and, indeed, it is said 
that several of them occasionally assist in rolling the same ball. 
The males as well as the females assist in rolling the pellets. They 
fly during the hottest part of the day. 1 From the above extract it 
is clear that the scarabaeus is in the habit of laying its eggs in dung, 
which is to serve as food for its larvae, and that the larvae are 
hatched by the heat of the sun's rays. The ball of matter contain- 
ing potential life was compared to the sun's globe, which contained 
the germs of all life, and the beetle, with its ball of matter and 
eggs, was regarded as the symbol of the great god Khepera who 
rolled the globe of the sun across the sky. Now, the god Khepera 
also represented inert but living matter, which was about to begin 
a course of existence for the first time, or to enjoy a renewal of 
life, and he was thus not only the creator of life but also the 
restorer or renewer of life, and so at a very early period became 
associated by the Egyptians, first with the idea of the new birth 
of the sun daily, and secondly, with the resurrection of man. And 
since the scarabaeus was identified with him that insect became at 

1 J. 0. Westwood, An Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects, 
London, 1839, vol. i., p. 204 ff. 


once the symbol of the god and of the Resurrection. Now the dead 
human body, from one aspect, contained the germ of life, that is 
to say, the germ of the spiritual body, which was called into being 
by means of the prayers that were recited and the ceremonies that 
were performed on the day of the funeral ; from this point of view 
the egg-ball of the scarabaeus and the dead body were identical. 
Moreover, as the scarabaeus had given potential life to its eggs in 
the ball, so, it was thought, would a model of the scarab, itself the 
symbol of the god of new life and resurrection, also give potential 
life to the dead body upon which it was placed, and keep life in 
the living body, always provided that the proper words of power 
were first said over it or written upon it. The idea of " life " 
appears to have been associated with the scarab from time 
immemorial in Egypt and the Eastern Sudan, for to this day the 
insect is dried, pounded, and mixed with water, and then drunk 
by women, who believe it to be an unfailing specific for the 
production of large families. 

That the scarab was associated with the sun is clear from 
a passage in the text of Unas (line 477), where it is said, "This 
" Unas flieth like a bird, and alighteth like a beetle ; he flieth like 
" a bird and he alighteth like a beetle upon the throne which is 

" empty in thy boat, Ra," Q %? (^HJlfl D ^ 

I D/j*i n n 


=^ O . In the text of Teta 

and Pepi I. is declared to be " the son of the scarab which is born 
" in Hetepet under the hair of Iusaas the Northern, and the issue 

" ^ *• brow of Seb," g ffi ^ ■ (ft M & f5S * P >!> 

-^ ^ P ° <=> Ik P ® ^ ^ ^ V 1&* J * Amon o classical 
writers 1 the opinion prevailed that female scarabs did not exist, 
and Latreille thinks that this belief arose from the fact that the 
females are exceedingly like the males, and that both sexes appear 

1 J31ian, x. 15 ; Horapollo, i. x. ; Porphyry, Be Abstinentia, iv. 9. 


to divide the care of their offspring equally between them. 
According to Horapollo, a scarabaeus denotes an " only -begotten, 
generation, father, world, and man." It represents an "only- 
begotten " because the scarabaeus is a creature self-produced, being 
unconceived by a female. The male, when desirous of procreating, 
takes some ox-dung, and shapes it into a spherical form like the 
world. He next rolls it from east to west, looking himself towards 
the east. Having dug a hole, he buries it in it for twenty-eight 
days ; on the twenty-ninth day he opens the ball, and throws it 
into the water, and from it the scarabaei come forth. The idea 
of " generation " arises from its supposed acts. The scarabaeus 
denotes a "father" because it is engendered by a father only, and 
" world " because in its generation it is fashioned in the form of 
the world, and " man " because there is no female race among 
them. Every scarabaeus was also supposed to have thirty toes, 
corresponding with the thirty clays' duration of the month. For 
accounts of the use of scarabs as amulets the reader is referred to 
other works. 1 

Concerning the cult of Fish among the Egyptians but little 
can be said, because the hieroglyphic texts afford us little informa- 
tion on the subject. According to Strabo (xvii. 2, 4), there were 
" in the Nile fish in great quantity and of different kinds, having 
" a peculiar and indigenous character. The best known are the 
" Oxyrhynchus, and the Lepidotus, the Latus, the Alabes, the 
" Coracinus, the Choerus, and the Phagrorius, called also the 
" Phagrus. Besides these are the Silurus, the Citharus, the 
" Thrissa, the Cestreus, the Lychnus, the Physa, the Bous, or ox, 
" and large shell-fish which emit a sound like that of wailing." 
Among these were chiefly worshipped the Oxyrhynchus, the 
Phagrus, the Latus, and the Lepidotus. The chief seat of the cult 
of the Oxyrhynchus Fish was the city of Oxyrhynchus, where it 
was held in the greatest reverence ; this fish was supposed to have 
swallowed the phallus of Osiris 2 when Set was hacking the body of 
this god in pieces, and for this reason was sacred not only in the 
nome of the Oxyrhynchites and its metropolis, but all over Egypt. 

1 See my Mummy, p. 233 ff. ; Magic, p. 35 ff. - Plutarch, Be Iside, § 18. 


In certain places the Egyptians would not eat it. The Phagrus, 
or eel, was worshipped in Upper Egypt, and mummied eels have 
been found in small, sepulchral boxes. Of the Lepidotus Fish no 
legends have been preserved ; the Latus was worshipped at Esneh. 
The fish with the very wide and large mouth which is seen on the 
head of the goddess Hatmehit, -=^ °<==^ 8 flfl ^ J) , has not yet been 
identified. In the Booh of the Dead two mythological fish are 
mentioned, the Abtu, ¥ J ££ v\<e=<, and the Ant, (j/wwvv<o<; 
these fish were supposed to swim, one on each side of the bows of the 
boat of the Sun-god, and to drive away from it every evil being or 
thing in the waters which had a mind to attack it. The identifica- 
tion of Nile fish is at present a difficult matter, but it is to be 
hoped that when the Egyptian Government issues the monograph 
on the fish of Egypt and the Delta, and of Nubia and the Sudan 
it may be possible to name correctly the various bronze and 
wooden fish which exist in the many collections of Egyptian 
antiquities in Egypt and Europe. 


A = Thoth, i. 402 
Aa-ab, ii. 127 
Aaai, i. 342 
Aaai, ii. 320 
Aa-am-khekh, ii. 302 
Aaan. ii. 268 
Aaapef, ii. 245 
Aah, ii. 323 
Aahet. ii. 323 
Aahmes II., i. 458 
Aah-Tehuti, i. 41-2, 413 
Aai, i. 345 ; ii. 317 
Aai, ass-headed man, i. 

Aai gods, i. 196 
Aaiu-f-em-kha-nef, i. 254 
Aakebi, i. 240, 342 
Aakebi, ii. 317 
Aakhabit, ii. 323 
Aakhbu, i. 259 
Aa-kheperu-mes-aru, i. 

Aa-kheru, i. 177 ; ii. 

Aaniu, i. 188, 304 
A an. ii. 2 'J 2 
Anna, i. 211 
Aana-tuati, ii. 320 
Aapef, ii. 326 
Aarjetct. i. 494 
Aaqetqet, ii. 323 
Aar. ii. 63 
A.a rat her ab neter het, 

ii. 185 
II — c c 

Aarer, i. 455 

Aaru, ii. 120 ; Lake of, 

i. 2t)7 
Aa-sekhemu, i. 178 
Aa-shefit, i. Ill ; ii. 58 
Aa-sheft, ii. 300 
Aasith, ii. 280 
Aatiu, ii. 317 
Aat (Isis), ii. 213 
Aatof Seb, ii. 95 
Aat of Tefnut, ii. 93 
Aats of Osiris, the Fifteen, 

i. 177 
Aat-aat, i. 492 
Aat-aatet, i. 214 
Aa-ta (nonie), i. 97 
Aat-ab, i. 473, V. '2 
Aa-tcba-Mutet, i. 401 
Aat-en-sliet, ii. 60 
Aat-hehu, i. 472 
Aati, i. 419; ii. 327 
Aati, ii. 157 
Aat-khu, i. 178 
Aat-klm. i. 2H 
Aat of Ra, i. 471 
Aat-setekau, i. 241 
Aat-sbatet, i. 481 
Aat-shefsbeft, i. 194 
Aat-tchamutet, i. 421 
Aat-Tchetemit, i. 484 
Aat-Tefnut, i. 517 
Aatu, i. 341 
A an. i. 186 
Ab, i. 211 

Abata, ii. 326 
Abaton, ii. 213 
Ab-em-tu-f, ii. 301 
Abesh, i. 198 
Abet-neterus, i. 248 
Abit, ii. : : !7s 
Abrabam, i. 277 
Ab sceptre, i. 162 ; ii. 8 
Ab-sha-am-Tuat, i. 236 
Abshek, i. 429 
Ab-siu, ii. 316 
Abt (nonie), i. 97 
Abt, ii. 261 
Ab-ta, i. 194 
Abtiti, temple of, i. 405 
Abt-tesi-rut-en-neter, ii. 

Abtu (Abydos), i, 97, 

410, 492 
Abtu Fish, i. 324; ii. 

209, 383 
Ab-tut (Abydos), i. 97 
Abu, i. 96, 365, 463 ; ii. 

49, 51, 56 
Abu Simbel, ii. 22 
Abu-ur, ii. 323 
Abydos, i/97, 103, 104, 

101 ; ii. 118, 14s 
Abydos, the goal of souls, 

i. 175 
Abyssinia, ii. 108 
Adam, i. 6 
A don, ii. 7 1 
Aeeiouo, i. 280 



Aelian, ii. 346, 352, 369, 

370, 372, 379, 381 
JElian, ii. 358, 360; 

quoted,! 63, 356, 402; 

ii. 93 
Af, the dead Sun-God, i. 

206,257,505; his new 

birth, i. 260 
Af, i. 274 
Afa beings, i. 160 
Af-Asar, i. 234 
Afau, i. 211 
Affi, i. 241 
Af-Ea, i. 226 
Af-Tem, i. 234 
Afu gods, i. 83, 84 
Afu on his staircase, i. 

Afu, the dead Kkepera, 

i. 226 
Ah (Aah), ii. 325 
Aha, i. 31, 453 ; plaque 

of, i. 24 
Aha-aaui, ii. 326 
Aha-an-urt-nef, ii. 327 
Aha-en-urt-nef, i. 238 
Aha-netern, i. 220 
Ahabit, ii. 302 
Ahat, i. 248 
Aliat, ii. 19 
Ahau-hrau, ii. 326 
Ahet, i. 161 
Aheti, ii. 325 
Ahi, i. 228, 469, 495; 

ii. 322, 325 
Ahibit, ii. 325 
Ahi-mu (?), i. 419 
Ahit, ii. 184 
Ahiu, ii. 325 
Ahu, i. 79 
Ai, i. 196 
Ai (king), ii. 84 
•'Ain Shems, ii. 108 
Aion, i. 285 
Air, i. 288 

Akau, ii. 325 
Akebiu, i. 201 
Akeneh, i. 23 
Akent, i. 433 
Aken-tau-k-ha-kheru, i, 

176 ; ii. 325 
Akenti, i. 177 
Akenu, i. 433 ; ii. 325 
Aker, i. 33, 45, 79, 325 ; 

ii. 34 
Aker, Lion-god, ii. 360, 

Akert, i. 194, 246; ii. 

153, 154, 302 
Akertet, ii. 20 
Akert - khent - ast - s, ii, 

Akeru, ii. 323, 360 
Akeru gods, ii. 98 
Akerui, ii. 360 
Akesi, i. 178 
Aket of Set, i. 411 
Akhan-niaati, i. 191 
Akhekh, ii. 247 
Akhekh, ii. 270 
Akkekhi, i. 203 
Akkekhu, ii. 327 
xikhem-hemi-f, i. 242 
Akhem - khemes - f, i. 

Akhem-sek-f, i. 242 
Akhemu-Betesli, ii. 120 
Akhem-urt-f, i. 242 
Akhemu-Seku, i. 198; 

ii. 120, 250 
Akhenm-Sesh- email, ii, 

Akhen-maati-f, ii. 327 
Akhet-nen-tha, i. 79 
Akhmim, ii. 188 
Akhmiu, i. 196 
Akhpa, i. 344 
Akhrokhar, i. 266 
Akhsesef, ii. 325 
Akizzi, ii. 23 

Alabastronpolis, i. 98, 

102, 432 
Alabes fish, ii. 382 
Al-A'raf, i. 171 
Al-Basra, i. 6 
Ale, i.*178 
Aleppo, ii. 283 
Alexander the Great, i. 
293, 489 ; his son, i. 
Alexandria, i. 332 ; ii, 
_ 197 

Alkat, i. 433 
Al-Kharga, ii, 22 
Allah, i. 141 
Al-lul, ii. 316 
Am, i. 326 
Am, ii. 312 
Ama, i. 250 
Ama, i. 346 
Ama-Amta, i. 346 
Am-aau, ii. 246, 326 
Ainait, ii. 283 
Amam, i. 326 
Amain, ii. 326 
Amam-maat, ii. 326 
Amam-mitu, i. 211 
Amam-ta, ii. 320 
Amanei - tou - ouranou, i. 

Am-xinnu, i. 90 
Am-Antchet, i. 90 
Am-ara-q^ih-f, i. 182 
Ama-ta, i. 346 
Am-beseku, i. 419 ; ii. 

Amelineau, i. 269 ; ii. 

Amemet, ii. 144, 326 
Amemt, i. 443 
Amen, i., 23, 79, 88; ii. 

1-16, 324 
Amen, a serpent, i, 218 
Amen, city of, i. 366 ; 

ii. 12 



Amen, derivations of the 

name, ii. 2 
Amen-ha, ii. 320 
Amen-hau, i. 342 
Amen - heri - ab, i. 401 ; 

ii. 57 
Ainen-Heru-pa-kkart, ii. 

Amen-hetep, ii. 30 
Amen-hetep III., i. 329 ; 

ii. 23, 68, 69, 70, 279, 

362 ; presented to 

Amen-Ra, ii. 4 
Amen-hetep IV., i. 104; 

ii. 23, 68, 70, 71-84 
Amen-hetep, son of Hapu, 

i. 525 
Ameni, ii. 317 
Ameni, name of Ra, i. 345 
Amen-khat, i. 198, 343 ; 

ii. 317 
Arnen-kheperutet, i. 499 
Amen-na-an-ka-entek - 

share, ii. 324 

share, ii. 20 

Amen, ii. 20 
A m e n - n a t h e k - r e t h i - 

Amen, ii. 324 
Amen of Sapi-res, i. 99 
Amen [paid of Thoth), i. 

Amen, quarrel of priests 

of, with Amen-hetep 

IV., ii. 74-84 
Amen the Elder, i. 468 
Amen-Ra, i. 97, 172; ii. 

Amen-Ra, brotherhood 

of, i. 175 
Amen-Ea, company of, 

ii. 2 
Amen-Ra- Heru-khuti, ii. 


Amen-Ra, Hymn to, ii. 

Amen-Ea, incarnation of, 
i. 330 j spread of his 
cult, ii. 22 

Amen-Ra of Sma-Behu- 
tet, i. 100 

Amen-Ra of Xoi's, i. 99 

Amen - Ra- Horns - Osiris, 

ii. 21 

Amen-Ea - Mut - Khensu, 

i. 114 
Amen-Ea-Tem, ii. 16, 17 
Amen -Ra-Temu-Khe- 

pera- Heru-khuti, i. 

Anient, ii. 317 
Ament, i. 79 ; Circle of, 

i. 220; Circles of, i. 

Ament, counterpart of 

Amen, i. 287; ii. 1. 2 
Ament (goddess), ii. 29, 

30, 55 
Ament (Isis), ii. 213, 216 
Ament (nome), i. 99 
Ament of Apt, i. 465 
Ament (pant of Thoth), 

i. 113 
Ament-nefert, i. 210 
Ament-Ra, i. 465 
Ament-semu-set, i. 226 
Ameut-sthau, i. 216 
Amentet, i. 172, 263 ; ii. 

Amentet, i.e., Under- 
world, ii. 201 
Amentet, Bull of, ii. 15s : 

Mountain of, ii. 153; 

souls of, i. 196 
Amentet-nefert, i. 178 
Amenthes, ii. 201 
Amenthet (goddess), i. 

Amen-ur, i. 468 

Amesu sceptre, ii. 8 
Amet-tcheru, i. 211 
Am - hauatu - eut - pehui-f, 

ii. 324 
Am-heh, ii. 326 
Am-hent-f, i. 441 
Am-henth-f, i. 79 
Am-Hetch-pafir, i. 90 

pet, i. 90 
Am-Het-ur-Ra, i. 90 
Am-huat-ent-peh-tf, i. 

Ami-hemf, i. 25 

Amit, goddess, i. 366 
Am-kehuu, i. 38, 49 

Am-khaibetu, i. 419 

Am-khent (nome), i. 100 , 

Amkhiu nu Asar, ii. 185 

Am-khu, i. 228 

Ammehet,i. 178, 190, 216 

Ammet, i. 432 

Ammianus Marcellinus, 
ii. 349, 352, 357 

Ammi-seshet, i. 519 

Arn-mit, i. 60, 218 ; ii. 

Ammiu gods, ii. 100 

Ammi-uaui-f, i. 200 

Am-Neter-het, i. 90 

Am-net-f, i. 200 

Am-Nit, i. 179 

Am-Pehu (nome), i. 100 

Am-Sah, i. 90 

Am-senf, i. 419 
Am-sepa-f, i. 79, 441 
Amset, i. 79, 491, 492 
Amset = South, i. 158 
Amseth, i. 456 ; ii. 184, 

Amseti-Aah, i. 470 

Am-snef, ii. 324 
Amsu, i. 79, 97, 496, 
507 ; ii. 20 



Arnsu (nome), i. 97 
Arnsu, god of Panopolis, 

i. 97; ii. 258, 280, 

291, 293, 324 
Amsu-Amen, ii. 8 
Amsu-Heru, ii. 324 
Anisu-Heru-ka-nekht, ii. 

Amsu-Ra, ii. 36 
Anisu suten Heru-nekht, 

ii. 183 
Anita i. 343 
Am-ta, i. 346 
Aui-Tep, i. 90 
Am-tet, ii. 129 
Amu, i. 250 
Amu-aa, i. 211 
Amulets in the Sudan, i. 

Am-Unnu-Meht, i 90 
Am-Unnu-Resu, i. 90 
Am ut (Anubis), ii. 263 
An, ii. 324 
An, a form of Osiris, i. 

An, a god, ii. 20 
An, city of, i. 427 
An (city), ii. 31, 32 
An in Antes, ii. 154 
An, of millions of years, 

ii. 154 

An, the warrior, ii. 312 
Ana, i. 79 ; i. 456 
An-aarere-tef, i. 495 
An-a-f, i. 145, 419, 521 ; 

ii. 324 
An-aret-f, i. 495 
An-atef-f, ii. 324 
Anau gods, i. 202 
Andrew, St., i. 280 
Andrews, Dr. C. W., i. 

Aneb, i. 514 
Aneb-abt, i. 514 
Aneb-athi, i. 514 

Aneb-hetch (nome), i. 99, 

Aneb-rest-f, i. 514 
Anebu, i. 513 
Anemph, i. 281 
Aneniu, ii. 324 
Anep, i. 437 

heh'-f, i. 494 ; ii. 324 
An-erta-nef-nebat, ii. 294 
Auetch, ii. 176 
An-f-em-hru-seksek, ii, 

Angel of the two gods, i. 

Angel of Death, i. 19 
Angel of the Lord, i. 19 
Angels, i. 6 
Angels, functions of in 

Kur'an, i. 5 
Angels, mortal and im- 
mortal, i. 6 
Angels of service, i. 21 
Angels of Thoth, ii. 119 
Anhai, Papyrus of, i. 507 
An-hat, i. 482 
An-hefta, i. 194 
An-her, i. 172, 173, 402 ; 

ii. 184, 325, 359 
An-heri-ertit-sa, ii. 324 
An-hetep-f, ii. 325 
An-Her, i. 97, 103, 115; 

ii. 118, 291 
An-her of Sebennytus, i. 

Anhetep, i. 222 
An-hetep-f, i. 419 
An-hra, i. 176 ; ii. 325 
Anhur, i. 103 
Animals, sacred, ii. 345 ft. 
Ani, Papyrus of, i. 335, 

360, 427 
Ani (scribe), ii. 69 
Ani, the scribe, ii. 141- 


Ani (city), i. 439 
Ani (Esneh), i. 452 
Ani, form of Sun-god, ii, 

9, 10, 11 
Animals, reason why 

adored, i. 22 
Animals, the abodes of 

gods, i. 2 
Anit, i. 427, 431, 469; 

ii. 61, 65 
Ankh, i. 79 
Ankh-aapau, i. 222 
Ankh-aru-tchefau, i. 234 
Ankh-em-fentu, i. 176 ; 

ii. 327 
Ankhet (Isis), ii. 216 
Ankhet - pu - ent- Sebek - 

neb-Bakhau, ii. 327 
Ankhet, scorpion goddess, 

i. 220 
Ankhet-kheperu, i. 216 
Ankh-f-en-Khensu, i. 460 
Ankh-hra, i. 228 
Ankhi, ii. 326 
Ankhi (serpent), i. 200 
Ankhiu, i. 161 
Ankh = Osiris, ii. 139 
Ankh-s-en-Aten, ii, 83 
Ankh- s -en- pa- A ten, ii. 

Ankh-ta, i. 246 
Ankh-taui, i. 513 
Ankh-tauit, i. 433 
Ankhti, ii. 326 
Ankhtith, i. 234 
Anku, i. 234 
An-mut-f, i. 79 ; ii. 183, 

301, 322, 324 
Annu, i. 100, 354, 471 ; 

ii. 4, 148 
Annu, crops of, ii. 121 
Annu Meht, i. 328 
Annu, North, ii. 25 
Annu, paut of gods of, i. 



Annu, priests of, i, 78 
Annu-Rest, ii. 24 
Annu Resu, i. 328 
Annu, Souls of, i. 109 
Annu, South, ii. 25 
Annu, Two Companies of 

gods of, i. 91 
Annut hat, ii. 277 
Ano-Menthu, i. 433 
An = Osiris, ii. 139 
Anpet, i. 432 
Anpet, i. 496; ii. 292 
Anpu, i. 79, 210, 340 ; 

ii. 95, 261-266, 322, 

324, 367 
Anpu (norne), i. 98 
Anpu, god of Anpu, i. 98 
Anpu, god of Het-suten, 

i. 98 
Anpu am Uhet, ii. 185 
Anpu-Horus, i. 493 
Anpu khent neter seh, ii. 

Anpu khent neter seh em 

ren-f neb, ii. 185 
Anqet, i. 431 ; ii. 50, 

57 ff. 
Anqet (Isis), ii. 216 
Anqet Nephthys, ii. 57 
An-rut-f,i. 352,410,482; 

ii. 60 ; 155 
Anshar, i. 289, 291 
Ant, i. 161 

Ant (city), i. 493, 515 
Ant (country), i. 517 
Ant (Dendera), i. 472 
Ant Fish, i. 324; ii. 383 
Ant (Tsis), ii. 213 
Antaeopolis, i. 97 
Antaeopolis of Tu-f i. 98 
Antaeopolites, i. 96 
Antaf, i. 23 
An-ta-f, ii. 363 
An-tcher-f, i. 79 
Antchet, i. 88 

An-tebu, ii. 325 

xin-temt, ii. 324 

Ant-en-Nut, ii. 103 

Antes, ii. 154 

Antet, i. 433 

Antetu, i. 346 

Anthat, i. 431, 432 ; ii. 

Antheth, i. 228 
Antheti, ii. 317 
Anthretha, ii. 278 
Anti, ii. 327 
Antit, ii, 277 
Antiu, i. 198 
Antuf, i. 524 
Ajm^Avo?, i. 289 
Anu (the heavens), i. 359 
Anubis, i. 9, 418, 425, 

454 ; ii. 85, 129, 261- 

266, 366 
Anubis, Path of, i. 513 
Anubis-Horus, i. 493 
Anubis = Osiris, ii. 139 
Anu-Ea-Bel, i. 290 
Anunu, i. 454 
Anuqet, ii. 53 
Aoi, i. 280 
Ap, ii. 268, 292 
Apa-ankh, i. 454 
'A-rraaSov, i. 289 
Ape = Amen, ii. 2 
Ape, a form of Thoth, i, 

Ape and pig, i. 190 
Ape, worship of, i. 2 ; the 

sacred, ii. 364 
Ape-god in Tuat, i. 347 
Ape -gods, the four, i. 

Apep, i. 11,61,180,2(12, 

269 ff., 277, 324, 436, 

447, 489 ; ii. 79, 107, 

216, 245, 326 ; soul of, 

i. 371 
Apepa, ii. 251 

Apep, Book of overthrow- 
ing, i. 325 
Apepi, i. 306 
Aper-hra-neb-tchetla, i. 

Aper-pehui, i. 516 
Aper-ta, i. 344 
Aper-ta, ii. 317 
Apes, the, i. 346, 347 
Apes of the East, i. 21 
Apes, the four, i. 196 
Apes, the Seven, ii. 268 
Apes, the singing, i. 207 
Apesh, ii. 376 
Apet, ii. 29, 29, 30, 359 
Apet (goddess), ii. 109 
Aphoso, ii. 305 
Aphrodite, i. 435 ; ii. 

Aphroditopolis, i. 97, 98, 

431, 432, 446 
Aphroditopolites, i. 96 
Api, i. 79; ii. 30, 109 
Apis, ii. 353 
Apis, incarnation of 

Osiris, i. 330 
Apis Bull, i. 26, 27 ; ii. 
195-201, 212; signs 
of, described, ii. 350 
Apis (city), i. 99 
Apis-Osiris, ii. 195-201 
Apit, goddess, i. 127 
Apollinopolis Magna, i. 

431 ; ii. 93, 95, 278 
Apollinopolis Parva, i. 

431, 467 
Apollo, i. 486 ; ii. 187 
Apollo Amyclaeus, ii. 

Apollopolites, i. 96 
Apdph, ii. 245 
Apostles, i. 5 
Ap-rehu, ii. 242 
Ap-rehui, i. 427 ; ii. 142, 



Ap-senui, ii. 142 

Apsetch, ii. 310 

Apsli, ii. 25 

Apshait, ii. 378 

Ap-shat-taui, ii. 324 

Apsi, ii. 324 

Apsit, ii. 92 

Apt, ii. 293 

Apt, city of, i. 427 

Apt (Thebes), ii. 3 

Apt, goddess of the xith 

month, i. 444 
Apt, goddess of Thebes, 

ii. 3 
Apt-en-khet, i. 178 
Apt-en-qahu, i. 178 
Aptet, ii. 25 
Apt-hent, ii. 293 
Apt-net, i. 178 
Apt-renpit, ii. 293 
Apts, the, ii. 6, 7, 9, 10 
Apt-taui, i. 254 
Apu, i. 97, 470 ; ii. 188 
Apu, a god, i, 194 
Apu (serpent), i. 230 
Ap-uat, i. 79, 102, 109, 
206, 210, 454, 493 ; 
ii. 26, 43, 119, 156, 
263, 322, 323, 367 
Ap-uat of Lycopolis, i, 

Ap-uat meht sekheni pet, 

ii. 183, 323 
Ap-uat rest sekheni taui, 

ii. 183 
Ap-uat-resu-sekhem - pet, 

ii. 323 
Apuleius, ii. 217, 218, 

265, 266 
Apzu, i. 291 

Apzu-rishtu, i. 288, 289 
Aqan, ii. 327 
Aqebi, i. 182 
Aqeh, ii. 325 
Aqen, ii. 325 

Aq-her-amrni-unnut-f, i. 

Aq - her - am - unnut - f, ii. 

Aq-her-ami-unnut-f, ii, 

Arab angels, i. 6 
Arabia, i. 353, 498 
Arabian influence on 

Egyptian religion, i. 

Arabian nome, i. 96 
Arabs, i. 41, 119, 401 
Aranbfi, i. 241 
Ar-ast-neter, i. 211 
Archaic Period, gods of 

i. 78 ff. 
Archangels, i. 5, 6 
Archemachus, ii. 199 
Arenna, ii, 283 
Arethi-kasatki-ka, ii. 20 
Arethi-ka-sa-thika,, ii, 

Ar gods, ii. 249 
Ar-hes-nefer, i. 464 
Ari-ankh, i. 511 

Arians, i. 69 

Ari-em-ab-f, i. 419 ; ii. 

Ari-en-ab-f, ii. 325 

Ari-hes, i. 446 

Ari-hes-nefer,ii.289, 362 

Ari-Maat, ii. 325 

Ari - maat - f - tchesef, ii, 

Ari-nef Nebat, ii. 294 

Ari-ren-f-tchesef, ii. 322 

Ari- si, ii. 325 

Aristotle, ii. 357, 370 ; 
quoted, i. 62 

Arit, city, i. 433 

Arit (a pylon), i. 186 

Aritatheth, i. 248 

Ariti, i. 244 

Arits, the, i. 427 

Arkharokk, i. 266 

Arkheokh, i. 266 

Armaua, ii. 291 

Armauai, ii. 322 

Armani, ii. 129 

Aroeris, i. 467 

Arou, ii. 308 

Aroueris, ii. 187 

Arq-heh, ii. 128 

Ar-ren-f-tchesef, ii. 129, 

Arrows, i. 85 

Arsaphes, ii, 58 

Arsiel, i. 275 

Arsinoe, town of, ii. 355 

Arsinoites, i. 96 
Art, ii. 307 
A-Sah, ii. 308 

Asar, ii, 323 

Asar Aa am Annu, ii. 182 
Asar Aheti, ii. 183 
Asar Athi her ab Abtu, 

ii. 183 
Asar Athi her ab Shetat, 

ii. 183 
Asar-am-ab-neteru, i. 228 
Asar Ankhi, ii. 179 
Asar-Ankhti, ii. 176 
Asar Ap-shat-taui, ii. 179 
Asar-Asti i. 214 
Asar Athi, ii. 178 
Asar Ba her-.ib Qemt, ii. 

Asar baiu-tef-f, ii. 182 
Asar Ba sheps em Tattu, 

ii. 179 
Asar-Ba-Tettet, i. 371 
Asar-bati (?), i. 214 
Asar Bati-er pit, ii. 176 
Asar em Aat-urt, ii. 181 
Asar em ahat-f em ta 

Meht, ii. 185 
Asar em ahat-f nebu, ii. 

Asar em Akesh, ii. 182 



Asar em ankh em Ptah- 
het-Ra, ii. 183 

Asar em Annu, ii. 182 
Asar-em-An-rut-f, ii. 180 
Asar em Aper,ii. 177,180 
Asar em Apert, ii. 181 
Asar em Asher, ii. 182 
Asar em-ast-f-ainu-Re- 

stau, ii. 177 
Asar em - ast - f - amu - ta- 

niL'h, ii. 177 
Asar em ast-f em ta rest, 

ii. 185 
Asar em ast-f neb meri 

ka-f rim, ii. 185 
Asar em ast-f nebu, ii. 

Asar em Atef-ur, ii. 181 
Asar em Aten, ii. 178 
Asar em Atet, ii. 179 
Asar-ern-Ati, ii. 176 
Asar em Baket, ii. 177 
Asar em Bakui, ii. 180 
Asar em Bener, ii. 182 
Asar em Betesk, ii. 178 
Asar em Fat-Hern, ii. 

Asar em Hekennut, ii. 

Asar em Hemak, ii. 182 
Asar em Hena, ii. 178 
Asar em Henket, ii. 178 
Asar em Hest, ii. 179 
Asar em Het-aat, ii. 182 
Asar em Het Benbenet, 

ii. 182 
Asar em het-f am ta 

Meht, ii. 181 
Asar em het-f am ta 

Reset, ii. 181 
Asar em-Het-f em Re- 

stau, ii. 180 
Asar em Kakheru-f nebu, 
_ ii. 185 
Asar em ker-f neb, ii. 185 

Asar em khau-f-nebu, ii. 

Asar em Maati, ii. 178, 

Asar - em - Mehenet. ii. 

176, 17D 
Asar em Mena, ii. 182 
Asar em Nepert, ii. 178 
Asar em nest, ii. 181 
Asar em Netchefet, ii. 

Asar em Netchet, ii. 180 
Asar em Netebit, ii. 178 
Asar em Neteru, ii. 177 
Asar em Netit, ii. 180 
Asar em Netra, ii. 180 
Asar em Nif-ur, ii. 180 
Asar em Pe, ii. 177, 180 
Asar em Pe Nu, ii. 182 
Asar em Pekes, ii. 180 
Asar em Pesek-re, ii. 177 
Asar em pet, ii. 177, 181 
Asar em Petet, ii. 180 
Asar em Qefennu, ii. 180 
Asar em qemau-f nebu, ii. 

Asar em Renen, ii. 180 
Asar em Rehenenet, ii. 

Asar em ren-f nebu, ii. 

Asar em Rertu-nifu, ii. 

Asar-em-Resenet, ii, 176, 

Asar em-Re-stau, ii. 178 
Asar em Resu, ii. 177, 

Asar em Sa, ii. ] S - _! 
Asar em Sati.ii. 178, 182 
Asar em Sail ii. 180 
Asar em Sau-heri, ii. 178 
Asar em Sail hert, ii. 180 
Asar em Sau-klu-ri, ii. 


Asar em Sau Khert, ii. 

Asar em seh-f nebu, ii. 

Asar-em-Sehtet, ii. 177 
Asar em Sek, ii. 178 
Asar em Seker, ii. 181 
Asar em Sekri, ii. 180 
Asar em Sektet, ii. 181 
Asar em Seshet, ii. 181 
Asar eDi Shau, ii. 178, 

Asar em Shennu, ii. 178, 

Asar em Sunnu, ii. 177, 

Asar em ta, ii. 181 
Asar em Ta-sekri, ii. 178 
Asar em Tai, ii. 182 
Asar em taiu nebu, ii. 182 
Asar em Tauenenet, ii. 

Asar em Tchatchat, ii. 

Asar em Tept, ii. 180 
Asar em Tepu, ii. 178 
Asar em Teslier, ii. 181 
Asar em Uhet niekt, ii. 

Asar em Uhet-resu, ii. 

Asar em Uu-pek, ii. 182 
Asar Fa Heru, ii. 182 
Asar-Hap, i. 513 
Asar-Hapi, ii. 3-19 
Asar-Hapi (Serapis), ii. 

Asar Henti, ii. 180 
Asar Jleq taiu her ab 

Tattu, ii. 179 
Asar heq tchetta em 

Annu, ii. 181 
Asar Her-ab-set, ii. 176 
Asar Her-ab-set (semt), 

ii. 179 



Asar-her-khen-f, i. 214 
Asar Her-shai, ii. 178 
Asar her shai-f, ii. 182 
Asar Heru-khuti, ii. 183 
Asar-ka-Amenti, i. 214 
Asar khent Arnentet, ii. 

Asar Khentet Nepra, ii. 

Asar Khentet Un, ii. 179 
Asar-khenti-. . . ., ii. 176 
Asar - Kb enti - Amenti, i. 

Asar Khenti nut-f, ii. 

177, 180 
Asar-khenti-peru, ii. 176 
Asar Khenti-Ee-stau, ii. 

Asar Khenti -seh-hemt, 

ii. 178 
Asar Khenti Thenenet, 

ii. 179 
Asar Khent Ka-Ast, ii. 

Asar Khent Re-stau, ii. 

Asar Khent sehet kauit-f, 

ii. 182 
Asar Khent shet aa-perti, 

ii. 182 
Asar-neb- Amenti, i. 214 
Asar Neb-ankh, ii. 176, 

Asar Neb-ankh em Abtu, 

ii. 182 
Asar Neb-er-tcher, ii. 

176, 179 
Asar Neb-heh, ii. 179, 

Asar neb pehtet petpet 

Seba, ii. 183 
Asar Neb ta ankhtet, ii. 

Asar neb taiu suten 

neteru, ii. 182 

Asar neb Tattu, ii. 183 
Asar neb-tchetta, ii. 178, 

Asar Netchesti, ii. 177 
Asar-nub-heh, ii, 176 
Asar (Osiris), i. 79 
As-ar (Osiris), ii. 113 
Asar Ptah-neb-ankh, ii, 

176, 179 
Asar Qeftennu, ii. 117 
Asar-Saa, ii. 176 
Asar sa Erpeti, ii. 179 
Asar Sah, ii. 176, 179 
Asar Sahu, i. 214 
Asar seh, ii. 183 
Asar Seker em shet at, ii. 

Asar -sekhem- neteru, i. 

Asar Sekhri, ii. 177 
Asar Sekri em Pet-she, 

ii. 177 
Asar Seps-baiu-Annu, ii. 

Asar Smam-ur, ii. 117 
Asar Taiti, ii. 178 
Asar-Tet, ii. 134 
Asar-thet-heh, i. 214 
Asar Tua, ii. 177 
Asar-Unnefer, ii. 176 
Asar Un-nefer, ii. 179 
Asar Utet, ii. 181 
Asbet, ii. 302 
Asbet, a goddess, ii, 204 
Asbu, ii. 129 
Aseb, ii. 323 
Asert Tree, ii. 42, 119 
Ashbu, ii. 323 
Ashebu, i. 176 
Ashem of Aru, i. 83 
Ashem, i. 38, 40, 41 
Ashemu, i. 38, 40, 41 
Ashemu, the, i. 159 
Asher, ii. 323 
Ashet Tree, ii. 61 

Ashet, ii. 136 
Ashet, i. 432 
Ash-hrau, i. 226 
'Ashtoreth, ii. 278 
Ashu, ii. 323 
Ashur-bani-pal, i. 290 
Asken, i. 79 
Asmus, i. 136 
As-neteru, i. 240 
Aso, queen of Ethiopia, 

ii. 188 
Ass, ii. 253 
Ass, Eater of the, i. 208, 

210, 491 ; ii. 246, 367 
Ass, the, ii. 367 
Ass, the speaking, i. 19 
Asset, i. 178 

'Aacrcopos, i, 289 
Assyrians, i. 18, 62 
As-t (Isis), ii. 114 
Ast (Isis), i. 79 
Ast, ii. 202, 292, 302, 

317, 323 
Astabet, i. 482 
Ast-amhit, i. 228 
Astarte, ii. 190 
Asten, i. 402, 516; ii. 

Astennn, ii. 325 
Astes, i. 457 
Astes, ii. 325 
Asthertet, ii. 362 
Astharthet, ii. 278, 279 
Asthertet, i. 478 
Asti, i. 370 
Asti-neter, i. 244 
Asti-paut, i. 244 
Ast-Net, i. 452 
Ast-Netchet, i. 211 
Ast netert em ren-s nebu, 

ii. 184 
Ast-Qerbet, i. 353 
Ast-sen-ari-tcher, ii. 129 
Ast-Sept, ii. 55 
Aswan, i. 11 


Asyut, ii. 43 

At, ii. 263 

A tare - am -teller - qenitu - 

remiu-par-slieta, i, 519 
. \ t ure - am - tcher - qemtu- 

ren-par-sheta, ii. 326 
At bar a, ii. 360 
Atch-ur, ii. 327 
Ateb, i. 470 
Atebui, tlie two, ii. 155 
Atef crown, ii. 131, 144 
Atef-khent (20tli nome), 

i. 98 
Atef-pehu (21st nome), 

i. 98 
Atef-nr, ii. 323 
Ateh, ii. 206, 261 
Atek - tan - kehaq -kheru, 

ii. 326 
Atem, ii. 326 
Aternet, ii. 65 
Aten, i. 104 ; ii. 16, 326 
Aten, high, priest of, ii. 

Aten, hymns to, ii. 75-79 
Aten-merit, ii. 82 
Aten-neferu, ii. 70 
Aten, worship of, ii. 68- 

70, ff. 
Atennu, ii. 14 
Ater-asfet, i. 79 
Atert, i. 203 
Aterui-qerna, ii. 128 
Ates-hra-she, ii. 323 
Atet (goddess), ii. 61 
Atet Boat, i. 206, 338; 

ii. 11, 104, 105, 159 
Ateuchus Aegyptiorum, 

i. 356 
At ha, i. 481 
Athenais, ii. 190 
Athene, i. 458, 461 ; ii. 

Athep, i. 259 
Athi, name of, ii. 148 

Athpi, i. 2.30 

Athribis, i. 100, 432; 

ii. 127 
Athribites, i. 96 
Athroni, i. 281 
Athn, ii. 124 
Athuma, ii. 283 
Athyr, ii. 188 
Ati (nome), i. 99 
Atmu, ii. 10, 11 
Atru - she-en-nesert-f-em- 

shet, i. 178 
Atu, i. 178 
Atuma, ii. 283 
Aturti Best Meht, ii. 185 
Au-a, ii. 326 
Auai, ii. 317 
Auain, i. 346 
Auer, i. 281 
Aukert,i. 145, 338; ii. 9, 

Aukert (goddess) ii. 116 
Aukert-khentet-ast-s, ii. 

Aunaauif, i. 254 
Aurau-aaqer - sa - anq - re- 

bathi, ii. 326 
Aurnab, ii. 210 
Anrt, ii. 134 
Aura, i. 259 
Ausares, (Osiris), i. 300; 

ii. 113 
A van's, ii. 251 
Axe = god, i. 64 
Axe, the flint, antiquity 

of, i. 64 ; the double, 

i. 65 
Azrael, i. 5 
'Azza, ii. 289 

Ba, i. sn, if,:; 
Ba, a god, i. 180; ii. 26 
Ba (god of Xlth Hour), 
i. 200 

Ba (Irou-god), ii. 328 
Ba (Set), i. 4s 1 
Ba, Soul, i. 39 
Ba = World Soul, ii. 299 
Baabu, i. 80, 110 
Baal, ii. 250, 28 1 
Ba'al, ii. 289 
Ba'al Bam, ii. 250 
Baal Samame, ii. 282 
Ba'al Sephon, ii. 281, 

Ba'alath, ii. 281 
Ba-ashem-f, i. 80 ; ii. 26 
Baba, i. 80 
Baba,ii. 91,92,247,307, 

Babai, ii. 91 
Babat, i. 370 
Babi, i. 80 
Babua, i. 80 
Babylon, ii. 22 
Babylonia, i. 277 
Babylonians, i. 18, 62, 

Bacchis Bull, ii. 352 
Bacchus, ii. 199, 217, 253 
Back = Heqet, i. 110 
Backbone = Sma, i. 110 
Backbone of Osiris, i. 

496 ; ii. 122 
Bah, i. 401,437; ii. 26, 

Bahtet, i. 513 
Bahut, i. 421 
Bai, i. 344 ; ii. 154 
Bai (Ram-god), ii. 329 
Bai (Soul-god), ii. 328 
Bairast, i. 450 
Baireqai, ii. 21 
F.airtha, ii. 281 
Bain amu Tuat, i. 220 
Bak, i. 492 
Bak, i. 516 
Baka, i. 493 
Bakha, the Bull, ii. 352 



Bakhau, i. 24, 79, 470 ; 

ii. 101, 352 
Bakrawiyeh, i. 15 
Balaam, i. 19 
Balance, i. 521 
Balance, the Great, i, 

Balu, ii, 250 
Bandage of Hathor, i. 

437; of Nekkebet, i. 

Ba-neb-Tattu, i. 100, 

103, 114; ii. 64 
Banebtattu -Hatmehit- 

Herupa-kkart, i. 114 
Ba-neb-Tet, ii. 353, 

354, ff. 
Ba-neb-Tetet, i. 496 
Ba-neb-Tettet, ii. 329 
Ba-neb-Tettu, ii. 292 
Ba-neteru, i. 240 
Bant, i. 198 
Banth-Anth, ii. 278 
Bapi-f, ii. 301 
Baqet, ii. 62 
Bar, ii. 27, 250, 251, 281 
Ba-Pta, ii. 317 
Bare-Ast, i. 446 
Barekathatchaua, ii. 329 
Bari-Menthu, ii. 250 
Bari-Euman, ii. 250 
Barkal, i, 16 
Barley, i. 165 
Bartholomew, i. 280 
Baru, i. 79 
Bashu, i. 515 
Basilisk serpent, i. 279 
Bast, i. 100, 432, 444, 

ff., 514; ii. 28, 29, 

63, 275, 329, 362 
Bast, identifications of, 

i. 446 
Bastet, i. 80, 110 
Basti, i. 419, 445; ii. 


Bast - Sekhet - Eenpit, i. 

Basu, ii. 284 
Bat, the, ii. 369 
Bath, i. 194 
Bath-Anth, ii. 278 
Bati, ii. 328 
Bati-erpit, ii. 328 
Ban, ii. 329 
Beads, nse of, i. 14 
Bear, the, ii. 365 
Beautiful Face (Ptah), i. 

Beautiful Face, i. 125, 

501 ; ii. 7 
Beba, ii. 66 
Bebait, ii. 378 
Bebi, ii. 91, 92 ; ii. 329 
Bebo, ii. 246, 247 
Bebon, ii. 92 
Bebro, i. 281 
Bedeyat Arabs, i. 17 
Beer,' ii. 122 
Beer of eternity, i. 165 
Beer of everlastingness, 

ii. 118 
Beer of Ka, i. 365 
Bees, i. 238 
Beetle-god, ii. 130 
Beetle in boat of Ka, i. 

Beetle of Khepera, ii, 

Beetle, the, ii. 378 
Beetle, the living, i. 246 
Beetles used in medicine, 

i. 17 
Befen, i. 487 ; ii. 206 
Befent, 207 
Behbit, ii. 255 
Behen, i. 492 
Behutet, i. 84, 85, 92, 

102, 427; ii. 25, 35, 

Behutet (city), i. 476 

Behutet (goddess), i. 431 
Behutit, i. 427 
Bekatha, ii. 305 
Bekennu, ii. 20 
Bekhen, ii. 31 
Bekhennu, ii. 20 
Bekhent, ii. 34 
Bekhkhi, i. 192 
Bekhten, ii. 37 
Bekhten, Princess of, ii. 

38 ff. 
Bekhti-menti-neb - Maati, 

ii. 159 
Bel, i. 305 
Bel and the Dragon, i. 

BelbSs, i. 450 
Belly = Nut, i. 110 
Beltis, ii. 281 
Benben, ii. 71 
Benben-house, i. 347 
Benbenit, the obelisk 

god, i. 348 
Bene Elohim, i. 7 
Benen, i. 192 
Benha, i. 17 
Beni Hasan, i. 517 
Beiinu, ii. 96 ; ii. 116, 

289, 329 
Bennu-Asar, ii. 303 
Bennu = Ra and Osiris, 

ii. 97 
Bennu, the, ii. 371 
Bennu, the Great, ii. 59 

60, 160, 209 
Benra-merit, ii. 256 
Bentet, ii. 268 
Benth, i. 211 
Benti-ar-aht-f, i. 228 
Bent-Eeshet, ii. 38 
Benutch, ii. 25 
Beq, i. 177 ; ii. 263 
Bergmann, i, 363 ; ii. 90 
Berimon, i. 281 
Berosus, i. 305, 



Berua, i. 15 

Bes, i. 498 ; ii. 136, 209, 

270, 276, 280, 284 ff. 
Besa, ii, 284 
Besa, ii, 288 
Besabes-uaa, i. 211 
Bes-aru, i, 242 
Bes-Harpocrates, ii. 286 
Bes-Horus, ii. 286 
Besi, i. 198, 347 
Besi-Shemti, ii. 317 
Besitet, iii. 213 
Bes-Ea-Temii, ii.[286 
Bestet, i. 445 
Beteslm, i. 326 
Betet, i. 272 
Biggeh, ii. 51 
Biou, ii. 307 
Birch, Dr. S., i. 63, 136, 

204, 208, 407, 434 
Birds, sacred, ii. 345 
Birth, the second, ii. 116 
Black Land, i. 304 
Blacksmiths, i. 85, 476, 

478, 485 
Blind Horus,i. 299,470; 

ii. 370 
Bine Nile, i. 17 ; ii. 360 
Boat of Isis, i. 210 
Boat of Millions of Years, 

i. 333, 303, 488, 518 ; 

ii. 210, 260, 272 
Boat of Nepr, i. 210 
Boat of Osiris, i. 210 
Boat of 770 cubits, i. 85 
Boat of the Earth, i. 208, 

Boats, the 34 papyrus, ii. 

Boechoris, ii. 352 
Boes, i. 268 
Boethus, i. 445 
Bone of Horus, ii. 246 
Bone of Typho, ii. 246 
Bonomi, i. 178, 304 

Book of Breathings, i. 

Book of Coming Forth 

by Day, i. 175 
Book of leu, i. 267 
Book of Knowing Evolu- 
tions of Ra, i. 294, 295 
Book of Overthrowing 

Apep, i. 293, 294 
Book of Proverbs, i. 122 
Book of the Dead, quoted, 

i. 23 
Book of the Gates, i. 328 
Book of the Pylons, i. 

174, 175, 304 
Book of the Underworld 

described, i. 204 ff. 
Book of Wisdom, i. 122 
Books of Thoth, i. 414 
Bouriant, M., ii. 74 
Bous fish, ii. 382 
Bramble, i. 19 
Bread, ii. 122 
Bread of eternity, i. 165 ; 

ii. 118 
Breast = Baabu, i. 110 
Breasted, Mr., ii. 74 
Bringers of doubles, i. 

Brittany, i. 64 
Brugsch, Dr. H.,i. 63,67, 

89, 224,284,285,291, 

363, 367, 402 ff. 
Bua-tep, i. 343 
Bubastis, i. 100, 432, 

438, 444 
Bubastis, described by 

Herodotus, i. 449 
Bubastis, festivals of, i. 

Bubastis of the South, i. 

Bubastis, triad of, i. 450 
Bubastites, i. 96, 444 
Bull = Amen-Ra, ii. 11 

Bull Apis, i. 26 
Bull, Assyrian man- 
headed, i. 62 
Bull, early worship of, i. 

Bull-god, i. 427 
Bull Mnevis, i. 27, 330 
Bull of Arnentet, i. 26 ; 

ii. Ion 
Bull of Amenti, ii. 350 
Bull of heaven, i. 31 
Bull of Nut, ii. 100 
Bull of the Nine. i. 109 
Bull of the Underworld, 

i. 26 
Bull of the West. ii. 196 
Bull Osiris, ii. 31 
Bull-Scarab, ii. 19 
Bull, the young, ii. 14, 

Bulls, hoofs of, i. 58 
Bunau, i. 259 
Bushes = clouds, i. 306 
Busiris, i. \)o, 99, 103, 

115, 191, 469, 432; ii. 

122, 14s. 252, 348 
Busirites, i. 96 
Buss, ii. 289 
Buto, i. 24, 100, 115, 

438; ii. 208, 211 
Butos, ii. 192 
Buttocks = two boats, i. 

Bums, ii. 22 
Buwanat, ii. 289 
Byblos, ii. 74, 124, 189, 


Cabasites, i. 96 
Cabasus, i. 100 
Cackler, the Great, ii. 

96, 107, 108 
Caesarion, i. 101 
Cailliaud, i. •"-•">( i 



Cakes, i. 178 
Cambyses, i. 458; ii. 352 
Campus Martins, ii, 218 
Canis Major, i. 488 
Cannibalism, i. 28 
Canopic jars, i. 456 
Canopus, i. 432 ; ii. 199 ; 

Stele of, i. 448 
Cardinal points, i. 210 ; 

gods of, i. 158 
Cat, ii. 248 

Cat and the Ass, ii. 368 
Cat, Chapter of, ii. 272 
Cat, god and goddess, ii. 

Cat of Neb, ii. 209 
Cat=Ka, ii. 61, 297 
Cat, the Great =Ka, i. 

345 ; ii. 107 
Cataract, First, ii. 25, 43 
Cataract, Sixth, i. 305 
Cerberus, ii. 199 
Ceres, ii. 218, 253, 367 
Cestrins fish, ii. 3«2 
Chabas, i. 126, 136 ; ii. 

146, 162, 365 
Chaos, ii. 243 
Charmosyna, ii. 200 
Chemmis, i. 442 ; ii. 188 
Chemres, i. 442 
Chenoboscinm, ii. 374 
Cheops, i, 426 
Cherubim, i. 6 
Cherubim, i. 7 
Chimaera, ii. 361 
Chin — Khert-khent- sek- 

hem, i, 110 
Choenus fish, ii. 382 
Chosroes, i. 289 
Cicero, i. 2 
Circle, Hidden, i. 339, 

Circle of Amentet, i. 216 
Circles of the Tuat, i. 


Citharus fish, ii. 382 
Civitas Lucinae, i. 439 
Clemens Alexandrinus, i. 

Cleopatra VII., i. 161, 

Cognizance, the, i. 25 
Combatants, the Two, i. 

410, 475 
Constantine the Great, 

ii. 351 
Coprophagi, i. 294, 355 ; 

ii. 379 
Coptites, i. 96 ; ii. 252 
Coptos, i. 97, 431 ; ii. 

22, 189, 219, 378 
Copts, i. 106, 143 ; hell 

of, i. 265 
Cord-bearers, the Twelve, 

i. 186 
Cord of Law, i. 188 
Corrcinus fish, ii. 382 
Cory, Anc. Frag, quoted, 

I 35 
Coukhos, ii. 305 
Cow, early worship of, i. 

25 ' 
Cow-goddess, ii. 19 
Creation, Heliopolitan 

account of, i. 307,308- 

321; order of events 

of, i. 300 
Creation Legend, i. 18 
Creation Series, i. 279 
Creation, Seven Tablets 

of, i. 288, 290 
Crocodile, early worship 

of, i. 24 ; worship of, 

i. 2 
Crocodilopolis, i. 95, 98, 

488 ; ii. 355 
Crusher of Bones, ii. 

Cubit, gods of the, ii. 


Cusae, i. 98, 432 ; ii. 22; 

Hathon of, i. 434 
Cyclopes, ii. 100 
Cynocephalus Ape, i. 17 ; 

ii. 364 
Cynocephalus Ape in the 

Judgment, i. 20, 21 
Cyuopolis, i. 98, 102, 

Cynopolites, i. 96 

Dadianus, i. 268 
Aa X ih i. 289 
Aa X os, i. 289 
Dakhel, ii. 22 
DamasciuB, i. 289, 290 
Darius II., i. 113, 464 
Darkness, i. 202 ; the 

outer, i. 266 
Day of Judgment, i. 5, 6 
Day -sky, ii. 102, 105 
Days, Epagomenal, ii, 

109 ; lucky and un- 
lucky, ii. 109 ; gods of, 

ii. 293 
Days of the month, gods 

of, ii. 320, 322 
Dekans, the 36, ii. 304- 

Delos, i. 453 
Delta, i. 24, 31, 93, 103 ; 

ii. 31 
Delta, kingdom of Osiris 

in, ii. 121 
Demi-gods, i. 3 
Dendera, i. 93, 97, 421, 

426, 429, 446, 464, 

484 ; ii. 24, 55, 93, 95, 

108, 299 
Dendera, Hathor of, i. 

Dendera, Osiris scenes at, 

ii. 131 
Deraarai Hapaon, i. 280 



Der al-Bahari, i. 329 ; ii. 

13, 285 
Der al-Medina, i. 437 
Der al-Medinet, i. 126 
De Rouge, E., i. 68, 69, 

100, 126, 136, 411 
Desert gods, i. 116 
Deus, i. 69 
Deva, i. 69 
Devourer of Amenti, i. 

Diana, i. 448 
Dieisbalmerikh, i. 281 
Dilgan, ii. 316 
Diodorus, i. 96,444,493; 

ii. 347, 352, 357, 364, 

366, 370, 375 ; quoted, 

i. 62 
Diouysius sent to Sinope, 

a 199 

Dionysos, ii. 217 
Diopolites, i. 96 
Diospolis, i. 432 ; ii. 22 
Diospolis Magna, i. 100 
Diospolis Parva, i. 97, 

431 ; ii. 53 
Diospolites, ii. 31 
Disk, ii. 15 
Disk, House of the, i. 

Disk, the, i. 336, 338; 

the Great, i. 340 ; the 

winged, 481, 483 
Dives, i. 171 
Divine Providence, i. 125 
Do-decagon of Jupiter, 

ii. 253 
Dog, the, ii. 366 
Dogs, howl before a death, 

i. 19' 
Door= Nut, ii. 106 
Draco, ii. 312 
Dumah, i. 274 
Dumichen, i. 34, 99, 516 
Dung-beetle, i. 356 

Ea, i. 289, 359, 360 
Earth, i. 288 
Earth, Boat of, i. 208 
Earth-gods, i. 116 
East, Gate of, i. 353 
East, souls of, i. 107, 351 
Eater of the Ass, i. 208, 

209, 491 ; ii. 246 
Eater of the dead, i. 20, 

Ecclesiasticus, i. 123 
Edfu, i. 85, 92, 470, 477, 

499 ; ii. 24, 278 
Egg, i. 182; ii. 110 
Egg-ball of beetle, i. 357 
Egg of Seb, ii. 95 
Egg, the Great, ii. 107 
Eight gods of Hermopolis, 

i. 519 
Eileithyia, i. 97 
Eileithyiapolis, ii. 155, 

372 ' 
Eileithyiaspolis, i. 24, 

431, 437 
Eisenmenger, i. 171, 275, 

278 ; quoted, i. 7, 21 
El, i. 66, 67 

Elements, the four, i. 288 
Elephant, i. 31 ; ii. 365 
Elephant in predynastic 

times, i. 22 
Elephantine, i. 95, 96, 


ii. 43, 44, 51, 52, 53, 

91, 148, 354, 365 
Elephantine, triad of, ii. 

49 ft. 
El-Kab, i. 439, Hi7 
Elolnm, i. 133, 141 
Elves, i. L2 
Elysian Fields, i. 103, 

168 ; ii. 62, 63 
Embalmment, Ritual of, 

i. 454 
Em-khent-maati, i. 80 

Enen, i. 81. 89 
Enenet, i. 81 
Enenet-hemset, i. 289 
Enen-retui, i. 230 
Enkht honin, i. 266 
En-me-shar-ra, ii. 316 
Ennead, i. 114 
Ennit, i. 286, 289, 291 
Ennukaru. ii. 2 s ". 
Ennutchi. the Nine, i. 

Entair, i. 281 
Eututi, ii. 317 
Euzu, ii. 316 
Lone, i. 281 
Eoureph, i. 281 
Epagomenal days, ii. L09 
Epaphos, ii. 346 
Ephesus, Council of. ii. 

Epping, J., ii. 316 
Erebos, i. 285 
Erelim. i. 7 
Erinnyes, ii. 100 
Erman, Dr., quoted, i. 

Ermen-hert, i. 98 
Erment, i. 161, 32'.' 
Ermen-ta, i. 194 
Ermenu, i. 250, 259 
Ermenui, i. 248 
Eros, i. 285 
Erpat = Seb, ii. 95 
Erta- hen-er - reqau, i. 

Erta-nei-nebt. ii. 129 
Ertat-Sebanqa, i. 177 
Esau, ii. 281 
Eshmtinen, i. 401 
Esna, i. 97 ; ii. 66 
Esneh, i. 452, 463, 461 
Eteoph, i. 281 
Eternity, bread and beer 

of, i. 165 
Etet. ii. 304 



Eudoxus, ii. 253 

Euphrates, i. 277 

Eusebius quoted, i, 35 

Euthari, i. 281 

Eve, i. 19 

Evening, Hatlior of, i. 

Evil Eye, i. 13, 14 
Eye, name of Ea, 3-40, 

Eye of Flame, i. 447 
Eye ofHorus,i. 109,165, 

202, 248, 363, 457, 467 
Eye of Nu, i. 306 
Eye of Nu = the Moon, 

i, 299 
Eye of Nu = the Sun, i. 

Eye of Ea, i. 364, 365, 

446, 516, 517; ii. 8, 

Eye of Ea = Meh-urt, i. 

Eye of Tern, i. 158, 305, 

Eye, the Black = Aah, 

i. 413 
Eye, the White = Ea, i, 

Eyes, cure for sore, i. 17 
Eyes = Hathor, i. 109 
Eyes of Ptah-Tenen, i. 

Ezekiel, i. 62 

Fa, i. 250 

Fa-a, ii. 17 

Fa-akh, i. 178 

Face = Ap-uat, i. 109 

Faces, god of four, i. 85 

Faket, ii. 128 

Famine, the seven years', 

ii. 54 
Fa-pet, i. 178 ; ii. 330 

Farafra, ii. 22 
Father of fathers, ii. 51 
Fa-trau, i. 211 
Fayyiim, the home of 

huge serpents, i. 11 
Feather of Maat, i. 20 
Feka, i. 433 
Fentet-ankh, ii. 139 
Fenti, i. 419 
Fetish, i. 28 
Field of Grasshoppers, i. 

344, 420 
Field of Hetep, i. 367 
Field of Peace, i. 58,334; 

ii. 120 
Field of Plants, ii. 121 
Field of Eeeds, i. 334; 

ii. 121 
Fields of Siri, i. 35, 36 
Fields of the spirits, i. 

Fiery Lake, i. 35 
Figs, i. 58 

Figs in heaven, ii. 118 
Fig tree of heaven, i. 

Fig tree speaks, i. 19 
Fingers, the two, i. 85 
Fire, i. 288 
Fishes, mythological, i. 

Fish-god, i. 303 
Fish-gods, ii. 382 
Fish, worship of, i. 2 
Flame (uraeus), i. 184 
Flesh of Osiris, i. 234 
Flesh of Ea, i. 226, 273 
Flesh of Tern, i. 234 
Flint cow-goddess, i. 25 
Followers of Horus,i. 84, 

491, 158 
Food, celestial, i, 164 
Forty-two Assessors, i. 

418, 153 ; ii. 62 
Forty-two Judges, i, 38 

Fountain of the Sun, i. 

328 ; ii. 108 
Frazer, Mr. G., quoted, 

i. 43 
Fringes, i. 14 
Frog, the, ii. 378 

Gabriel, i. 5, 278 
Gabriel and his 600 

wings, i. 5 
Gate of Osiris, i. 230 
Geb, ii. 94 
Gebelen, i. 435 
Gehenna, i. 273 
Gehenna, chambers of, i. 

Gehenna, river of, i. 275 
Gehenna, size of, i. 274 
Ge Hinnom, i. 273 
George of Cappadocia, i. 

George, Saint, i. 489 
Gir-tab, ii. 316 
Gizeh, ii. 361 
Gizeh, Pyramids of, i. 

Gnomes, i. 12 
Goblins, i. 12 
God, One, i. 131, 132, 

God, conception of, i. 57 
God on the staircase, i. 

God, self produced, i. 134 
Gods, mortal, i. 6 
Gods of archaic Period, 

i. 78 
Gods of Egypt, the 

foreign, ii. 275-290 
" Gods," the, conception 

of, i. 57 
Gods, the Eighteen, i. 86 
Gods, the forty-two, ii. 




Gods = The names of 

God, i. 134 
Gods, the oldest company 

of, i. 282 ff. 
Gods, the Twenty-seven, 

i. 83, 87 
God-mother, ii. 221 
God-Soul, i. 148, 302 
Goldziher, qnoted, i. 278 
Golenischeff, ii. '205 
Good and Evil, ii. '243 
Goose of Amen-Ra, ii. 

Goose = Seb, ii. 04 
Goshen, i. 100 
Grapes in heaven, ii. 118 
Grasshopper, ii. 370 
Grasshopper of Ea, i. 445 
Grasshoppers, i. 421 
Grasshoppers, Field of, 

ii. 120 
Great Balance, ii. 262 
Great Bear, ii. 240, 250 
Great Cackler, ii, 374 
Great Green Sea, i, 480, 

Great Scales, i. 36, 153, 

Grebaut, ii. 6 
Green Crown, ii. 26 
Griffith, Mr. F. L., i. 64 
Gu-an-na, ii. 316 
Gud-an-na, ii. 316 
Gvnaecopolites, i. 06; ii. 

Haas, ii. 24ii 
Habal, ii. 289 
Hab-em-atu, ii. 335 
Hades, i. 263 ; ii. 197 
Hades, the god, ii. 108, 

Haggi Kandil, ii. 72 
Ha-hetep, ii. 335 

EJa-hra, ii. 336 

Hai, ii. 245 

Hai, i. 334; ii. 320, 336 

Hai, Serpent-god, ii. 367 

Hair, i. 100 

Hair of Children of 

Horus, i. 210 
Hair of Horus i. 157, 

Hak, ii. 2'. il 
Haker, ii. 335 
Haker festival, i. 410 
Ha-kheru, ii. 335 
Hall of Judgment, i. 153 
Hall of Maati, i. 38 ; ii. 

Hall of Meh-urt, i. 423 
Ha-mehit (city), i. 406 
Hammonian nome, i, 96 
Ha-nebu, i. 370 ; ii. 151 
Hap, i. 110 
Hap (Apis), Bull, the, i. 

26 ; ii. 346 
Hap, city of, ii. 133 
Hap, Hapi, the Nile-god, 
' i. 178 ; ii. 42, 43 ff. 
Hap = north, i. 158 
Hap, son of Horus, i. 

491, 492 
Hapi, i. 198, 45i; ; ii. 

77, 129, 145, 184 
Hapi (Nile), i. 286, 335 ; 

ii. 4, 155, 336 
Hapi (Nile-god), i. 146, 

Hapi (son of Horus), ii. 
" 336 

Hapi-Asmat, ii. 309 
Hapi-Khuemu, ii. 45 
Hapi-Ptah, ii. 45 
Hapi-Nu, ii. 47 
Hapiu ( Apis), ii. 336 
Hap-re, ii. 289 
Hap-semu-8, i. 241 
I.Iap-tcheserts, ii. 302 

I.Iapti-ta-f, i. 242 

I.I apt-re, ii. 336, 363 

I Ifip-ur, ii. 52 

Haqa - haka - 11a - lira, ii. 

Haq-p-khart, i. t69 
Hare-god, i. 427 ; ii. 371 
Hare, nome of, i. 28 

baiu, i. 511) 
IJarethi, ii. 336 
Harmachis, i. 470; ii. 10, 

Harpocrates, i. 285, 468, 

469, 495; ii. L06 
Harpocrates gods, i. 464 
Harpocrates, origin of, ii. 

' ii. 336 

Hartmann, i. 136 
Ha-sert, i. 178 
Hashmalim, i. 7 
Hat, i. 401 ; ii. 209 
Ha-tchat, ii. 304 
Hat-chetchn, i. 211 
Hatet, i. 255 
Hathor, i. 78, 03. 338, 

428-437 ; ii. 2, 36, 93 

103, 136 
Hathor- Aphrodite, i. 415 
Hathor destroys man- 
kind, i. 365 
Hathor, flint symbol of, 

i. 25 
Hathor of Aphxodito- 

polis, i. 97, 98 
Hathor of Cusae. i. 98 
Hathor of Dendera, i. 97 
Hathor of Diospolis 

Parva, i. 97 
Hathor of Nut-ent-I.Iap, 

i. 98 
Hathors, the Seven, i. 

433, 434 



Hathors, the Twelve, i. 

Hat-mehit, i. 114, 432 ; 
' ii. 65, 354, 383 
Hat-mehit, norne of, ii. 
' 64 

Hatshepset, i. 160, 329 ; 
' ii. 285 
Hau, i. 23 
Hau-hra, i. 326 
Hauna-ara-her-hra, i. 

Hawk, antiquity of 

worship of, i. 9 
Hawk-god, ii. 372 
Hawk; nome of, i. 27, 28 
Hawk, the Great, ii. 11 
Hawks as abodes of dis- 
embodied spirits, i. 16 
Head = hawk, i. 109 
Hearing, god of, ii. 298 
Heart = Bastet, i. 110 
Heart, Chapters of, i. 42 
Heaven, i. 156 ff. 
Heaven of Osiris, the, ii. 

Heb-Antet, ii. 293 
Heb-api-hent-s ii. 293 
Heb-apt, ii. 293 
Heben, i. 480, 492 
Hebenu, i. 486 
Hebennrj, i. 98, 494 
Hebes-ka, i. 100 
Hebet, i. 113; ii. 213, 

Hebi, ii. 362 
Heb-Kert, ii. 128 
Hebrews, i. 41, 119 ; ii. 

Hebrews, Heaven of, i. 

Hebrews, Hell of, i. 171, 

Hebrews, their system of 

Angels, i. 6 ff. 

Hebs, i. 244 
Hebset, i. 241 
Hebt, i. 492 
Heb-tep, ii. 293 
Hebt-re-f, ii. 336 
Hedgehog, ii. 369 
Heels = souls of Annu, 

i. 110 
Heglik-tree, i. 17 
Heh, 289 
Heh, central support of 

heaven, i. 157 
Heh, Lake of, ii. 60 
Hehet, ii. 2 
Hehi, ii. 116, 337 
Hehu, i. 113, 257, 258, 

283, 284 
Hehui, ii. 2 
Hehut, i. 113, 257, 258, 

283, 285, 289 
Heka, i. 23 
Heka, i. 82, 180; ii. 

Hekau, i. 40 ; ii. 4 
Hekemt, i. 220 
Hekennnt, i. 513 
Hekenth, i. 234 
Hekret, i. 23 
Heliopolis, i. 92, 100, 

282, 328, 471 ; ii. 4, 

5, 22, 95, 96, 97, 141 
Heliopolis and At en 

worship, ii. 68 
Heliopolis, Bull of, ii, 

351, 352 
Heliopolis, company of 

gods of, ii. 85 ff. 
Heliopolis, lions of, ii. 

Heliopolis, Mnevis god 

of, i. 26 
Heliopolis, paut of gods 

of, i. 88 
Heliopolis, souls of, i. 


Heliopolis, sycamore of, 

ii. 107 
Heliopolis visited by 

Piankhi, i. 331 
Heliopolitan doctrine, i. 

Heliopolites, i. 96 
Helios, ii. 93, 124, 186, 

Hell, i. 171 ff., 263 ff. 
Hell, prototype of, i. 12 
Hell. Seven Mansions of, 

i. 278 
Hellanicus, ii. 92 
Hem, i. 81 
Hemaka, ii. 116, 117 
Hememet, ii. 154 
Hemen, i. 81; ii. 336 
Hemhemet, i. 481 
Hemhemti, i. 326 
Hem-nu, ii. 336 
Hemt, i. 228 
Hem-taiu, i. 326 
Hemth, i. 23 
Hemti, ii. 336 
Henbi, ii. 63, 336 
Heneb, ii. 63 
Henena, i. 81 
Hen-en-ba, ii. 322 
Henen-su, ii. 58, 98, 59, 

Henhenith, i. 228 
Hen-Heru, i. 211 
Henkhisesui (East wind), 

ii. 296 
Henmemet, i. 84, 159, 
' 160 ; ii. 151 
Hennu Boat, i. 505, 506; 
' ii. 117, 260 
Henotheism, i. 136 
Hen-pesetchi, i. 81 
Hensek, ii. 336 
Hent, i. 81 
Hent (Isis), ii. 213 
Hentch-hentch, ii. 294 



Henti, ii. 337 
Henti (Osiris), i. 457 
Henti-requ, i, 177 ; ii. 

Hentiu, i. 198, 259 
Hent-neteru, i. 254 
Hent-nut-s, i. 244 
Hent-she, ii. 337 
Hep, i. 81; ii. 42 
Hep (Nile) i. 81 
Hep-Meht, ii. 43 
Hep-Eeset, ii. 43 
Hep-ur, i. 81 
Hepa, i. 254 
Hepath, i. 81 
Hephaistos, i. 461, 501 
Heptanomis, i. 96 
Heptet, ii. 131 
Hept-seshet, ii. 336 
Hept-shet, i. 419 
Hept-ta, i. 192 
Heq, ii. 291 
Heq, ka of Ka, ii. 300 
Heqa, ii. 357 
Heq-at (nome), i, 100 
Heqes, ii. 129 
Heqet, i. 82, 110, 329, 

431 ; ii. 61, 109, 136, 

137, 213, 378 
Heqtit, ii. 184, 338, 378 
Heq-ur, ii. 302 
Her-ab-Khentu, ii. 307 
Her-ab-uaa, ii. 306 
Heracleopolites, i. 96 
Heraclides, ii. 199 
Heraclitus, ii. 199, 200 
Her-a-f, ii. 129 
Herakleopolis Magna, i. 

98, 354, 365, 472 ; ii. 


Her-aua, ii. 291 
Her-ba, i. 345 ; ii. 320 
Hercules, ii. 199, 200 
Herent, i. 492 
ii — d d 

Herert, i. 186 
Her-hepes, i. 81 ; ii. 85 
Her-hequi, i. 222 
Heri-akeba-f, ii. 337 
Heri-sep-f, ii. 60, 337 
Heri-seru, i. 419 
Herit, i. 202 
Heri-uru, ii. 337 
Her-ka, i. 463 
Her-khu, i. 222 
Hermanubis, i. 493 ; ii. 

Hermes, i. 402, 414 ; ii. 

124, 187, 193 
Hernionthis, i. 328, 431, 

469; ii. 22, 24, 352, 

Herinonthites, i. 96 
Hermopolis, i. 95, 98, 149, 

332, 400, 405, 432; 

ii. 30, 92, 107, 149, 

353, 375 
Hermopolis, Eight gods 

of, i. 292 
Hermopolis Magna, ii. 22, 

Hermopolis of North, i. 

Hermopolis of South, i. 

Hermopolis, Souls of, i. 

Hermopolites, i. 96 
Herodotus, quoted or 

referred to, i. 1, 444, 

448, 452, 514 ; ii. 96, 

208, 346, 353, 357, 


372, 375 
Heron, the, ii. 373 
Heroopolis, i. 354; ii. 31 
Heroopolites, i. 353 
Her-pest, i. 480 
Her-qenbet-f, i. 188 
Her-sha-f, ii. 58 

Her-sha-s, i. 256 
Her-she-f, ii. 58 
Her-shefi, i. 98 
Her-sheft, ii. 58 ff. 
Her-she-taiu, i. 248 
Her-she-tuati, i. 244 
Her-ta, ii. 337 
Her-taui, ii. 337 

ii. 301 
Her-tept, ii. 134 
Hert-ermen, i. 246 
Her-tesu-f, i. 232 
Hert-rmntua, i. 255 
Her-thertu, i. 38, 49 ; ii. 

Hertit, i. 325 
Hertit-an, ii. 337 
Hert-ketit-s, i. 255 
Hert-nekenit, i. 256 
Hert-nemmat-set, i. 256 
Hert-sefu-s, i. 256 
Her-tuaiu, i. 211 
Heru (Horus), i. 78, 81 ; 

ii. 317, 337 
Heru-ai, ii. 337 
Heru, an official, ii. 63 
Heru-aa-abu, i. 498 
Heru-aah, i. 81, 497 
Heru-ahai, i. 498 
Heru-am-henu, i. 81 
Heru-am-hennu, i. 497 
Heru - ami - abu-her-ab - 

ami-khat, i. 498 
Heru-ami-atken, i. 498 
Heru-an-mut-f, i. 470 
Ileru-ap-shata, ii. 139 
Heru-ap-sheta-taui, ii. 

' 302 
Heru-behutet, i. 96,473; 

' ii. 248 
Heru-behutet and Set, i. 

' 489 

Heru-em-au-ab, ii. 3u2 
\[ eru-em-heb, ii. 84 



Heru-ein-ket-Aa, i. 413 
Heru-ein-kkebit, i. 498 
' ii. 337 

Heru-kebenu, i. 486 
Heru-kekennu, i. 473 ; 

ii. 260 
Heru-kekenu, i. 206, 450 
Heru-kennu, i. 469 
Heru-ker-kket, ii. 301 
Heru-ker-neferu, i. 498 
Heru-ker-uatck-f, ii. 322 
Herui (Horus-Set), ii. 

Herui (nome), i. 97 
Herui-senui, ii. 337 
Heru-ka, ii. 303 
Heru-ka-nekkt, ii. 214 
Heru-ka-pet, ii. 302 
Heru-kkabit, i. 211 
Heru-kkart, i. 81 
Heru-kkent-an-maati, i. 

299, 468 
Heru- kkentet - an - maati, 
' ii. 183 

Heru-kkent-kek, i. 498 
Heru-kkenti-aket-f ; i, 
' 228 
Heru-kkenti-an-Maati, i. 


Heru-kkenti-kkat, i. 470 
Heru - kkenti - maati, i. 

Heru-kkent-kkattki, ii. 

' 184 
Heru-kkent-kkatitk, ii. 

' 293 
Heru-kkent-peru, i. 81, 

Heru-kkesbetck-maati, i. 


Heru-kkuti, i. 336, 349, 
470 ff, ii. 4, 293, 337 

Heru-kkuti-Kkepera, i. 
' 470 

Heru-kkuti-Ra, i. 352 
Heru-kkuti-Tem, i. 470 
Heru-kkuti - Temu - Heru 

Kkepera, i. 357 
Heru - kkuti - Ra - Temu - 

Kkepera, i. 472 
Heru-kkuttka, i. 81 
Heru-ma- taui - pa - kkart , 
' i. 495 
Heru-merti, i. 469 f. ; 

ii. 299 
Heru-neb-Mesen, ii, 362 
Heru-neb-ureret, i. 498 
Heru-netck-kra-tef-f, i. 

495 ; ii. 337 
Heru-netck-tef-f, i. 488 ; 

ii. 135, 322 
Heru-netck-tef-f em ren- 

f neb, ii. 185 
Heru-nub, i. 470, 426 
Heru-pa-kkart, i. 469 
' ff. ; ii. 35 
Heru-pa-kkart, son of 

Hat-Mekit, ii. 65 
Heru-pa-kkart, son of 

Osiris, i. 495, 496 
Heru-pe-sketa, ii. 302 
Heru-p-ka, ii. 303 
Heru-p-kkart of Busiris, 

i. 469 
Heru-Ra-p-kkart, i. 469 

Heru-sa-Ast-sa-Asar, i. 
' 486 

Heru-sbati (?), ii. 301 
Heru-sekka, ii. 212 
Heru-sekkai, i. 498 ; ii. 

Heru-sept, i. 81, 498, 

Heru-skefi = Osiris, ii. 

Heru-skemsku, i, 490 
Heru-sket-kra, i. 498 

Heru-sku-p-kkart, i, 469 
Heru-sma-taui, i, 354, 
' 472 ; ii. 249 
Heru-Tat, i. 81 
Heru-ta-ta-f, i. 358, 426, 

Heru-Tekuti, i. 414 ; ii. 
' 184 

Heru-tema, i. 468 
Heru-tesker, ii. 303 
Heru-tesker-maati, i. 81 
Heru, tke Hawk-god, i. 

Heru, tke oldest god, i. 
' 466 

Heru-tkema, i, 486 
Heru-ti, ii. 261 
Heru-Tuat, i. 211 
Heru-tuati, i. 196 
Her-uatck-f, i. 497 
Heru-ur (Aroeris), i. 9, 
' 78, 102, 467 ff. ; ii. 

109, 183, 241, 337, 

356, 378 
Heru-ur and Set, i. 489 ; 

ii. 243 
Heru-ur of Sekkem, i. 

Heru-ur, god of tke Nortk, 

i. 468 ; ii. 243 
Heru-ur of tke Soutk, i, 

Her-ut-f, i. 256 
Hes, i. 433 
Hesamut, ii. 312 
Hesat, i. 82 
Hesentet, ii. 181 
Hesepti, i. 358, 506 
Hesert, i. 401 
Hes-kra, i. 519 ; ii. 337 
Hesmennu, i. 82 
Hes-nefer-Sebek, i. 464 
Hespu, tke, i. 95-100 
Hes-tckefetck, ii, 19, 338 
Het, i, 97 



Het, i. 161 
Het-aa, i. 513 
Het-Abtit, i. 405 
Het-a-nekkt, i. 478 
Het- Ant, i, 492 
Het-baiut, i. 496 
Het-Benben, ii. 66, 73, 

Het-Benbenet, i. 331 
Het-Bennu, ii. 128 
Heteh-a, i. 211 
Hetch-abehu, i, 419 ; ii. 

Hetchhetch, i. 81 
Hetchiu, i. 344 
Hetch-met, i. 222 
Hetch-nau, i. 218 
Hetch-nefer-Sebeq, i.457, 

Hetch-paar, i. 88 
Hetch-re, 338 
Hetch-re-pest-tep, ii. 338 
Hetchuti, ii. 320 
Hetemet, ii. 338 
Hetemet-baiu, i. 178 
Hetemet-kkeiniu, i. 241 
Hetemet-khu, i. 244 
Hetemitet, i. 232 
Het-ennut, i. 469 
Hetep, ii. 338 
Hetep (city), i. 161 
Hetepet, city of, i. 429 ; 

ii. 381 ; scarab of, i. 85 
Hetep-ka, ii. 338 
Hetep - khenti - Tuat, i. 

Hetep-mes, ii. 263 
Hetep-sekket, i. 367 
Hetep-sekkus, i. 495 ; ii, 

Hetep-taui, ii. 338 
Heteptiu, i. 226 
Hetep-uaa, i. 242 
Hetepui, i. 230 
Hetet, ii. 213, 292 

Hetetet, ii. 338 

Hetet-Sept, ii. 268 

Het-her-ateb, ii. 128 

Het-Hert (Hathor), i. 82, 
428-437; ii. 293 

Het-Heru, i. 78 

Het-ka-kknem-neteru, i. 

Het-ka-Ptah, i. 502, 512, 
522 ; ii. i54 

Het-ka-Ptah (see Mem- 
phis), ii. 157 

Het-khaat, ii. 249 

Het-khas, ii. 255 

Het-khat, i. 515 

Het-khebit, i. 452, 464 

Het-maa-kheru, ii. 128 

Het-Mut, ii. 30 

Het-nefert-Tem, i. 473 

Het-neh, i. 492 

Het-Net, i. 452 

Het-Nut, ii. 103 

Het-Keshp, ii. 283 

Het-sa-Ast, ii. 374 

Het - sekhem, ii. 255, 

Het-ser, ii. 210 

Het-Serqet, i. 88 

Het-Seshesh, ii. 108 

Het-stau-kker-aha-Ra, i. 

Het-suten, i. 492 

Het-ta-her-ab, i. 100 

Het-teft, ii. 64 

Het-temtet-Ra, i. 228 

Hettenuut, i. 81 

Het-tua-Ra, i. 228 

Het-uart, ii. 251 

Het-ur-ka, i. 88 

Het-urt, ii. 51 
Het-utet, i. 513 
Hidden-Face, i. 343 
Hidden-House, ii. 154 
Hidden-Name, i. 48 
Hidden One, ii. 21 

Hidden-Souls, i. 212, 213, 

Hidden symbols, i. 222 
Hierakonpolis, i. 431, 

476 ; ii. 372 
Hierosolymus, ii. 254 ; 

High priest of Memphis, 

i. 101 
High priest of Thebes, 

title of, i. 101 
Hi-mu, ii. 336 
Hinnom, i. 273 
Hinu-en-Shu-nefer, ii. 

Hipponon, i. 98, 494 
Hippopotamus of Set, i. 

478, 480 
Hippopotamus, the, i. 24; 

ii. 359 
Hit, ii. 287, 336 
Hobgoblins, i. 12 
Hokhmah, i. 296 
Holy fathers, i. 101 
Homer, ii. 219 
Horapollo,i. 62, 234,284, 

356, 402, 461, 462; 

ii. 369, 375, 379, 381, 

Horn of the West, i. 

Horse and Ox, Fable of, 

i. 18 
Horus, i. 78, 145, 146, 

180, 304, 341; ii. 

Horus and Set, i. 484 ; 

ii. 31, 62, 244; double- 
head, i. 194; fight 

between, i. 117 ; fight 

of, i. 405, 475, 488 ; 

hold the ladder, i. 167 ; 

their fight, ii. 212 
Horus as Advocate in the 

Judgment, i. 490 



Horus, battle of, with 

Set, ii. 125 
Horns-brethren, the two, 

i. 410 
Horns, Cippi of, ii. 267- 

Horus cuts off head of 

Isis, i. 405 
Horus = To-day, i. 487 
Horus, Followers of, i. 

Horus, four Children of, 

i. 210, 228, 456, 497 ; 

ii. 106, 145, 249 
Horus, four Children of 

as gods of Dekans, ii. 

309, 310 
Horus-gods, the, i. 466 ff. 
Horus, ka of, i. 163 ; 

Ladder of, ii. 242 
Horus-name, the, i. 25 
Horus of Antaeopolis, i. 

Horus of Athribis, i. 100 
Horus of Behutet, i. 84 
Horus of Behutet and 

Set, i. 405 
Horus of Edfu, i. 92 
Horus stung by a scor- 
pion, ii. 208, 272 
Horus of Hipponon, i. 98 
Horus of Tanis, i. 100 
Horus of the East, ii. 10 
Horus of the Papyrus 

swamps, i. 442 
Horus of Tu-f, i. 98 
Horus Pakht, i. 518 
Horus, two Eed Eyes of, 

i. 497 
Horus Seker, ii. 145 
Horus Sept, i. 166, 200 ; 

ii. 145 
Horus-Set, i. 200, 211 
Horus the Aged, i. 84 
Horus the Blind, i. 299 

Horus the Child, i. 469 
Horus the Elder, i. 188, 

467, 496 
Horus, two Blue Eyes of, 

i. 497 
Hours, gods and god- 
desses of, ii. 300, 301 
House of Osiris, i. 103 
House of Shu, ii. 93 
House of the Net, i. 405, 

Hra-f-ha-f, i. 81, 419; ii. 

121, 337 
Hra-nefer, ii. 337 
Hra-ua, ii. 337 
Hu, i. 81, 99, 203, 206, 

215, 472 ; ii. 89, 297, 

299, 302, 336 
Hu (city), i. 492 
Hu (the Sphinx), ii. 361 
Hu, ka of Ea, ii. 300 
Huaaiti, i. 341 ; ii. 317 
Hui, ii. 336 
Huit, god of Sphinx, i. 

Hu-kheru, i. 176; ii. 

Human sacrifice, i. 234 
Hun, i. 211 
Hunefer, Papyrus of, i. 

131, 335,410,489; ii. 

5, 6, 68 
Hunger, ii. 118 
Hunt, i. 81 
Huntheth, i. 248 
Hur al-'uyun, i. 166 
Hurt, ii. 213 
Hut, i. 492 
Hutchaiui (West wind), 

ii. 296 
Hu-tepa, i. 177 ; ii. 336 
Hydrus, the, ii. 358, 359 
Hyksos,i. 104 ; ii. 4, 69, 

Hypsele, i. 97 

Hypselis, i. 431 ; ii. 51 
Hyvernat quoted, i. 269 

Iai, i. 280 

lad, i. 280 

Ibis = Thoth, i. 403 

Ibis-god, i. 401 

Ibis, the, ii. 375 

Ibis, worship of, i. 2 

Ibiu, i. 432 

Ibrahim Ruskdi, i. 17 

Ichneumon, ii. 370 

Ieana Menaman, i. 280 

I-em-hetep, i. 14, 126, 

522, 523 ; ii. 52 
I-en-her-pes, i. 80 
Ieou, i. 280 
Illahat, i. 15 
Immortality, i. 144, 151 
Imouthes, i. 522 
Incarnation of Ainen-Ra, 

i. 330 
Incarnation of Osiris, i. 

Incarnation of Temu, i. 

Incense, ii. 80 
Incense trees, ii. 209 
India, ii. 200 
Ink-pot, i. 411 
Inundation (of Nile), i. 

10, 11, 44, 63, 123 
Iouo, i. 280 
Ireqai, ii. 328 
Iron, ii. 241 
Iron floor of heaven, i. 

167, 491 
Iron knife, ii. 92 
Iron sky, i. 156 ff. 
Iron throne, i. 58, 158 
Isaeacus, ii. 200 
Ishim, i. 7 

Ishtar, i. 273 ; ii. 279 
Isis, i. 58, 151,166,230, 



231,341,431; ii. 29, 
126, 129, 186, 187, 

Isis and her Seven Scor- 
pions, i. 487 
Isis and Neplithys, La- 
mentations of, i, 293 
Isis and the Virgin Mary, 

ii. 220, 221 
Isis as enchantress, ii. 

Isis, blood of, ii. 215 
Isis Campensis, ii. 218 
Isis, Festival Songs of, 

i. 294 
Isis, forms of, ii. 213 
Isis and Ra, Legend of, 

i. 360 ff. 

Isis, mysteries of, ii. 217; 
sorrows of, Egyptian 
text, ii. 222-240 ; wan- 
derings and troubles of, 
ii. 206 ff. 
Isis of Cabasus, i. 100 
Isis of Sapi-res, i. 99 
Isis of Tithorea, ii. 218- 

Isis-Athene, i. 459 
Isis-Hathor, ii. 55 
Isis-Nebuut, ii. 213 
Isis-Net, i. 452 
Isis-Sati, ii. 57 
Isis-Sothis, ii. 55 
Island of Ateh, ii. 209 
Isokhobortha, i. 281 
Israel, Children of, i. 19 
Israelites, i. 136, 137 
Israfel, i, 5 
Israi, i. 280 
It (city), i. 492 
Ithyphallic god, ii. 17, 

Iuaa, ii. 69 
Iubani, i. 326 

Iubau, i. 326 
Iukasa, ii. 20 
Iusaas, i. 85 
Iusaas, ii. 289 
Iusaas[et], city of, ii. 

Iusaaset, i, 354, 432, 441, 

446 ; ii. 29, 88 
Iusaaset-Nebthetep, i, 


Jackal, ii. 367 
Jahannam, i. 273 
James, Saint, i. 280 
Jebel Barkal, i. 14, 15, 

Jequier, quoted, i. 178 
Jerusalem, i. 273, 278 
Jews, i. 19 
Jinn, i. 14, 133 
John, Saint, i. 144 
Judaeus, ii. 254, 368 
Judges, Book of, i. 19 
Judgment Scene, ii. 142 

Julius Africanus, i. 445 
Juno, ii. 253 
Jupiter, ii. 186,253,302, 

Jupiter Ammon, ii. 22 
Justinian, i. 289 
Juvenal, i. 28, 36; 

quoted, i. 1, 2 

Ka, or " double," i. 34, 

Ka of Osiris, i. 149 
Ka, son of Meh-urt, i. 

Ka, the god, i. 286 
Kaa, ii. 342 
Ka-Ament, i. 198 
Ka-Amentet, i. 240 

Kaarik, ii. 342 
Ka-ari-ka, ii. 20 
Kadesh, ii. 27 
Ka-en-Ankh-neteru, i. 

Kaharesapusaremk a h e r- 

remt, ii. 342 
Ka-hemhem, i. 228 
Ka-her-ka-heb, ii. 293 
Ka-heseb (nome), i. 100 
Ka-hetep, ii. 139, 156, 

Ka-hetep (Osiris), ii. 61 
Kahun, ii. 285 
Kai, i. 230 
Kaiekhos, ii. 346 
Kait, goddess, i. 286 
Kakaa, i. 329 
Ka-kau, ii. 346, 351, 353 
Ka-khu, ii. 301 
Kalabsheh, ii. 288 
Ka-qem, i. 492 
Ka-qem (nome), i. 100 
Kaqemna, i. 122, 138 
Karau-Anememti, i, 326 
Karnak, ii. 22 
Kasa, i. 98 
Kasaika, ii. 20, 342 
Ka-set (nome), i. 99 
Ka-Shu, i. 206 
Kasut, i. 83 
Ka-taui, ii. 301 
Katna, ii. 23 
Kan of Ra, i. 34 
Keb, i. 369 
Keb-ur, i. 259 
Kefi, i. 198 
Kehkeh, ii. 268 
Kehkehet, ii. 342 
Kek, i. 371 
Keket, ii. 2 
Kekiu, i. 113 
Kekiut, i. 113 
Keku, i. 241 
Kekui, i. 283, 285;ii.2 



Kemkem, ii. 342 
Kenat, i. 248 
Kenememti, i. 326 
Kenemet, ii. 22 
Kenemti, i. 419 
Kenken-ur, ii, 96 
Kemnu, ii. 306 
Keninut, ii. 304 
Kennu, i. 433 
Kenset, i. 85, 433, 492 ; 

ii. 42 
Kent, ii. 280 
Kenur, i. 83 
Ken-ur, ii. 343 
Kepenut, i. 433 
Kep-hra, ii. 342 
Ker, ii. 342 
Kereh, i. 113 
Kerehet, i. 113 
Kerh, i. 283, 286, 289, 

Kerhet, i. 283, 286, 289 
Kesem, i. 499 
Keset, i. 433 
Ketuit-gods, i. 346 
Ketuiti, ii. 320 
Ketuit-ten-ba, i, 211 
Kka (?) (nome), i. 100 
Kha-gods, i. 39, 43 
Kha, Lake of, i. 158 
Kha-a, i. 246 
Khaata, i. 82 
Khabesu, the, ii. 154 
Kha-em-Uast, ii. 350, 

Kha-f-Ra, i. 445, 472 
Khak-ab, i. 326 
Khakhat, i. 433 
Kka-nefer, i. 512 
Khan-ru- . . . ., i. 326 
Kharakhar, i. 266 
Kharkhnoumis, ii. 304 
Kkarsatha, ii. 338 
Khartum, ii. 360, 365 
Kharubu, i. 326 

Khas, ii. 31, 269 

Khas(?)-en-Sept, i. 499 

Khasut (Xo'is), i. 99 

Khat, i. 492 

Khat (city), i. 496 

Khatat, i. 473 

Khati, i. 344 

Khati gods, i. 457 

Khatra, i. 215 

Khatri, i. 241 

Khau, ii. 308 

Khauit, i. 433 

Khau-tchet-f, i. 177 

Khebent, ii. 338 

Khebet, city of, ii. 208 

Khebetch, i. 82 

Khebit, Island of, i. 442 

Khebkheb, ii. 139 

Khebs-ta, i. 241 ; ii. 63 

Khebset-urt, i, 455 

Khebt, ii. 213 

Kheft-hra-en-neb-s, i. 437 

Khekh, i. 516 

Khekhsit, i. 432 

Kkekhuit, i. 433 

Khem, i. 97, 470 ; ii. 17 

Khem (god), i. 97 

Khem (nome), i. 97 

Khema, i. 274 

Khembis, ii. 208 

Khemennu, i. 98, 332, 
353, 358, 400, 401, 
457 ; ii. 149, 297, 338 

Khemennu, Eight gods 
of, i. 113, 292 

Khemi, i. 419 ; ii. 338 

Khemit, i. 222 

Khemmis, ii. 208, 210, 

Khemmis, Island of, ii. 22 

Khenememti, ii. 338 

Khennu, ii. 356 

Khensu, i. 39, 49, 82, 
447, 448, 464 ; ii. 33, 
35, 36, 97, 293, 302, 

Khensu (nome), i. 99 
Khensu-Behutet, ii. 36 
Khensu-Hunnu, ii. 35 
Khensu-Nefer-hetep, ii. 

34 ff., 39 ff. 
Khensu - nefer - hetep-Te - 

huti, ii. 37 
Khensu-pa-khart, ii. 35, 

Khensu-Ea, ii. 35 
Khensu-Sept, i. 82 
Khensu- Shu, ii. 35 
Khensu-Tehuti, ii. 35 
Khensu the chronogra- 

pher, ii. 37 
Khens-ur, i. 109 
Khent (goddess), ii. 292 
Khent-abt (nome), i. 100 
Khent-Abtet, i. 431, 432 
Khent-Amenti, i. 82, 

439 ; ii. 138 
Khent-an-maati, ii. 261 
Khent-em-meht-akeba, i. 

Khent-Heru, i. 246; ii. 

Khent-Het-Anes, ii. 129 
Kkent-Kheru, ii. 307 
Khent-maati, i. 82, 85; 

ii. 86 
Khent-Sehet, ii. 263 
Khentet-hert, ii. 305 
Khentet-Khast, ii. 309 
Khentet-khert, ii. 305 
Khenthi, ii. 293 
Khenti = Thoth, i. 402 
Khenti Amentet, i. 172, 

173 ; ii. 339 
Khenti-Amenti, i. 198, 

342; ii. 117,317 
Khenti-ast-f, i. 248 
Khenti-Aukert, i. 215 
Khenti-heh-f, ii. 129 
Khenti-khas, i. Ill 
Khenti-Khatthi, ii. 339 



Khenti-ment, i. 248 
Khenti-qerer, ii. 317 
Khenti - Tuat = Thoth, 

i. 226 ' 
Khenu, i, 242 ; ii. 25 
Khen-unnut-f, i. 242 
Kheper, i. 78 
Khepera, i. 203, 257, 

294, 295, 297, 306, 

308-321, 336, 340, 

349, 470 ; ii. 4, 14, 15, 

97, 301, 317, 338, 371, 

Khepera kheper tchesef, 

i. 355 
Khepera-Ba-Tem, i. 352 
Khepera-Ea-Temu, i, 363 
Kheperi, ii. 317 
Kheper-ta, i. 511 

mest, i. 257 
Khepera, ii. 302 
Khepesh, ii. 338 
Khepesh, constellation, 

ii. 249 
Khephren, i. 471 ; ii. 361 
Khepi, ii. 317 
Kheprer, i. 78, 342 ; ii. 

25, 130, 320 
Khepri, i. 196 
Kher, ii. 25, 339 
Kkera, i. 107 ; ii. 339 
Kher-aha, i. Ill, 178, 

425; ii. 11, 154, 157 
Kher-heb priest, i, 331 
Kherp-hu-khefti, i. 211 
Kherseket, ii. 256 
Khersek-Shu, i. 418 
Kkert-khent-Sekhem, i. 

Kheri-beq-f, i. 494 
Kker-khept-Kenrnut, ii. 

Kher-khept-sert, ii. 306 
Kher-khu, i. 200 

Khermuti, i. 326 
Kher-sebu, i. 200 
Khersekhet, i. 432 
Khersek-Shu, ii. 339 
Kherserau, ii. 339 
Khesef-at, ii. 339 
Khesef- haa-heseq-Neha- 

hra, i. 230 
Khesef-hra, i. 326 
Khesef-hra-ash-kkeru, i. 

176 ; ii. 339 
Khesef- hra-khemiu, i. 

177 ; ii. 339 
Khesef-kheniiu, ii, 339 
Khesef-kkeint, ii. 301 
Khesfu, i. 246 
Kheta-Sar, ii. 283 
Kheti (a serpent), i. 192 
Khirepu, ii. 283 
Khirie, i. 281 
Khisasapa, ii. 283 
Khnemet-ankh, i, 435 
Khnemet-ankhet, ii. 108 
Khnemet - em - ankh - an - 

nuit, ii. 338 
Khnemiu, i. 201 
Khnem-renit, i. 254 
Khnemu, i. 78, 82, 95, 


286, 329, 463, 464, 


91, 268, 322, 338, 354, 

Khnemu Ba-neb-Tet, ii, 

64, 65 
Khnemu- Ba-neb - Tettet, 

i. 354 
Khnemu-Hapi, i. 146 
Khnemu - Her - shef ii. 

58 ff. 
Khnemu Heru-hetep, ii. 

Khnemu -Heru-shefit, i. 

Khnemu-Nu, ii, 52 

Khnemu of Ermen-hert, 

i. 98 
Khnemu of Shas-hetep, 

i. 97 
Khnemu -Osiris, ii. 51, 

57, 58 
Khnemu-qenbeti, i. 211 
Khnemu-Ba, ii. 45, 51, 

Khnemu-Seb, ii. 51 
Khnemu-Shu, ii. 51, 66 
Khnemu, the seven forms 

of, ii, 54, 55 
Khnemu-ut-em-ankh, ii. 

Khnoumis, ii. 304 
Khoiak, ii. 128, 130 
Khokhar, i. 267 
Khokhe, i. 281 
Khokheteoph, i. 281 
Khontakhre, ii. 305, 307 
Khontare, ii. 305, 307 
Khoou, ii. 307 
Khremaor, i. 267 
Khu, i. 163 
Khu (a Dekan), ii. 307 
Khu, god of Light, i. 370 
Khu, ka of Ea, ii. 300 
Khu, spirit, i. 39 
Khufu, i. 426, 445, 524 
Khui, i. 211 
Khuit, i. 432 
Khu-kheper-ur, ii. 338 
Khu-tchet-f, i. 177; ii. 

Khukhu, ii. 307 
Khusrau, i. 289 
Khut, ii. 338 
Khut, goddess, i. 306, 

Khut (Isis), ii. 216 
Khut = magical cere- 
mony, i. 296 
Khut-Aten, city of, ii. 

72 ff. 



Khut-Nebat, i, 447 
Khut-taui, i. 512 
Khuti, a god, I, 182 
King, L. W., i. 406; 

quoted, i, 13, 273 ff., 

288, 289 ; ii, 314 
Kings, incarnations of 

gods, i. 3 
Kingu, i. 327 
Kishar, i. 289, 291 
Kiaaapi], i. 289 
Knitousokhreoph, i. 281 
Kohl, i. 17 
Kom Ombo, ii, 109 
Konime, ii. 306 
Kosmos, ii, 243 
Koukiamin Miai, i. 280 

ii. 357 
Kronos, i. 467 ; ii. 100, 

124, 186, 187 
Krophi, ii. 44 
Kur'an, quoted, i. 5 
Kuresh, i. 142 

Labyrinth, i. 96 
Ladder of heaven, i. 167, 
168, 490 

Ladder of Shu, ii. 92 
Ladder, the Divine, ii, 

Ladder-bearers, i. 188 
Lady of the boat, i. 207 . 
Lake Moeris, ii. 58, 347, 

Lake of Aaru, i. 297 
Lake of Battle, i. 481 
Lake of Fire, i. 35 
Lake of Flame, i. 34 
Lake of Kha, i. 158 
Lake of Life, ii, 184 
Lake of Testes, i. 335, 

Lake of Uraei, i, 184 

Lake Victoria, i. 11 
Lakes of Jackals, ii, 120 
Lakes of the Tuat, ii. 120 
Lakhamu, i. 289, 291 
Lakhmu, i. 289, 291 
Lamb, worship of, i, 2 
Lamellicorns, ii. 379 
Lamkhamor, i. 266 
Land of the Spirits, ii. 

Lanzone, i. 204,284,285, 

328, 354, 402 ff. 
Laraokh, i, 266 
Lat, ii. 289 
Latopolis, i. 431, 463, 

468; ii. 50, 51, 66, 

92, 356 
Latopolites, i. 96 
Latreille, i. 356 ; ii. 381 
Latus Fish, ii. 382 
Lazarus, i. 171 
Ledrain, ii. 162 
Leek, worship of, i. 2 
Lefebure, M. B., i. 180 

ff., 205, 319, 349, 360, 

Legge, Mr. F., quoted, i, 

Legs = twin soul -gods, i, 

Lelet al-Nukta, ii. 47 
Leo, sign of, i. 464 
Leontopolis, ii. 347, 361 
Leontopolites, i. 96 
Leopard with human 

head, i. 61 
Leopard with serpent's 

head, i. 59 
Lepidotus fish, ii. 192, 

Lepsius, i. 34 
Letasashaka, ii. 21 
Letopolis, i. 99, 432 ; ii. 

148, 157 
Leviathan, i. 278, 279 

Libationers, i. 101 
Libyans, i. 188 ; ii. 13 
Liddon, Canon, i. 144 
Lieblein, i. 68, 69, 71 
Life and Death, ii. 243 
Life, everlasting, i. 412 
Life, plant of, i. 165 
Light and Darkness, ii, 

Light-bearers, i. 200 
Linen, ii. 118 
Linen garments, i. 165 
Lion = Amen, ii, 2 
Lion, the, ii. 359-361 

sacred, ii. 347 ; wor- 
ship, i, 24 
Lion-god, ii. 15 
Lion-gods, the Twin, ii. 

Lion gods and goddesses, 

ii. 362 
Lips of deceased, i, 109 
Lizard with human head, 

i. 210 
Aoyo?, the, i. 407 
Loins = Pautti, i, 110 
Longperier, M. Adrien 

de, i. 64 
Lonkhar, i. 266 
Lords (angels), i. 6 
Lotus, i. 521, 522 
Lucian, ii. 96 
Luxor, i. 329 ; ii. 22 
Lychnus Fish, ii. 382 
Lycopolis, i. 98, 426, 

432, 434 ; ii. 252, 262, 

353, 367 
Lycopolites, i. 96 
Lynx, i. 24, 324 ; ii. 362, 


Maa, i. 254, 309 
Maa, ka of Ba, ii. 300 
Maa, Sight-god, ii. 298 



Maa-ab, i. 189 
Maa-ab-kkenti-aht-f, i. 

Maa-an f, i. 419 
Maa-anuf, ii. 330 
Maa-atef-f, i. 494 
Maa-atef-f- kkeri-beq-f, 

ii. 330 
Maa-ein-kerh, ii. 129 

bru, i. 494 ; ii. 330 
Maa-ennu-am-uaa, ii. 302 
Maa-en-tef, ii. 291 
Maa-ha-f, ii. 380 
Maa-heh-en renpit, ii. 

Maa = Hokhmah, i. 296 
Maa-hra, ii. 301 
Maaiu-su, ii. 330 
Maakheru, ii. 146 
Maa-kheru, i. 408, 409 
Maam, i. 492 
Maa-nefert-Ra, i. 257 
Maa-tet-f, ii. 129 
Maa-tbet-f,i.l78;ii. 330 
Mafi-uat, i. 320, 344 
Maat, i. 20, 80, 153, 323, 


416-420, 432, 433, 501, 

502; ii. 5, 10, 11, 13, 

19, 26, 75, 145, 184, 

256, 330 
Maat, boat of, i. 109 
Maat, featber of, ii. 143 
Maat goddesses, ii. 92 
Maat, lords of, ii. 150 ; 

assessors of, ii. 150 
Maat, the pedestal of, i. 

Maat-Heru, ii. 310 
Maat-Heru-Ast, ii. 310 
Maat-Kknenm, i. 80 
Maatet, ii. 206, 207 
Maati, i. 189, 418; ii. 


Maati (city), i. 433 
Maati, Hall of, i. 38, 

Maati-f-em-sbet, ii. 330 
Maati-f-em-tes, i. 419 ; 

ii. 330 
Maatuf-her-a, ii. 330 
Maau-taui, ii. 330 
Mabi, ii. 37 
Macarius of Antiocb, i. 

Macedonians, i. 272 
Macrobius, ii. 352, 367 
Mafek, i. 430 
Maftet, i. 324 ; ii. 363 
Maftet (Lynx), i. 85 
Magic, Antiquity of in 

Egypt, i. 13 
Ma-bes, ii. 362 
Mahlufas, i. 14 
Mainmari, i. 280 
Mait, ii. 363 
Makba-taiu, i. 513 
Makhenut, i. 467 
Makbi, i. 211 
Makbiar, ii. 293 
Mak-nebs, ii. 302 
Malachim, i. 7 
Mallet, i. 459 
Mallet, M. D., quoted, i. 

93, 454 
Mandrakes, i. 365 
Mandulis, ii. 289 
Maneros, ii. 191 
Manes, i. 3 
Manetbo,tbe priest quoted 

or referred to, i. 332, 

445, 524 ; ii. 199, 217, 

246, 346 
Man-god, the, i. 333 
Mankind, destruction of, 

Egyptian text of, i. 

388, 399 
Mantis, ii. 378 
Mantit Boat, i. 257 

Manu, i. 351, 417, 470, 

516; ii. 25, 101 
Maraeotis, i. 96 
Marakhakhtba, i. 280 
Marawi, i. 16 
Marduk, i. 277, 278, 279, 

305, 327 ; ii. 314 
Marduk and Tiamat, fight 

of, i. 406, 407 
Marei, i. 280 
Marie, i. 280 
Mariette,i. 126,139,204; 

ii. 6, 23, 196, 354 
Marinus, i. 289 
Mark, Saint, ii. 221 
Markhour, i. 266 
Marniarakhtka, i. 280 
Marne, i. 64 
Marqatha, ii. 21, 330, 
Mars, ii. 253, 303 
Marua, i, 15 
Mary, the Virgin, i. 108, 

328 ; ii. 107 
Mashkhith, i. 274 
Maspero, Prof. G., i. 23, 

67, 71, 117, 142, 205, 

224, 404, 445, 486; 

ii. 13, 102 
Mastaba, i. 330 
Master of the back, i. 194 
Master of the front, i. 194 
Masturbation, i. 116,297 
Matariyeh, i. 328 
Mat Boat, i. 110 
Matchat, i. 457 
Miitchau, the, ii. 6, 7, 

Matchet, i. 433 ; ii. 294 
Ma-tef-f, ii. 322 
Maten (nome), i. 98 
Matenu, i. 31 
Mater, ii. 52, 53 
Mates, ii. 60 
Mfites-sma-ta, i. 218 
Matet, i. 488 



Matet Boat, i. 323, 331, 

332, 369 ; ii. 104, 204 
Mati, cat-headed goddess, 

i. 201 
Mati = Sun-god, i. 342 
Matter, primeval, i. 288 
Mail, ii. 297 
Mau (Ra), ii. 61 
Mau-aa, ii. 317 
Mau, Dr. A., ii. 217 
Maui, ii. 139 
Mauit,i.80,167; ii. 32, 

Mauonbi, i. 281 
Mau-taui, i. 420 
Mauti, ii. 317 
Maxims of Ani, i. 126 ; 

of Khensu-hetep, i. 126 
Medan, ii. 289 
Meh, i. 482 
Meh-mahetch (nome), i. 

Meh-ta-f, ii. 127 
Meh-urit, i. 511 
Meh-urt, i. 422, 432; 

ii. 19, 61, 331 
Meli-urt, Seven wise ones 

of, i. 516 
Mehanuti-Ra, ii. 331 
Mehen, i. 180, 232, 234, 

2*38 ; ii. 8, 331 
Mehenet, i. 452, 464, 515 
Mehenit, i. 462 ; ii. 331 
Mehet, ii. 128 
Mehi,i.402,491; ii. 331 
Mehit-Tefnut-khut-Men - 

hit, i. 431 
Mehiu, ii. 331 
Mehni, i. 252 
Meht, ii. 331 
Meht-khebit - sah - neter, 

ii. 331 
Meht-urt, i. 80, 362, 455 
Mekes sceptre, ii. 8 
Meket, i. 40 

Melcarthus, ii. 190 
Members, deification of, 

i. 109, 110 
Memnon, i. 1 
Memokh, i. 281 
Memphis (see Het-ka- 

Ptah), ii. 157 
Memphis, i. 27, 95, 99, 


ii. 5, 22, 70, 92, 148, 

154, 347 
Memphis, Apis god of, i. 

Memphis, captured by 

Piankki, i. 331 
Memphis, great triad of, 

i. 500 ff. 
Memphis, high-priest of, 

i. 101, 505 
Memphis, high-priest and 

high-priestess of, i. 101 
Memphis, triad of, i. 114 
Memphites, i. 96 
Men and women, creation 

of, i. 312 
Men, destruction of, ii. 

Men, origin of, i. 304 
Men-a, i. 244 
Menat, i. 430, 432, 498 ; 

ii. 130 
Menat, ii. 289, 362 
Menat, goddess, ii. 55, 

Mendes, i. 100, 101, 115, 

148, 191, 354, 403, 

496 ; ii. 22, 64, 65, 66, 

116, 129, 153, 353 
Mendes, Earn of, i. 27; 

ii. 51, 347, 354 
Mendes, Stele of, ii. 354 
Mendes, triad of, i. 114 
Mendesian Ram, i. 103 
Mendesium, i, 96 

Menelaites, i. 96 
Menenui, i. 248 
Menes, i. 24 
Menhet, i. 426, 446 ; ii. 

Menhet (Isis), ii. 213 
Menhi, i. 241 
Menhit, i. 431, 463 ; ii. 

66, 92, 292 
Meni-ret, i. 230 
Men-kau-Heru, i. 330 
Men-kau-Ra, i. 358; ii. 

Menkert, i. 248 
Menkh, ii. 330 
Menkhet, i. 244 ; ii. 213, 

256, 293 
Menlil, ii. 289 
Menmemu, i, 220 
Men-nefer, i. 512 
Men-nefert, i. 99 
Mennipos, i. 281 
Menqet, ii. 331 
Menruil, ii. 289 
Men-sheta, i. 191 
Ment (?) i. 437 
Ment, i. 80 ; ii. 330, 331 
Mentchat, i. 457 
Mentef, i. 80 
Menth, i. 437 
Menthu, ii. 23, 24 ff., 

Menthu-Ra, ii. 24 
Menti, i. 498 
Mer, ii. 331 

Mer of the North, i. 507 
Mer of the^South, i. 507 
Mercury, i. 449 ; ii. 303 
Mer-en-aaui-f, i. 254 
Mer-en-Ra, i. 440, 441; 

ii. 25 
Mer-en-Ra- Mehti-em-sa- 

f, i. 77 
Meril, ii. 288 
Meris, ii. 331 



Mer-Nit, i. 31 
Mer-Ra, ii. 207 
Meroe, i. 15 ; ii. 22 
Mersekhen, ii. 213 
Merseklient, i. 432; ii. 

Mert, ii. 301 
Mert goddesses, ii. 256 
Mertet, sea of, i. 480 
Merti, ii. 25, 331 
Merul, ii. 288 ; titles of, 

ii. 289 
Mer-ur (Mnevis), i. 26; 

ii. 331, 351 
Meruter, ii. 289 
Mesen, i. 473 ; ii. 213 
Meskha, i. 80 
Meskhaat, i. 80 
Mesklien Aat, ii. 184 
Meskhen Ment, ii. 181 
Mesklien Nefert, ii. 184 
Mesklien Seqebet, ii. 184 
Mesklien, the, ii. 144 
Meskhenet, i. 329; ii. 

144, 359 
Meskhenet of Isis, ii. 108 
Meskhent, ii. 285 
Meskheti, ii. 250, 312 
Meskhti, i. 254 
Mesnet, i. 476 
Mesniu, i. 84, 476 
Mesore, ii. 248 
Mes-peh, i. 177 ; ii. 331 
Mesperit-arat-maatu, i. 

Mes-Ptah, i. 177 
Mesqet, ii. 209 
Mesqet chamber, i. 494 
Mes-sep, ii. 263 
Mes-sepekk, ii. 331 
Mest, i. 198 
Mest (Amset), ii. 291 
Mestcker-Sah, ii. 308 
Mest-tcheses, i. 211 
Mest-en-Asar, i. 211 

Mestet, i. 487; ii. 206, 

Mestetef, i. 488 ; ii. 206, 

Mestha, ii. 129 ; ii. 145, 

Mesu-nifu, i. 202 
Metchetat, i. 80 
Metchet-nebt-Tuatiu, i, 

Metchet-qat-utebu,i. 246 
Metelis, ii. 22, 357 
Metelites, i. 96 
Met-en-Asar, i. 211 
Meteni, ii. 289 
Metes, i. 200 
Met-hra, i. 228 
Metes-hra-ari-she,i. 176; 

ii. 331 
Metes-mau-at, i. 218 
Metes-neheh, i. 218 
Metes-sen, i. 177 ; ii. 

Methyer, i. 422 
Metternichj Prince, ii. 

Metternich, Stele, ii. 205, 

220, 267-274 
Metu-khut-f, i. 345; ii. 

Metu-ta-f, ii. 331 
Meyer, Herr, quoted, i. 

Michael, i. 5 
Miii, i. 79, 97, 470, 496, 

507; ii. 17, 20, 36, 

280, 293 
Min, god of Panopolis, i. 

Min (nonie), i. 97 
Min- Amen, ii. 8 
Minerva, i. 453 
Minionor, i. 284 
Mi-sheps, ii. 330 
Mitani, ii. 279 

Mitanni, ii. 363 
M'Lennan, Mr. J. F., i. 

Mnenor, i. 281 
Mnevis, ii. 347, 351 ff. 
Mnevis Bull, i. 26 
Mnevis, incarnation of 

Ra gods, i. 330 
Moeris, ii. 354 
Moloch, i. 273 
Momemphis, ii. 352 
Monophysites, 221 
Monotheism, i. 120, 144 
Month, i. 80 
Month, gods of days of, 

ii. 292 
Month = Khens-ur, i. 

Months, gods of, ii. 292, 

Monthiour, i. 281 
Moon, creation of, i. 370 
Moon-god, i. 412, 413 
Moon on a pedestal, i. 

Mophi, ii. 44 
Morgan, J. de, i. 22 ; ii. 

Morning Star, i. 107 ; ii. 

97, 156 
Moses, ii. 254 
Mother of Mothers, ii. 51 
Mother, reverence for the, 

i. 127 
Mother, the universal, ii. 

McaGfiK, i. 288 
Mountain of Sunrise,' i. 

470 ; ii. 101 
Mountain of Sunset, :i. 

351, 470 ; ii. 101 
Mountain of the West, i. 

Mouth, Opening of the, 

i. 358 



Mtesa, i. 142 
Muhammad, i. 5, 141, 

Muhammad 'Ali, ii. 205, 

Muhammadans, i. 5, 6, 

14, 19 
Muhammadans, heaven 

of, i. 166 
Muhammadans, hell of, 

i. 171 
Muhammad wad-Ibrahim, 

Mu-Hapi, ii. 44 
Muit, i. 80 ; ii. 32, 47 
Mukhipaina, ii. 283 
Miiller, Right Hon. Prof. 

F. Max, i. 135 
Miiller, W. M., ii. 250, 

278, 283, 285 
Mummu-Tiamat, i. 288, 

Mut, i. 80,88,431,518; 

ii. 28 ff., 47, 159 
Mut-Bast-Isis, i. 447 
Mut-hetep, Papyrus of, i. 

Muti-khenti-Tuat, i. 244 
Mut-neb-set, ii. 301 
Mut-nu, ii. 32 
Mut of Asheru, i. 446 
Mut -Sekhet- Bast -Men- 
hit, ii. 29 
Mut Temt, ii. 29 
Mut-Uatchet-Bast, ii. 29 
Mycerinus, i. 358; ii. 

Mysteries of Isis, ii. 217 
Mysteries of Osiris, i. 

Mysteries, the Eleusinian, 

ii. 217 
Myth of Pta, and Isis, i, 

Mythical animals, i. 59 

Naam, ii. 26 

Naarerf, i. 351 

Naarik, ii. 332 

Na-ari-ka, ii. 20 

Na-ateh, i. 442 

Na-tesher, ii. 322 

Na-ur, ii. 322 

Naau, 332 

Naau-tchetta, i. 437 

Nai, i. 23, 326 ; ii. 322 

Nak, i. 324, 335 ; ii. 8, 
11, 79, 332 

Nak, ii. 332 

Nakada, i. 31 

Nakith, i. 232 

Nakiu-Menat, ii. 317 

Name, use and impor- 
tance of, i. 10, 301 

Nana'i, i. 281 

Napata, i. 14 ; ii. 22, 23, 

Nareref, ii. 60 

Nart, ii. 149, 332 

Nasaqbubu, ii. 332 

Nasaqebubu, ii. 21 

Nastasenen, ii. 40 

Nathkerthi, ii. 332 

Natho, i. 442 

Natura, i. 68 

Nau, i. 267 ; ii. 62 

Nau, i. 80; ii. 1, 101, 

Naucratites, i. 96 

Nau-shesma, i. 267 

Naut, ii. 101, 102 

Naville, i. 348, 353, 363, 
444, 445, 476, 498; ii. 

Neb, House of, ii. 209 

Neb-abui, i. 419 ; ii. 332 

Neb-ankhet, ii. 301 

Neb-Aqet, i. 248 

Neb-aut-ab, i. 450 

Neb-baiu, i. 348 ; ii. 320 

Neb-er-tcher, i. 294, 305, 

308, 491 ; ii. 61, 123, 

150, 153, 214, 332 
Neb-hrau, i. 419 ; ii. 332 
Neb-khat, ii. 255 
Neb-Maat, i. 419 
Neb-Maat-heri-tep -retui- 

f, i. 418 ; ii. 332 
Neb-neteru, ii. 301 
Neb-pat, i. 244 
Neb - pehte t - petpet- seba, 

ii. 332 
Neb -pehti thes-menment, 

ii. 332 

net, i. 418 
Neb-s, ii. 332 
Neb-sekert, ii. 122 
Neb-Senku, i. 348; ii. 

Neb-senti, ii. 301 
Neb-tept (Isis), ii. 213 
Neb-Tesheru, i. 516 
Neba, ii. 332 
Neba-per-em-khetkhet, i. 

Nebes Tree, i. 468 
Nebiui, i. 443 
Nebseni, ii. 262 
Nebseni, Papyrus of, i. 

Nebt, i. 352 
Nebt, a god, i. 425 
Nebt-aha, i. 189 
Nebt-ankh, ii, 11 
Nebt-au-khent-Tuat, i. 

Nebt-het, i. 80 ; ii. 317, 

Nebt-hetep, i. 432 
Nebt-hetep, i. 441 
Nebt-hetep, counterpart 

of Tern, i. 354 
Nebt-Hetepet, i. 438 
Nebti, i. 244 
Nebt-khu, i. 254 



Nebt-mat, i. 244 
Nebt-semu-nefu, i. 240 
Nebt-setau, i. 244 
Nebt-shiit, i. 244 
Nebt-shefshefet, i. 244 
Nebt-s-tchefau, i. 184 
Nebt-tep-Ahet, ii. 309 
Nebt-Thehent, ii. 300 
Nebt-usha, i, 236 
Nebuchadnezzar II., i. 

Nebui, 211 
Nebuut, i. 431, 463 ; ii. 

67, 213 
Nectanebus I., ii. 267 
Nectanebus II., ii. 351 
Nef-em-baiu, ii. 317 
Nefer-Abt, i. 353 
Nefer-Ament (nome of), 

i. 441 
Nefer-hat, ii. 129 
Nefer-hati, i. 516 
Nefer-hetep (god), ii. 34 
Nefer-shuu, i. 515 
Nefert, i. 85 ; ii. 332 
Nefer-Tem, i. 80, 450, 

491 ; ii. 362 
Nefer-Tem (an assessor), 

i. 419 
Nefer-Temu, i. 520 ; ii. 

Nefer-Temu-khu-taui, i. 

Nefer - Temu - khu - taui - 

iinkk-rekhit, i. 520 
Nefer-tutu, i. 101 
Nefer-uben-f, ii. 287 
Nefert-iti, ii. 75 
Neferus, i. 433 
Negative Confession, i. 

38, 49, 145, 418 
Negroes, i. 188, 519 
Negroes, created by 

masturbation, i. 304 

Nehaha, i. 480 
Neha-hau, i. 419 ; ii. 

Neha-hra, i. 231, 232, 

246 ; ii. 333 
Nehata, i. 244 
Nehbet sceptre, ii. 8 
Nehebet sceptre, i, 162 
Neheb-ka, ii. 333 
Neheb-kau, i. 81, 220; 

ii. 62 
Neheb-kau (an assessor), 

i. 419 
Neheb-nefert, i. 419 ; ii. 

Nehebu-kau, i. 455; ii. 

Neheh, i. 371 
Nehemauait, i. 427, 432 
Nehemauit, i. 421 ; ii. 

Neheru, ii. 38 
Nehes, ii. 322 
Nehesiu, ii. 333 
Nehesu, i. 304 
Nehet, Hathor of, i. 434 
Nehet-rest, i. 516 
Nehi, i. 347 ; ii. 320 
Nehr, i. 211 
Neht, i. 81 
Nehui, i. 258 
Neith, i. 30, 32, 78, 92, 

93, 95, 103, 161, 246, 

450-465; ii. 220, 

244, 269, 275; early 

cult of, i. 31 ; and 

crocodiles, i. 32 ; four 

forms of, i. 252 
Neith of Sais, i. 99 
Neka, ii. 333 
Nekau, i. 177, 520; ii. 

330, 333 
Nekheb, i. 92, 95, 97 
Nekek-ur, ii. 333 
Nekeuu, i. 246 

Nekhben, i. 81 
Nekhebet, Nekhebit, i. 

24, 81, 92, 95, 97, 329, 

431, 438 ff., 479, 483 ; 

ii. 8, 25, 47, 48, 71, 

104, 269, 333, 372 
Nekhebet Fakit, i. 440 
Nekhebet-Isis, i. 440 
Nekhekh, i. 83 ; ii. 102 
Nekhekh (star), i. 498 
Nekhen, i. 84, 492, 497 ; 

ii. 155, 333 
Nekhen (an assessor), i. 

Nekhen, Souls of, i. 107 ; 

watchers of, i. 161 
Nekhent, i. 439 
Nekht (god), ii. 26 
Nekht, ka of Ra, ii. 300 
Nekht, Papyrus of,i. 335, 

Nekht (scribe), ii. 69 
Nekiu, ii. 302 
Nem, ii. 333 
Nemanoun (Nehemauit), 

ii. 190 
Nem-hra, ii. 333 
Nemi, i. 196 
Nemmes crown, ii. 8 
Nemu, i. 521 ; ii. 333 
Nen, ii. 1 
Nenha, i. 180 
Nentcha, i. 436 ; ii. 333 
Nenu, i. 113, 286 
Nenuerbasta, i. 184 
Nenuit, i. 286 
Nen-unser, ii. 333 
Nenut, i. 113 
Nenutu-hru, ii. 333 
Neolithic Period in 

Egypt, i. 8 
Nepen, i. 211 
Nepera, ii. 332 
Nephismaoth, i. 280 
Nephthomaoth, i. 280 



85, 106, 109, 129, 
156, 186, 187, 254- 

Nepmeh, i. 180 
Nepr, i. 210, 211 
Nepra, ii. 45, 151 
Nepsiomaoth, i. 280 
Ner, ii, 333 
Nerau, i, 177 ; ii. 333 
Nerau-ta, ii. 333 
Neri, i. 177 ; ii. 333 
Nert, i. 254 
Nerta, i. 254 
Nes-Amsu, i. 293, 325 
Nesbet, ii. 302 
Nesert, i. 81, 432, 454, 

456, 515 
Neshmet neb tcbetta, ii. 

Nesht, i. 326 
Nesi-Anisu, papyrus of, 

i. 271 
Nesi-Khensu, papyrus of, 

ii. 13 
Nesruekhef, i. 258 
Nes-Min, i. 293 
Nesru, ii. 310 
Nesti-kkenti-Tuat, i. 244 
Net, i. 78 ; ii. 19, 20, 

26, 61, 62, 63, 184 
Net, fisbing, ii. 120 
Net, House of tbe, i. 405, 

Net (Neitb),i. 450-465; 

ii. 333 
Net of tbe Four Winds, 

i. 407 
Net-Asar, i. 212 
Net-hetep, i. 453, 454 
Net-Ea, i. 207 
Net-Menbit, i. 403 
Netch-an, ii. 322 
Netch-atef, i. 228 
Netcb-baiu, ii. 317 

Netcheb-ab-f, i. 436 ; ii. 

Netcbeh-netcbeb, i. 494 ; 

ii. 129, 334 
Netcbefet, ii. 334 
Netchern, ii. 334 
Netcbemtcbenit, i. 161 
Netebeses, i. 177 
Netcbesti, ii. 320, 334 
Netcb-pautti, i. 228 
Netcbses, ii. 334 
Netebti-ur, ii. 322 
Neteqa-bra-kbesef-atu, i. 

176 ; ii. 334 
Neter, i. 41, 108 
Neter, examples of mean- 
ing of, i. 63, 72-74 
Neter-bah, ii. 129 
Neter-kkaita, i. 484 
Neter-kbertet, i, 73; ii. 

Neter-neteru, i. 242 
Neter-ta, i. 443 ; ii. 7, 

Netert, i. 41, 473 
Netert (city), i. 450 ; ii. 

Netert-en-khentet-Ea, i. 

Netetthaab, i. 455 
Netetthab, i. 81 ; ii. 63 
Neteru, i. 41 
Neteru ent Neter-kbent 

ent amu Tuat, ii. 185 
Neteru neterit amu Abtu, 

ii. 185 
Neteru, Qerti, ii. 185 
Neteru semu Tuat, ii. 

Neteru, tbe, i. 4 
Neterui (nome), i. 97 
Netbert, i. 341 ; ii. 317 
Netbetb, i. 248 
Netbmamaotb, i. 280 
Neti, i. 81 

Neti (Bati), ii. 333 
Neti-bra-f-emma-mast - f, 

ii. 334 
Neti-sbe-f, ii. 334 
Netit, ii. 334 
Net-neb-ua-kbeper - autu, 

i. 214 
Netru, i. 250 ; ii. 213 
Netuti, i. 342 
Neunbeit, i. 89 
Newman, Cardinal, i. 144 
Ni, i. 258, 286, 289, 291 
Nice, Council of, ii. 66 
Nifu-ur, ii. 155 
Nigbt of tbe Drop, ii. 47 
Night-Sky, ii. 102, 105 
Nike, ii. 187 
Nile, i. 361, 362 
Nile, tbe celestial, i. 107, 

Nile-god, ii. 40 ff. 
Nile-goddesses, ii. 47 
Nile, Inundation of, i. 

Nile = Osiris, ii. 123 
Nine Bows, ii. 356 
Nine cbiefs, tbe, i. 182 
Nine gods, tbe, i, 85 ff., 

Nine Ennutcbi, i. 188 
Nineveh, i. 19 ; ii. 279 
Ni-ni, i. 465 
Nit, i. 30, 92, 110, 431, 

Nit (not Neitb), i. 286 
Nit-hetep, i. 31 
Nit-tep-Ament, i. 211 
No-Amon, ii. 12, 31 
Nome gods, i. 95 ff. 
Nome-perch, i. 28 
Nome standards, i. 30 
Nomes, number of, i. 96 
Nomes of Egypt, i. 27 
Nopsiter, i. 280 
Nu, i. 78, 109,113,134, 



200, 257, 283, 284, 
291, 309, 341, 367, 

456 ; ii. 2, 14, 15, 25, 

44, 317, 332; battle 

of, i. 241 ; Eye of, i. 

306 ; milk of, i. 331 ; 

the aged, i. 511 
Nu, Papyrus of, i. 357, 

427; ii. 62, 102 
Nubia, i. 274, 304, 483 ; 

ii, 12, 17, 22, 40, 57, 

Nubia, civilization of, 

Egyptian origin, i. 14 
Nubia, Lower, ii. 51 ; 

upper, ii. 51 
Nubia, tree worship in, 

i. 17 
Nubians, ii. 23 
Nubit, ii. 35, 356 
Nubit (goddess), ii. 36 
Nubt, i. 80 
Nubt (goddess), ii. 108 
Nubt (Hathor), i. 437 
Nubti, i. 468; ii. 250, 

Nubti (Ombos), i. 492 
Nudimmud, i. 289 
Nun-shame, ii. 316 
Nunut, ii. 302 
Nut, i. 113, 120, 172, 

200, 201, 257, 283, 

284, 291, 338, 339, 

341,367,369; ii. 2, 

20, 62, 100-112, 184, 

317, 332 
Nut, a Lake, i. 222 
Nut, five children of, ii. 

Nut, Sycamore of, ii. 107 
Nut-en-bak, i. 98 
Nut-ent-Hap, i. 99 
Nut-Hathor, ii. 357 
Nut-Ta-Sebeq-hra, i. 241 
Nuth, i. 258 

Oases, ii. 22, 251 
Oasis, the Great, i. 464 ; 

ii. 22 
Oasis, Minor, ii. 22 
Oasis of Kharga, i. 113 
Oasites, two nomes of, i. 

Obelisk-god, i. 348 
Obelisk, House of, ii. 66, 

Ogdoad, i. 404 
Oia, i. 280 

Oil in heaven, ii. 118 
Oimenephtah, i. 178 
Oimenepthah, i. 304 
Olive tree, i. 165 ; ii. 

Olive tree speaks, i. 19 
Olympus, ii. 62 
Ombites, i. 96 
Ombos, i. 431, 468, 492 ; 

ii. 35, 356 
On, i. 100, 328; ii. 

One=Amen-Ea, ii. 9, 10, 

One Alone, i. 132 
One, name of Neith, i, 

Oneness of gods, i. 131 ff. 
Onion, worship of, i. 2 
Onuphis, ii. 357 
Onuphites, i. 96 
Onuphris, ii. 352 
Oouskhous, i. 281 
Ophannim, i. 7 
Opsither, i. 280 
Orion, i. 39, 41, 88; ii. 

215, 249 
Orthus, ii. 361 
Orus, ii. 187, 192, 193 
Oryges, i. 190 
Osiris, i. 103, 171; ii. 

16, 85, 109, 113 ff. ; 

Amulets, ii. 126; and 

his Cycle, i. 77; as a 
Water- god, ii. 122, 
123; as God, i. 121; 
as god of the dead, i. 
150 ; as the god of the 
Kesurrection, ii. 139 
ff. ; Eye of Ea, i. 236 ; 
Four earthly forms of, 
i. 230 ; Four souls of, 
i. 232 ; Four tombs of, 
i. 232; head of, ii. 118; 
his nine forms, i. 214 ; 
his sixteen members, 
ii. 127; history of, ii. 
124 ff. ; history of, by 
Plutarch, ii. 187 ff. ; 
hymn to, 148 ff ; hymn 
to, hieroglyphic text of, 
ii. 162 ff ; Hymns to, 
from Book of the Dead, 
ii. 153 ; Khenti-Amen- 
ti, ii. 118; names of, ii. 
176 ff. ; scenes of his 
burial and resurrection, 
ii. 131-138; shrines of, 
ii. 127 ; soul of, ii. 65, 
159 ; soul of in an ox, 
ii. 348 ; the Man-god, 
i. 13; theTuat,i. 203; 
Un-nefer, ii. 136, 153, 
155, 352 

Osiris - Bast - Heru-Heke- 
nu, i. 450 

Osiris = Christ, ii. 220, 

Osiris = Pluto, ii. 199 

Osiris = Water, ii. 98 

Osiris = Yesterday, i. 487 

Osiris-Aah, i. 414 

Osiris -An - JBast - Temt- 
Ari-hes, i. 450 

Osiris-Apis, ii. 47, 195- 
201, 349 

Osiris-Isis-Horus, i. 114, 



Osiris-Ra, i. 334 
Osiris-Ra in Tattu, i. 

Osiris-Seker, i. 218, 417 
Osiris-Tet, ii. 131 
Ostrich feather, i. 416 
Ouare, ii. 308 
Ouestre-Bikoti, ii. 305 
Oxyrhynchites, i. 96 ; ii. 

Oxyrhynchus fish,ii. 192, 

Oxyrynchus, i. 98, 432 

Pa-ait, i. 468 
Pa-atemt, i. 353 
Pa-Bar, ii. 281 
Pa-Bast, i. 444 
Pa-bil-sag, ii. 316 
Pachons, ii. 248 
Pagoure, i. 280 
Pai, i. 203 
Paireqa, ii. 283 
Pa-khen-Arnent, ii. 31 
Pa-khen-en-Arnen, i. 100 
Pa-kkent, ii. 356 
Pakheth, ii. 362 
Pakht, i. 517, 518 
Pakhth, i. 432 
Palace of Shu, ii. 93 
Palaces, the 7 of Ge- 
henna, i. 274 
Palaeolithic Period in 
Egypt, i. 8^ 

Palaestinus, ii. 191 

Palestine, i. 142, 276; 
ii. 4, 83 

Palette, i. 411, 427 

Palettes (shields), i. 25 

Pallas, i. 458 

Pa-mer, ii, 57 

Pa-mertet, i. 515 

Pamyles, ii. 186 

Pamylia, ii. 186 

Pan, ii. 353 

Pa-nemma-nernma, i. 519 
Panic Terrors, ii. 188 
P-ankki, i. 246 
Panopolis, i. 97, 431, 

470 ; ii. 22, 188 
Panopolites, i. 96 
Pans, ii. 188 
Paophi, ii. 252 
Pa-paut-netera, ii. 128 
Pa-penat, i. 513 
Papyrus plant, ii. 125 
Papyrus Swamps, ii. 190, 

Pa-Qerhet, i. 353 
Par, ii. 19, 20 
Paradise, Egyptian, i. 

165, 166 
Parehaqa-kheperu, i. 518 ; 

ii. 329 
Par-neferu-en-neb-set, ii. 

Pa-Sebek, ii. 357 
Pasemis, i. 437 
Pashakasa, i. 518; ii, 329 
Pasht, i. 517 
Pa-Shu, ii. 299 
Pastophori, ii. 217 
Pa-sui, ii. 206 
Pa-Tern, i. 432 
Pa-Thuhen, ii. 127 
Paiini, ii. 252 
Pausanias, quoted, ii. 

Paut, meaning of, i. 89 
Paut of earth, i. 91 
Paut of gods, the Great, 

i. 86 
Paut of gods, the Little, 

i. 86 
Paut of heaven, i. 91 
Paut of Heliopolis, ii. 

Paut of Horus, i. 86 
Paut of ten gods, i. 87 

Paut of eleven gods, i. 

Paut of twelve gods, i. 

Paut of the Tuat, i. 91 
Pauti of gods, i. 87 
Pe, i. 84, 410, 492, 497 ; 

ii. 25, 107, 117 
Pe, Souls of, i. 107 
Pe, Watchers of, i. 161 
Peace, Field of, ii. 118 
Pehreri, ii. 329 
Pehu, ii. 156 
Pehui, ii. 304 
Pekh, i. 517 
Pekhat, i. 518 ; ii. 329 
Pekhet, i. 517 
Pekheth, i. 517 
Pekhit, i. 517 
Pekht (city), i. 517 
Pelusium, ii. 128 
Pelusius, ii. 191 
Pent, i. 80 
Penter, i. 200 
Penti, ii. 329 
Pepi I., i. 72, 77, 297, 

Pepi II., i. 77, 445 
Per-aa, i. 242 
Per-ab, i. 401 
Per-aha, i. 481 
Per-Asar, i. 99, 103 
Per-Asar- neb -Tettu, ii. 

Per-Atem, i. 99 
Per-ba-neb-Tattu, i. 100 
Per-Bast, i. 100, 444 
Per-em-hru, i. 174 
Per-em-khet-khet, ii. 129 
Perer-amu-pet, i. 51 
Pergamos, Church of, i. 

Per-Heru-nubt, i. 470 
Perit, i. 244 
Periu, i. 200 



Per-Kheniennu, i. 421 
Per-khet, ii, 65 
Per-Khut, i. 496 
Per-Matchet, i. 98 
Per-Menat, i. 443 
Per-mert, ii. 255 
Per-mest-en-Nut, ii. 103 
Per-netchem, i. 492 
Per - net - mut - kheper - 

hetch, i. 452 
Per-netch - Shu - ma-Nut, 

ii. 103 
Per-Nubt, ii. 108 
Per-Nut, ii. 103 
Per-Pakht, ii. 213 
Per-Ra, i. 452 
Per-rerehu, i. 480 
Persea Tree, ii. 61, 371 
Persephone, ii. 217 
Per-Sept, i. 499 
Per-sui, i. 488 
Per-Tehuti, i. 100 
Per-Tehuti-ap-rehuh, i. 

Per-Tem, i. 452 
Per-tennu, i. 433 
Per-Uatchet, i. 24, 92, 93, 


ii. 56, 117, 376, 442 

Pert, Festival of, ii. 129 ; 

season of, ii. 161 
Pesek-Re, ii. 329 
Pesetchet, i. 80 
Pesh-hetep-f. ii. 301 
Pesi, i. 256 
Peskheti, ii. 329 
Pestet, i. 250 
Pesthi, i. 246 
Pestu, i. 250 ; ii. 329 
Pesuo, ii. 306 
Pet-Annu, ii. Ill 
Petchatcha, i. 492 
Pe-tep, i. 441; ii. 121, 


ii — e e 

Petet, i. 488; ii. 206, 

Peti, ii. 329 
Petra, i. 252 ; 329 
Peukher, i. 281 
Phagrorius fish, ii. 382 
Phagrus, ii. 382 
Phagrus fish, ii. 192 
Phallephoria, ii, 186 
Phallus = Hap, i. 110 
Phallus of Osiris, i. 496 ; 

ii. 65, 128, 193, 382 
Pharaoh, i. 242, 361 
Pharbaethites, i. 96 
Phaturites, i. 96 
Philae, i. 473, 523, 525 ; 

ii. 43, 45, 50, 57, 289 
Philip, St., i. 280 
Philostratus, ii. 96 
Phoenicia, ii. 124 
Phoenix, ii. 96, 371 
Phoutet, ii. 304 
Phthemphu, i. 96 
$u\afCTi]piov, i. 234 
$v<ri<;, i. 68 
Phylarchus, ii. 200 
Physa fish, ii. 382 
Piankhi, i. 331 
Pibeseth, i. 444 
Pierret, M. P., i. 66, 68, 

140, 204, 459 
Pietschmann, i. 415 
Pig, i. 190 ; ii. 368 ; the 

black, i. 496, 497 
Pi-hahiroth, i. 353 
Pillars of heaven, i. 210 
Pillars of Shu, i. 467 
Pillars of the sky, i. 157 
Pilulariae, ii. 380 
Pindar, ii. 353 
Pi-neter-tuau, ii. 303 
Pistis Sophia, i. 266 ff. ; 

ed. Schwartze quoted, 

i. 279 
Pi-tchepet, i. 442 

Pi-tep, i. 442 
Pithom, i. 99, 353, 432 
Planets, gods of, ii. 302 
Plato, i. 332, 407 

quoted, i. 99 
Pliny, i. 96, 441, 444 ; ii. 

96, 347, 370, 372; 

quoted, i. 62 
Plutarch, i. 150, 353, 422, 

448, 458, 459, 467, 

489, 493 ; ii. 58, 123, 

126, 147, 241, 248, 


373, 375, 382; his 

history of Osiris and 

Isis, ii. 186 
Pluto, ii. 199 ; ii. 217, 

P-neb-taui, i. 468 
Pneuma, i. 285 
Polytheism, i. 137 
Pompeii, ii. 218 
Pomponius Mela, ii. 96 
Pontus, ii. 197, 198 
Porphyry, i. 356; quoted, 

i. 62 
Power of Powers, i. 40 
Power, primeval, i. 288 I 
Powers (angels), i. 6 
Precepts of Ptah-hetep, 

i. 122 
Precepts of Kaqemna,ii. 

Precepts of Khensu-hetep, 

i. 127 
Priapeia, ii. 186 
Priapus, ii. 353 
Principalities, i. 6 
Prisse d' Avenues, i. 122 
Prisse Papyrus, i. 122, 

Proclus, i. 459 
Prophets, the, i. 5 
Proserpine, ii. 199, 218 



Prosopis, i, 432 ; ii. 357 
Prosopites, i. 96 
Proto-Semites, i. 8 
Providence, Divine, i. 

Psammetichus I., ii. 350, 

Pselket, i. 401 
P-she-hert, ii. 213 
Psino ther, i. 280 
Ptah,i. 78, 218, 500 ff.; 

ii. 7, 30, 35, 53, 66, 

329; hook of, i. 502; 

of Memphis, i. 99 ; of 

the Beautiful Face, i. 

125 ; second life of, ii. 

350; the second, ii. 196 
Ptah-aneb-res-f, ii. 293, 

Ptah Asar, i. 502 
Ptah Hapi, i. 146, 502, 

Ptah-hetep, i. 122, 125, 

126, 138 
Ptah-neb-ankh, i. 500 
Ptah-Nu, i. 502, 503 
Ptah-Seker, i. 502; ii. 

Ptah-Seker- Asar, i. 502, 

503, 523; ii. 134, 

Ptah-Seker-Tem, i. 502; 

ii. 154 
Ptah-Sekhet-Ienihetep, i, 


Ptah- Sekhet-Nefer-Tem, 

i. 450, 512 
Ptah-Sekri, ii. 131 
Ptah-Tanen, i. 489,502; 

503 ; ii. 52, 66, 330 
Ptah-Tenen, hymn to, i, 

Ptah-Tettet sheps ast Ea, 

ii. 183 
Ptenethu, i. 96 

Ptenetu, i. 441 
Ptolemai's, i. 432 
Ptolemies, the, i. 26 
Ptolemy Alexander, ii, 

Ptolemy II., i. 332; ii. 

Ptolemy IV., i. 523 
Ptolemy V. i. 523 
Ptolemy Lagus, ii. 348 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, ii. 

Ptolemy Soter, ii. 197, 

Ptolemy, the Geographer, 

ii. 31 
Punt, ii. 6, 7, 65, 287, 

Purgatory, i. 171, 261, 

Puteoli, ii. 218 
Pythagoras, ii. 351 
Pythagoreans, ii. 252 
Python, i. 11 

Qa (god), ii. 42 
Qa-Ba, i. 345 ; ii. 320 
Qah, i. 492 
Qa-ha-hetep, ii. 342 
Qa-hra, ii. 343 
Qahu, ii. 343 
Qaqa of Khemennu, i. 332 
Qarth-Anthu, ii. 278 
Qeb, ii. 292 

Qebh = Khnemu, ii. 50 
Qebhet, ii. 51 
Qebhsennuf, i. 83, 198, 

456, 491, 492 ; ii. 129, 

145, 184, 343 
Qebhsennuf = West, i. 

Qebhu, i. 429 
Qebhu, eighteen gods of, 

i. 86 

Qebti, i. 97 

Qebui (N. wind), ii. 295 
Qeften, ii. 268 
Qemamu, ii. 343 
Qemhusu, ii. 343 
Qemqem, i. 469 
Qem-baius, i. 473 
Qereret, ii. 148 
Qerert, i. 149 
Qererti, i. 342 ; ii. 320 
Qer-Hiipi, ii. 44 
Qerhet, i. 353 
Qerneru, i. 326 
Qersu, ii. 106 
Qerti, ii. 53, 148, 343 
Qerti (an assessor), i, 

Qerti, the, ii. 43 
Qesqeset, i. 467 ; ii. 108 
Qesem, i. 100 
Qeset, i. 161 
Qesi, i. 98 
Qet, ii. 294, 307 
Qetesh, ii. 276, 279, 280, 

Qetet, ii. 129 
Qetetbu, ii. 343 
Qettu, i. 326 
Qetu, i. 519 ; ii. 343 

ii, 334 ; and his cycle, 
i. 77 ; and the destruc- 
tion of men, ii. 94 ; 
birth of, i. 462 ; boat of, 
ii. 210 ; daily birth of, 
i. 204 ; darts of, i. 85 ; 
eyes of, i. 363 ; life of, 
ii. 64 ; mutilation of, 
ii. 100 ; myths of, i. 
359 ff. ; religion of, i. 
332 ff.; soul of, i. 149 
ii. 64; the Aged, i. 
506 ; the Babe, i. 506 ; 



the fourteen doubles of, 

ii. 300 ; the seven 

souls of, ii. 300 ; the 

Seventy-five Praises of, 

i. 339-348 
Ea and Amen, i. 105 

fight of, i. 405 
Ea = Fire, ii. 98 
Ka and Horus hold the 

ladder, i. 167 
Ea, and Isis, Legend of, 

i. 360 ff. 
Ea and Isis, Legend of, 

Egyptian Text, i. 372- 

387 ; myth of, i. 352 
Ea-Asar, ii.' 334 
Ea-Atem, i. 101 
Ea-Ateni, ii. 317 
Ea-er-neheh, i. 437; ii. 

Ea-Harmachis, ii. 69 
Ea-Heru, i. 220 
Ea-Heru-khuti, i. 148, 

178; ii. 334 
Ea-Menthu, ii. 27 
Ea-neferu, Queen, ii. 38 
Ea of Annu, i. 100 
Ea-Osiris, i. 334, 148 
Ea-Tem, i. 92, 104, 105, 

131, 133, 148, 282, 

330, 350, 352 ; ii. 61, 

85, 86, 90, 115, 334 
Ea-Tem-Khepera, i. 282 
Ea-Temu, i. 335 

khuti, ii. 361 
Ea, worship, i. 328 
Eahabh, i. 278 
Eain, i. 414 
Eameses II., i. 142 ; ii. 

27, 38, 278, 350, 362 ; 

serekh of, i. 26 
Eameses III., i. 160, 331, 

512 ; ii. 12, 37, 363 

Eameses IV., i. 348, 364 
Eamessids, ii. 12 
Eam-god, ii. 203 
Earn of four faces, ii. 65 
Earn of Mendes, i. 27 ; 

ii. 286, 351 ; four souls 

of, i. 496 
Earn of Tattu, i. 103 
Earn = Ea, i. 342 
Earns' heads, the four, 

ii. 51 
Eaqetit, ii. 198 
Eashshaf, ii. 283 
Eat, i. 88, 90, 446, 458 
Eat, counterpart of Ea, 

i. 287, 328 
Eat-tauit, i. 328,431,469 
Eau, i. 246 
Ee-au, i. 492 ; ii. 261 
Ee-a-nefer, ii. 213 
Ee-henenet, ii, 335 
Ee-hent, ii. 335 
Eed Crown, i. 39, 53, 54 
Eedesiyeh, ii. 281 
Eed Horus, ii. 303 
Eed Land, i. 304 
Eed Sea and Nile Canal, 

i. 353 
Eed-souls, i. 203 
Eehehui, i. 405 
Eehesaui, i. 515 
Eeliesu, i. 433 
Eehti, ii. 335 
Eehu, i. 443 ; ii. 335 
Eehui, i. 421, 475; ii. 

Eehui (city), i. 401 
Ee-Iukasa, ii. 334 
Eekeh netches, ii. 293 
Eekeh ur, ii. 293 
Eekes, i. 325 ; ii. 335 
Eekh, i. 252 
Eekhasua, ii. 283 
Eekhi, i. 343 ; ii. 320 
Kekhit, i. 159, 256 

Eekht, i. 514 
Eekhti, i. 410 
Eekhti goddesses, i. 462 
Eekhti - merti-neb- Maati, 

ii. 335 
Eem, i. 303 
Eemenaare, ii. 308 
Eemen-ileru-an-Sah, ii. 

Eemen-kher-Sah, ii. 308 
Eemi, i. 303, '341; ii. 

317, 334 
Eem-neteru, i. 240 
Eemrem, ii. 184, 334 
Ee-nefert, ii. 255 
Ee-qerert-apt-kkat, i, 250 
Ee-Ea, ii. 334 
Ee-Sekhait, ii. 184, 334 
Ee-stau,i. 216,352,410; 

ii.60; Chief of, ii. 116 
Ee-ur, i. 492 
Eenenet, i. 426 ; ii. 144, 

335, 362 
Eenenet (Isis), ii. 216 
Eenen-sebu, i. 198 
Eenenut, i. 81 
Eenniu, i. 201 
Eennutet, ii. 293, 335 
Eenouf, P. le Page, i. 66 
Eenpet (Isis), ii. 213 
Eenpit, i. 432 ; goddess 

of, ii. 55 
Eenpti, i. 211 
Eepit, i. 432 
Eeqetit, i. 492 
Eeqi, ii. 335 
Eerei, ii. 21 
Eerek, ii. 245, 335 
Eeret, ii. 209, 249, 289, 

Eeri, i. 203 
Eert, ii. 359 
Eerti, i. 419 ; ii. 335 
Eertu, ii. 359 
Eertu-nifu, ii. 335 



Res-ab, i. 176 ; ii. 335 
Res-hra, i. 176 ; ii. 335 

Resenet, i. 452, 464 

Reshef, ii. 283 

Reshpu, ii. 280, 282 

Rest-f, i. 254 

Resurrection, ii. 381 ; 
of the body, i. 357; 
of Osiris, ii. 137,138; 
triune god of, i. 508 

Reta, i. 250 

RetJi-hen-er-reqau, ii. 335 

Reta-nifu, ii. 335 

Reta-sebanqa, ii. 335 

Retasashaka, ii. 335 

Rethenu, i. 198 

Rethma, i. 492 

Revillout, i. 458 

Rhampsinitus, ii. 366 

Rhea, i. 467; ii. 124, 187 

Romans, i. 68 

Rosellini, i. 60 

Rossi, i. 360 

Royal Library at Nine- 
veh, i. 18 

Rulers (angels), i. 6 

Rurutha, i. 81 

Rut-en-Ast, ii. 334 

Ruthennu, ii. 279 

Rut-tetet, i. 329 

Rutu-neb-rekhit, ii. 334 

Rutu-nu-Tem, ii. 334 

Sa, i. 107, 180, 203, 206, 

Sa (Ape), ii. 292 
Sa (city), i. 515 
Sa (god), ii. 89 
Sa, ka of Ra, ii. 300 
Saa, i. 82; ii. 296 
Saa-Amenti-Ra, ii. 298 
Saaba, i. 469 
Saatet-ta, i. 326 
Saau-ur, ii. 298, 339 

Saa-set, i. 180 
Sa-abu-tckar-khat, i. 420 
Sa-Akeb, i. 242 
Sa-Amenti-Ra, ii. 339 
Sabaoth, i. 280 
Sabes, i. 176 ; ii. 339 
Saft al-Henna, i. 498 
Sah, ii. 249, 306 
Sari (city), i. 515 
Sah (Orion), i. 41, 83; 

ii. 339 
Sahal, ii. 52, 56, 57, 58 
Sahel, ii. 43 
Sah-en-mut-f, ii. 339 
Sah-heq, ii. 129 
Sain, i. 39, 40, 54, 164 
Sahu of Maat, i. 443 
Sahura, i. 329 
Sais, i. 30, 31, 92, 95, 99, 

101, 250, 252, 451; 

ii. 20, 22, 275, 357 ; 

festivals of, i. 452 ; of 

the South, i. 452 
Sait, i. 256 
Sa'ites, i. 96 
Saiut, ii. 261 
Saiut (Lycopolis), i. 98 
Sak, i. 59, 60 
Sakhabu, i. 329 
Sakkara, i. 23, 41, 78, 

Samait, ii. 339 
Sam-Behutet (noine), i. 

Sam-taui-p-khart, i, 469 
Samti, i. 177 
San, i. 516 
Sanchoniatho, i, 35 
Sandals, i. 165 ; ii. 118 ; 

the divine, ii. 206 
Sankhonyathan, i, 35 
Saosis (Iusaaset), ii. 190 
Saaxris, i, 354 
Sa-pa-nemma, ii. 339 
Saphon, ii. 249 

Sapi, i. 30, 452, 464 
Sap-meh (nome), i, 99 
Sapi-meht, i. 452 
Sapi-res (nome), i. 99 
Sapt-khennu, ii. 305 
Saqenaqat, i. 519 ; ii. 339 
Sar (Osiris), i. 200 
Sar, temple of, ii. 25 
Sarapis, i. 26 ; ii. 199 
Sarapis, daughter of Her- 
cules, ii. 200 
Sarbut al-Khadem, ii. 290 
Sarei, ii. 200 
Saresu, ii. 283 
Sarsarsartou, i. 280 
Sarset, ii. 300 
Sasaqet, ii. 307 
Sasasert, ii, 306 
Sashsa, i. 82 
Sata, a serpent-god, ii. 

Satet, i. 431; ii. 50, 

Sathet, i. 82 
Sati, i. 286 ; ii. 55 ff. 
Sati-arut, ii. 302 
Sati (Isis), ii. 57, 216 
Saturn, ii. 302, 303 
Satyrs, ii. 188, 353 
Sau, ii. 302, 339 
Sau (Apep), i. 326 
Saut, i. 30, 451 
Saut (Sais), i. 99 
Sbat-uatitha, ii. 303 
Scales, ii. 142 
Scales, the Great, i. 9, 20 
Scandinavia, i. 64 
Scarab, i. 355 
Scarabaei, eaten, i. 17 
Scarabaeus, the, ii. 379 
Scarabaeidae, ii. 379 
Scarab of Hetepet, i. 85 
Schedia, ii. 127 
Scorpio, ii. 188 
Scorpion, ii. 373, 377 



Scorpions of Isis, i. 487 
Scorpion stings Horus, 

i. 488 
Scorpions, the Seven of 

Isis, ii. 206, 207, 377 
Sea of Mertet, i. 480 
Seat of Shu, ii. 93 
Seb, i. 34, 82, 85, 86, 

198, 341, 369, 489, 

496, 504; ii. 25, 34, 

94 ff., 149, 291, 317 
Seb and Nut, embrace of, 

ii. 105 
Seb = Earth, ii. 98 
Seb, erpa of the gods, i. 

Seb, soul of, ii. 65 
Seba,i.l49,352;ii. 149, 

Seba-ent-Seba, i. 326 
Sebak gods, i. 371 
Sebakksen, ii. 129 

Sebau fiends, i. 410; 

ii. 8 
Sebek, i. 78, 79, 95, 98, 

114, 303 ; ii. 303, 340, 

Sebek, four-fold character 
? of, ii. 355, 356 

Sebek, son of Neith, i. 32 
Sebekhti, i. 202 
Sebek (Mercury), ii. 303 
Sebek of Sapi-Res, i. 

Sebek of the green feather, 

i. 455 
Sebek - Isis - Amen, i, 

Sebek-Ra, i. 200, 464; 

ii. 109 
Sebek-Seb, ii. 357 
Sebek-Temu-Hathor, ii. 


Seben-hesq-kkaibit, i. 

Sebennytes, i. 96 
Sebennytus, i. 100, 115, 

Sebeq, ii. 354 
Sebeq-hra, i. 241 
Seb erpat neteru, ii. 183 
Sebi, i. 203 
Seb-qenbeti, i. 211 
Sebshes, ii. 310 
Sebti, i. 433 
Sebuit-nebt-uaa - khesfet- 

sebau-eru-pert-f, i. 250 
Sef, ii. 99 

Sef (Yesterday), ii. 361 

425, 430 
Sefer, i. 59, 60 
Sef het-aabut, i. 432 
Sefi - per - em - Hes - lira - 

hapu-tchet-f, i. 519 
Sefkket-aabut, i. 431 
Seftit, i. 248 
Sehepu, i. 82 
Seher-Tut, ii. 300 
Sehert/i. 515 
Sehert-baiu-s, i. 241 
Sehes, i. 206 
Sehetch-kkatu, ii. 317 
Sehith, i. 228 
Sehut, i. 83 
Sek, i. 433 

153, 341 
Seker, body of, i. 218, 

Seker, Circle of, i. 220 
Seker, god of the seventh 

hour, ii. 301 
Seker, Land of, i. 216, 

217, 222 
Seker, Litanies of, i. 

434 ; ii. 259 
Seker = Osiris, ii. 139 

Seker Osiris of Mendes, 

ii. 134 
Seker Osiris, the sixteen 

parts of, i. 127 
Seker, symbols of, i. 222 
Seker-Boat, i. 504, 505 ; 

ii. 154 
Sekhabsenfunen, i. 182 
Sekhat-Heru, ii. 26 
Sekhem, i. 101,132, 410; 

ii. 148 
Sekhem = Ainen-Ra, ii. 

Sekhem, god, i. 425 
Sekhem (city), i. 149, 

425, 468, 492 
Sekkem-em-ab-f, ii. 340 
Sekhem em pet, ii. 264 
Sekkem-kra, i. 326 ; ii. 

Sekhem (Letopolis), ii. 

Sekhem of heaven, ii. 157 
Sekhem = Osiris, ii. 139 
Sekhem, praises of, i. 

Sekhem, son of Osiris, ii. 

Sekhem taui, ii. 264 
Sekhem-taui = Osiris, ii. 

Sekhem, the, i. 163 
Sekhem, the Great, i. 38, 

Sekhem, the holy, i. 446 
Sekhem-ur, ii. 340 
Sekhemet (city), i. 468 

s, ii. 341 
Sekhemf, i. 82 
Sekhemt, i. 99 
Sekhemu, i. 38 
Sekhemus, i. 216 
Sekhen-Ba, i. 343; ii. 




Sekhen-ta-en-ur, i. 82 
Sekhen-tuatui, i. 250 
Sekhenu, i. 252, 259 
Sekhen-ur, i. 177; ii. 

Sekheper-khati, ii. 317 
Sekker - at, i. 216 ; ii. 

Sekher-remu, i. 178, 216 ; 

ii. 341 
Sekket, i. 82, 114, 126, 

188, 248, 270, 304, 

365, 366, 431, 432, 


514-518; ii. 31, 58, 

66, 92, 95, 292, 293, 

341, 362 
Sekket-Aanre, i. 520 
Sekket-Aar, ii. 120, 121 
Sekhet-Aarer, i. 455 ; 

ii. 63 
Sekhet - Aarru, ii. 82, 

120, 121 
Sekhet-Aarru = lst Aat, 

i. 177 
Sekhet-Aarru, 21 pylons 

of, i. 177 
Sekhet- A am, i. 367 ; ii. 

Sekhet-Bast, i. 514 ff. 
Sekket-Bast-Ra, i. 518; 

ii. 28, 29, 30 
Sekhet-en-Peru, i. 212 
Sekket - hetep, i. 164, 

168 ; ii. 120 
Sekket-hetepet, i. 103, 

297; ii. 82 
Sekhet-hetepu, i. 408 
Sekket-hra-asht-aru, i, 

176 ; ii. 341 
Sekhet (Isis), ii. 216 
Sekhet-metu, i. 244 
Sekhet-Nut, i. 515 
Sekhet of Thebes, i. 211 
Sekket-Ra, i. 433 

Sekket- Saneh emu, ii. 120 
Sekhet- Sasa, i. 35 
Sekhet-tcher, i. 110 
Sekhiu, ii. 340 
Sek-hra, ii. 341 
Sekhti-hetep, ii. 341 
Sekhtiu, i. 244 
Seksek, ii. 341 
Seksen, i. 82 
Sektet Boat, i. 206, 331, 
332, 335, 336, 337, 
352, 506 ; ii. 11, 104, 
105, 159 
Selene, ii. 187 
Self-production, i. 295 
Selqet, i. 455 ; ii. 377 
Semaahut, ii. 317 
Sem (god), ii. 129 
Sem, priest, i. 514 
Sem-af, i. 259 
Sem-Heru, i. 248 
Sem-Nebt-het, i. 252 
Sem-shet, i. 252 
Semamti, i, 177 
Semetu, i. 176 
Semi, i. 198 

Semit-hen-abt-uaa-s, i. 
220 ' 

Semket Boat, i. 110, 323 

Semsem, i. 252 

Semsu, name of Ra, i. 

Semt, ii. 302 

Semtet, ii. 306 

Semti, i. 191, 358, 506 ; 
ii. 116, 117 

Semu-heh, ii. 60, 340 

Semu-taui, ii. 340 

Senb-Kheperu, ii, 302 

Senem, ka of Ra, ii. 

Senemet, i. 429, 515 

Senenahemthet, i, 23 

Seni, i. 452, 463 

Senit, i. 97, 439 

Senket, i. 241 
Senk-hra, i. 346 ; ii. 317 
Senki, ii. 317 
Senmet, i. 433 
Senmut, i. 433 ; ii. 51 
Senmut, Island of, ii. 43 
Sennu, ii. 251 
Senses, gods of, ii. 296, 

Sent, ii. 129 
Senti-Nefert, i. 99 
Semi, ii. 255 
Sep, i. 401 ; ii. 261, 291 
Sepa, i. 494 ; ii. 340 
Sepes, ii. 340 
Sephon, ii. 249 
Sephu-urt, i. 82 
Sept, i. 25, 82, 107,166, 

178, 200, 435, 436 ; ii. 

53, 249 
Sept (city), i. 443 
Sept (god), i. 100, 446; 

ii. 56, 340 
Sept (nome of), i. 100, 

432, 498 
Sept, star, ii. 50, 215 
Sept, symbol of, i. 499 
Sept-hra, i. 228 
Sept-Hat, i. 471 
Sept (Isis), ii. 213 
Sept, ka of Ra, ii. 300 
Sept -mast- en -Rerti, ii, 

Sept-mert-et, ii. 251 
Sept-metu, i. 225 
Sept - kheri - nehait - ami - 

beq, ii. 340 
Septet, i. 83 ; ii. 308 
Septet-uauau, i. 182 
Septet - uauau - setet - sen- 

Ra, i. 182 
Septit, i. 432, 499 
Septu, i. 521 ; ii. 291 
Seqebet, ii. 341 
Seqet-hra, i. 176 ; ii. 341 



Ser, i. 230 
Ser-aa, ii, 139 
Seraa, ii. 320 
Serapeum, i, 523 
Serapeum, ii. 47, 127 ; 

Egyptian name of, i. 

Serapeum at Sakkara, ii. 

195, 350 
Serapeum of Het, ii. 256 
Serapeum of Memphis, ii. 

Seraphim, i. 6,7 
Serapis, ii. 46, 195-201, 

Serat-beqet, ii. 340 
Seref-ur, i. 82 
Serekh, the, i. 25 ; illus- 
tration, i. 26 
Serekhi, i. 419 ; ii. 340 
Serem-taui, i. 326 
Seres-hra, ii. 340 
Serisa, ii. 312 
Ser-kheru, i. 419 ; ii. 

Serpent-god, ii. 376 
Serpent of Sunrise 30 

cubits long, i. 24 
Serpent made by Isis, i. 

361 ; seven - headed, 

i. 267 ; speaks, i. 19 ; 

30 cubits long, i. 20 
Serq, i. 198 
Serqet, i. 110, 198, 232, 

328, 456, 488 ; ii. 26, 

184, 269, 312, 340, 

362, 377 
Serqet-hetu, i. 82, 455 
Serqi, i. 343 ; ii. 320 
Sert, ii. 306 
Sesenet-khu, i. 211 
Seshaa, i. 86 
Seshemet, i. 468 
Seshem-Nethert, i. 343 
Seshesh (nome) i. 97 

Sesheshet, i. 31 
Seshet, ii. 341 
Sesheta, i. 422, 424, 

425 ; ii. 213, 256, 341 
Sesheta (1st Circle), i. 

Sesheta = Nut, ii. 106 
Seshetai, i. 344; ii. 320 
Seshetat, ii. 202 
Seshet-kheru, ii. 341 
Seshsha, i. 198 
Sesi, i. 196 
Sesme, ii. 306 
Set, i. 60, 82, 109, 110, 

455, 470, 475, 486 ; ii. 

10, 25, 62, 63, 85, 92, 


124, 204, 210, 241- 

254, 283, 341, 354, 

356 ; animal of, ii. 

243; defeat of, i. 

477; figures of, ii. 251 ; 

god of Mercury, ii. 303 ; 

god of South, ii. 243 
Set and Horus fight, i. 

Set animal, i, 24 
Set beings, i. 160 
Set beings, inferior and 

superior, i. 84 
Set festival, i. 425 
Set-heh, i. 255 
Set, Ladder of, ii. 242 
Set (nome), i. 97 
Set of Oxyrynchus, i. 98 
Set, the serpent, i. 481 
Set, the snake, i. 250 
Set-hra, i. 192 
Set-kesu, i. 419 
Set-Nephthys-Anubis, i. 

Set-Nubti, ii. 251, 256 
Set-qesu, ii, 341 
Set-usert-aa, i. 447 
Setaa, ii. 119 

Setaa-ur, ii. 42 
Seta-ta, i. 184 
Setcha, i. 59, 60, 61 
Setcheh, i. 23 
Setchet, i. 180 
Setchet-gods, i. 346 
Setcheti, i. 347 
Seteb girdle, i. 331 
Setek, ii. 341 
Setem, God of hearing, 

ii. 298 
Setem, ka of Ba, ii. 300 
Seth, ii. 246, 247 
Setkasetha, i. 82 
Sethat, ii. 56 
Sethe, Prof., i. 330, 523 
Sethroites, i. 96 
Setheniu-tep, i. 201 
Seththa, i. 82 
Sethu, i. 196 
Seti I., i. 290, 348, 364, 

370 ; ii. 5, 33 
Seti I., sarcophagus of, 

i. 171, 178 
Seti II., i. 348 
Seti II. Menephtah, ii. 

Setu, i. 246 
Seven Gates, i. 273 
Seven hawks, i. 516 
Seven-headed serpent, i. 

Seven Scorpions of Isis, 

i. 488 
Seven Spirits, the, i. 494 
Seven Tablets of Creation, 

i. 290 
Sha, a mythical animal, 

i. 60 
Bha-qa-em-Amen, i. 331 
Shabu, ii. 341 
Shadow of Khepera,i. 310 
Shadow of Tern, ii. 88 
Shai, i. 343 ; ii. 317 
Shai, Luck, ii. 144 



Skai-qa-eni-Annu, i. 331 
Skaka-Amen- Shakanasa, 

er- katu -Tem - seketck - 

nef-taui, ii. 19 
Shakanasa, ii. 342 
Skamask, i. 359 
Skapuneterarika, ii, 19, 

Sharpe, i. 204 
Skareskarekket, ii. 19, 


ka, ii. 341 
Skarskatkakatka, ii. 21, 

Skaskertet, i. 483 
Skas-ketep, i. 97 ; ii. 148 
Skat am Tuat, i. 174 
Skat en Sebau, i. 175 
Ske-en-Sasa, i. 47 
Skef-beti, ii. 293 
Skefit, ii. 342 
Skeft-hat, ii. 51 
Skekbui (S. wind), ii. 296 
Skema, ii. 322 
Skemat-kku, i. 244 
Skemertki, i. 246 
Skemsu Heru, i. 84, 

Skemti, i. 194, 347 

ii. 342 
Skeneset, ii. 374 
Ske-neter, i. 481 
Skenit, ii. 60 
Skent, ii. 130 
Skentket, ii. 25 
Skentkit, ii. 184, 342 
Skent tree, i. 468 
Skentu, ii. 35 
Ske-niu-aka, i. 481 
Skenuti, ii. 288 
Skep, i. 492 
Skepes, i. 234 
Skepet, ii. 310 

Skepi, i. 191, 343; ii. 

Skeps, ii. 291 
Skeps, ka of Ea, ii. 

Skeps = Tkotk, i. 402 
Skepu, i. 250 
Skeput, ii. 359 
Skerem, ii. 342 
Ske-Sasa, i, 35 
Skesat-inaket-neb-s, i. 

Skesemu, i. 38, 50 
Skes-en-mek, i. 492 
Skesera, i. 246 
Skeskemu, ii. 34 
Skeskkentet, i. 83, 514 
Skes-kkentet, ii. 342 
Skesmu, i. 83 ; ii. 306 
Skesskes, i. 196 
Skesu-Heru, i. 158 
Sket, i. 98 
Sketa, i. 326 ; ii. 297 
Sketa-ab, i. 189 
Sketa-kra, ii. 342 
Sketa-sketa- Ameni, name 

of Ea, i. 345 
Sketa, tke Tortoise-god, 

ii. 376 
Sketa-kra, i. 343 
Sketait, i. 445 
Sketat-besu, i. 200 
Sketat (goddess), i. 446 
Sketat (Isis), ii. 213 
Sketati, i. 342 
Sketau, i. 200 
Sketennu, i. 470 
Sketenu, i. 433 
Ske-Tesker, i. 433 
Sketet, ii. 357 
Sket-f-met-f, ii. 322 
Sketku, ii. 310 
Sket-kkeru, i. 419 
Sketu, i. 250, 252, 254 
Skibba, i. 16 

Skiin'on ben-Lakisk, 

Skiskanim, i. 7 

Skoulder of Osiris, i. 468 

Skoulders and arms r: 
Set, i. 110 

Skrew mouse, ii. 369 

Sku, i. 58, 82, 130, 260, 
305, 310, 340, 496, 
502; ii. 1,87-94, 291, 
292, 302, 317, 342; 
birds of, i. 168 ; kouse 
of, ii. 93 ; origin of, 
i, 116 ; palace of, ii. 
93 ; pillars of, i. 332, 
353, 467; ii. 107; 
seat of, ii. 93 ; soul of, 
ii. 65 

Sku = Air, ii. 98 

Sku and Tefnut, origin 
of, i. 296, 297 

Sku-Aten, ii. 71 

Sku-Kknemu-Ea, 357 

Sigkt, god of, ii. 298 

Siket, ii. 307 

Silsila, ii. 356 

Silurus fisk, ii. 382 

Simon, Saint, i. 280 

Sinai, ii. 290 

Sinope, ii. 197, 198, 199 

Sipkirepsnikkieu, i, 281 

Sisesme, ii. 306 

Sisro, ii. 306 

Sistrum, tke, i. 421 

Sit, ii. 304 

Skull = goose, i. 109 

Sky, four pillars of, i. 157 

Sky Motker, ii. 106 

Sky, of day and nigkt, i. 

Slatin Paska, quoted i. 17 

Sma, i. 110, 453 

Sma, a king, i. 31 

Sma-Bekutet, ii. 31, 35 

Sma-ta, i. 347 



Sma-ur, i. 82 

Smai, ii. 247 

Smaiu, ii. 247 

Smam, ii, 340 

Sniamti, ii. 340 

Smaru-ur, i. 504 ; ii. 95 

Smat, ii. 306 

Smen, 357 

Smen-Maat, i. 513 

Srnermut, i. 468 

Smentet, i. 82 

Smetti, ii. 340 

Smetu, ii. 340 

Smour, i. 281 

Smy, ii. 246 

Snake, i. 16 

Snake-god, ii. 36 

Soane, Sir John, i. 178 

Socharis, ii. 117 

Sokkabrikher, i. 281 

Soles of the feet = Maati 
boat, i. 110 

Solomon of Al-Basra, i. 6 

Solon, i. 332 

Sons of God, i. 32 

Sosibius, ii. 199 
Soteles, ii. 199 

Sothis, i. 58, 435, 436, 
488, 514, 517, ii. 110, 
Sothis, ii. 308 
Soubaibai Appaap, i. 280 
Souchos, ii. 354 
Soul, a name of Ra, i. 

Souls of Annu, ii. 86, 

Soul of Ra, ii. 64 
Soul of Seb, ii. 95 
Soul of Shu, ii. 65 
Soul One, i. 342 
Soul (gods), i. 107 
Soul, the Hidden, ii. 116 
Souls of East, i. 351 
Souls of the Tuat, i. 208 

Souoni, i, 281 
Souphen, i. 281 
Southern Wall, i. 101 
Space, primeval, i. 288 
Spear of Khent - maati 

described, i. 85 
Speos Artemidos, i. 432, 

Sphinx, i. 471, 472 ; ii. 

Sphinx at G-izeh, i. 62 
Sphinx, hawk-headed, i. 

Sphinx, the, ii. 361 ff. 
Sphinx-god, i. 348 
Sphinxes, i. 222 
Spirits of Horus, the 

four, ii. 121 
Spirits of Pe, ii. 106 
Spirit of the Nile, i. 

Spirits, the 4,601,200, i. 

164 ; ii. 116 
Spirits, universal, i, 9 ff. 
Sptkhne, ii. 305 
Square of Rhea, ii. 253 
Sro, ii. 306 
Stabl al-Antar, i. 517 
Staff of Hathor, i. 436 
Staircase, the god on, i. 

Standards of boats, i. 

Star gods, ii. 312 
Star-bearers, i. 200 
Star-room, i. 331 
Steering pole, i. 109 
Stepiu, i. 198 
Stele of Canopus, i. 448 
Steps, the god on, ii. 

Story of the Shipwreck, 

i. 20 
Strabo, i. 96, 444; ii. 

347, 350, 351, 352, 

353,355, 370; quoted, 
i. 62 
Strassmaier, Dr., ii. 316 
Stream of Osiris, i. 212, 

Succoth, i. 99 
Sudan, i. 22, 145 
Sudan, the Eastern, i. 14, 

Sudani men, i. 13 
Suez Canal, i. 484 
Sukati, ii. 21, 339 
Sulla, ii. 217 
Sumer, i. 290 
Summer Solstice, ii. 264 
Sun, fountain of, i. 331 
Sun-Egg, ii. 95 
Sunnu, ii. 51 
Sunrise, Mountain of, i. 

79, 107, 156 ; ii. 351, 

352, 356 
Sunset, Mountain of i. 

351, 352 
Sunth, i. 82 
Sut, ii. 339 
Sutekh, ii. 250, 278 
Sutekh gods, the, ii. 

Suten-henen, i. 353, 365; 

ii. 58, 93, 148, 155 
Suten-taui, i. 511 
Suti, i. 497, 504 ; ii. 26, 

Swallow, the, ii. 373 
Sycamore, ii. 107 
Sycamore tree of Hathor 

and Nut, ii. 103 
Syene, ii. 51, 365 
Syria, i. 276 ; ii. 12, 22, 

83 ; god of, i. 198 
Syrian influence on Egyp- 
tian religion, i. 334 
Syrians, ii. 23 
Syrians, their system ol 

angels, i. 6 ff. 



Ta, i. 241 

Ta-ahet, ii, 22 
Ta-apt, ii. 29 
Taat, i. 497 
Ta-at-Nehepet, ii. 213 
Ta-en-tarert, i. 97 
Ta ftu Meskhenu amu 

Abtu, ii. 184 
Ta-her-sta-nef, ii. 153 
Ta-hetchet, ii. 261 
Ta-het-pa-Aten, i. 513 
Tait, i. 83, 432 ; ii. 343 
Taiti, ii. 343 
Ta-kehset, ii. 255 
Ta-kens, i. 401, 477 ; ii. 

Ta-kenset, ii. 17 
Ta-kensetet, i. 519 
Ta-khent, ii. 133 
Ta-khent (nome), i. 96 
Tale of the Two Brothers, 

i. 19 
Talmis, i. 401 
Tamai al-Amdid, ii. 64 
Tamarisk tree, ii. 189 
Ta-mes-tchetta, i. 437; 

ii. 26 
Tamt, i. 339 
Ta-neserser, i. 192 
Ta-neter, ii. 289 
Tanis, i. 100, 473, 474, 

482, 484 
Tanites, i. 96 
Tape, ii. 3 
Tar, i. 520 
Tarabil, a name given to 

Pyramids, i. 14 
Ta-ret, i. 419 ; ii. 343 
Tarshishim, i. 7 
Tartarus, ii. 100 
Ta-sent, ii. 65 
Ta-sent-nefert, i. 431,468 
Ta-she (Fayyum), i. 98 
Ta-Shetet, ii. 357 
Taste, god of, ii. 299 

Tatau, ii. 121 ff. 
Ta-tchesert, i. 149, 410 
Ta-tchesertet, i. 507 ; ii. 

154, 155, 156 
Tatet, i. 83, 432, 454 
Ta-thenen, i. 339, 347 ; 

(serpent), i. 230 ; the 

Four forms of, i. 238 
Ta-thunen, i. 508 
Ta-thunenet, i, 508 
Tattam, i. 66 
Tattu, i. 103, 104, 410, 

Tattu (Mendes), ii. 157 
Tatuba, i. 208, 210 
Ta-tunen, i. 89, 131, 132, 

133,351,508; ii. 343 
Tauith, ii. 90 
Ta-ur, i. 401 
Ta-urt, ii. 30, 193, 269, 

285, 359 
Ta'ut, ii. 289 
Tav0e, i, 289 
Tawfan, ii. 247 
Tchabu, ii. 45 
Tchafi, ii. 299 
Tchalu, i. 100 
Tchapuna, ii. 281 
Tchar, i. 482, 484, 515 
Tchart, i. 492 
Tcharu, ii. 69, 70 
Tcha-Tuat, i. 242 
Tchefa, ka of Ea, ii. 

Tchefau, ii. 216 
Tchefet, ii. 62 
Tcheft (Isis), ii. 216 
Tcheftchef, name of Ea, 

i. 344 
Tehehes, ii. 344 
Tchemtch-hat, ii. 317 
Tchen, ii. 263 
Tchent, ii. 25, 83 
Tchenteru, i. 83 
Tchenti, i. 347 

Tcheqfi, i. 99 ; triad of, 

i. 113 
Tcher-khu, i. 241 
Tchert (city), ii. 27 
Tchertet, ii. 24 
Tcherutet, i. 433 
Tcheruu, ii. 344 
Tchesef, i. 177 
Tcheser (king), ii. 52, 53, 

Tcheserit, i. 196 
Tcheser-shetat, ii. 301, 

Tchesert, i. 168 ; ii. 344 
Tcheser-tep, i. 23, 419 ; 

ii. 344, 363 
Tcheser-tep-f, i. 49, 138; 

ii. 34 
Tchenttchenter, i. 83 
Tchestcheset, ii. 22 
Tchet-s, i. 252 
Tchetbi, i. 184 
Tchetemet, i. 479 
Tchetut, ii. 213 
Tears of Khepera, the 

origin of men, i. 312 
Teb, i. 96 
f eb, city of, ii. 206 
Teb-her-kehaat, i. 176 
Teb-hra-keha-at, ii. 344 
Teba, i. 83 
Teba, i. 244 
Tebat, i. 241 
f ebati, i. 343 ; ii. 317 
Tebat-neteru-s, i. 238 
Tebt (Tanis) i. 473 
Tebut, i. 97 
Teeth = Souls of Annu, 

i. 109 
Tefen, i. 83, 487 ; ii. 92, 

206, 207 
Tefer-Tem, i. 514 
Tefnet, i. 115 ; ii. 92 
Tefnut, i. 58, 83, 305, 

310, 341, 463, 515; 



ii. 1, 66, 87-94, 317, 

Tefnut, Aat of, ii. 93 
Tefnut, House of, ii. 93 
Tefnut, origin of, i. 116 
Tefnut - Nebuut - Sekhet - 

Net, ii. 357 
Tefnut-Seb-Nut, i. 240 
Tehut (nome), i. 100 
Tehuti, i. 83, 113 ; ii. 

26, 289, 302, 343 
Tehuti, derivation of, i. 

Tehuti-Hapi, ii. 343 
Tehuti -khenti-Tuat, i. 

Teka, i. 437 

remet, i. 519 
Teka-hra, i. 186 
Tekem, ii. 343 
Tekemi, i. 186 
Teken-en-Ka, ii. 322 
Tekh, i. 516 
Tekh-heb, ii. 292 
Tekhi, ii. 292 
Tekhni, i. 370 
Teleute, ii. 187, 256 
Tell al - Maskhutah, i. 

Tell el-'Amarna, ii. 23, 

Tell el-Kebir, i. 353 
Telmes, ii. 288 
Tern, i. 33, 46, 83, 92, 

180, 182, 184, 203, 

330; ii. 1, 25, 34, 66, 

87, 98, 115, 210, 244, 

289, 317 
Tern, Eye of, i. 305 
Tern, or Teniu, i. 349 ff. 
Tern = Osiris, ii. 139 
Tern ka khat paut aat, 

ii. 183 
Tem-Asar, i. 354 

Tern-Harmachis, i. 352 
Tem-Heru-khuti, i. 338, 

352*, 354 
Tern Horus, i. 351 
Tem-Iusaaset-Nefer-Tem , 

i. 450 
Tem-Khepera, i. 332 
Teni-Khepera-Shu, i. 238 
Tem-kheprer, i, 83 
Tem-Ka, i. 92, 109 
Tem-sep, i. 419 ; ii. 343 
Tem-Thoth, i. 412 
Temau, i. 246 
Temretut, i. 493 
Temt, ii. 7 
Temt, counterpart of Tern, 

i. 446 
Temt (Hathor), i. 431 
Temt-hatu, i. 343 
Terutemtch, ii. 317 
f emtet, i. 241 
Temtith, i. 232 
Temtu, i. 244 
Temu, i. 88, 107, 254, 

340, 471, 489; ii. 4, 

8, 18, 157, 343 
Temu = Bull of his 

mother, i. 363 
Temu - H eru - khuti - Khe- 

pera, i. 353 
Temu of Succoth, i. 99 
Temu-Heru-khuti, i. 417 
Temu-Khepera, ii. 11 
Ten (king), i. 506 
fen (nome), i. 31, 97 
Tena, ii. 344 
Tena basket, ii. 5 
Tena Festival, ii. 128 
Tenait, ii. 343 
Tenanu, i. 84 
Tenemit, ii. 343 
Tenen, i. 508 
Teni, i. 232 
Tenith, i. 232 
Tenpu, ii. 344 

Tent, i. 200 
Tent-baiu, i. 212, 521 
Tenten, i. 83 
Tentit-uhes-qet - khat-ab, 

i. 246 
Tentyrites, i. 96 
Tep, i. 88, 454 ; ii. 56, 

Tep-ahet, i. 98, 432, 433 
Tepa-kenmut, ii. 304 
Tepa-khentet, ii. 305 
Tepa-semt, ii. 306 
Tepan, i. 222 
Tepeh-tchat, i. 513 
Tephet-shetat, i. 230 
Tepi, i. 194, 242 
f ep-nef, i. 515 
Tepthera, i. 246 
Tep-tu-f, ii. 263 
Tepu, i. 211, 410 
Tepui, i. 252 
Ter, i. 224 
Termes, ii. 288 
Terrifier, the Great, ii. 

Tes-aha-Ta-thenen, i. 
' 240 ' 
Tes - am - mit - em-sheta- f, 

i. 242 
Tes-ermen-ta, i. 241 
f esert-ant, i. 244 
Tesert-baiu, i. 203 
Tesher, ii. 344 
Tesher-maati, ii. 129 
Tesher-maati - ammi-het- 

Anes, i. 494 
Teshtesh, ii. 343 
Tes-khaibit-tuatiu, i. 
' 241 

Tes-khem-baiu, i. 240 
Tes-khu, i. 241, 259 
Testes, Lake of, i. 335, 

Tes-Ra-kheiti-f, i. 241 
Tes-sekkem-aru, i. 241 



Tes-sept-nestu, i, 241 
Tes - sheta - em - thehen- 

neteru, i. 240 
Tes-sma-kekui, i, 241 
Tet (Edfu), i. 478 
f et, ka of Ea, ii. 330 
Tet = Osiris, ii, 139 
Tet, pillar of, ii, 131 
Tet, the, ii. 129 
Tet, the double, i. 410 
Teta, i. 22, 32, 33, 37 
Tetet, daughter of Ea, 

i. 432 
Tethys, ii. 217 
Tetteta, i, 524 
Tettu, ii, 121 ff. 
Tettu (Mendes), ii. 116 
Thales, i, 332 
Thanasa, ii. 344 
Thanasa-Thanasa, ii. 21 
Thapu-Arenuta, ii. 283 
Tharnakhakhan, i. 280 
That (Isis), ii. 213 
Thebes, i. 31, 431, 492, 

523 ; ii. 3, 12, 21 ; of 

100 gates, i. 1 ; of the 

Delta, ii. 31 ; triad of, 

i. 114 
Theb-ka (uome), i. 100 
Theb-neter, i. 100 
Thebti, i. 488 
Thehennu, ii. 25 
Theket, i. 99 
Thekshare - Anien - Eere- 

thi, ii. 20 
Themaru, i. 259 
Themath, i. 248 
Themat-hert, ii. 304 
Themat-khent, ii. 305 
Themehu, i. 304 
Themes - en - khentet, ii, 

Then-aru, i. 345 ; ii. 320 
Thenemi, i. 419, 445 ; ii. 


Thenen, i. 523 
Thenenet, i. 431 ; ii. 213 
Thenenet (Isis), ii. 216 
Thenit, i. 97 
Then-neteru, i. 257 
Thenti, i. 344 ; ii. 317 
Theodosius, ii. 351 
Theogony of Heliopolis, 

i. 116 
Therer, i. 492 
Thernops, i. 280 
Theropsin, i. 280 
Thes-Hertu (nome), i, 96 
Thes-hrau, i. 246 
Thest-ur, ii, 344 
Thesu, i. 246 
Theta-enen, ii. 317 
Thet amulet, ii. 215 
Thetet, i. 486 ; ii. 206, 

Thethu, i. 23 
Thi, Queen, ii. 69, 70 
Thigh in heaven, i. 35 
Thigh of Set, ii. 250 
Thigh, the, ii. 249 
Thighs = Nit and Ser- 

qet, i. 110 
Thinites, i. 96 
This, i. 431 
Thmoui, ii. 66 
Thmuis, ii. 22, 51, 64, 

Thobarrabau, i. 280 
Thomas, St., i. 280 
Thompson, Mr. E. Camp- 
bell, i. 359; ii. 282, 
Thosolk, ii. 308 
Thoth, i. 9, 20, 34, 36, 
37, 95, 98, 100, 113, 
190, 196, 324, 336, 
369, 400 ff., 421, 
427, 477, 482, 516; 
ii. 33, 85, 125, 129, 
140, 156, 204, 210, 

211, 244; angels of, 
ii. 119 ; as recording- 
angel, i. 408 ; Books 
of, i. 414, 415 ; in the 
judgment, ii. 145 ; on 
his staircase, i. 211 ; 
the intelligence of God, 
i. 150 

Thoth and Osiris, i. 410 

Thoth Horus, i. 413 

Thoth Trismegistos, i. 

Thothmes I., ii. 285 

Thothmes III., i. 142; 
ii. 23, 278 

Thothmes IV., i. 471, 
472 ; ii. 69 

Thrissa fish, ii. 382 

Throne of iron, i. 58 

Thrones (angels), i. 6 

Thuau, ii. 69 

Thueris, ii. 193 

Thuket, i. 353 

Thunder, i. 414 

Thuthu, wife of Ani, ii. 

Tiamat, i. 18, 277-279, 
288, 291; ii. 314; 
caught in a net, i. 407 

Tiele, Prof., i. 136, 137, 

Tigris, i. 277 

Tim, ii. 289 

Time, primeval, i. 288 

Timotheus, ii. 217 ; the 
Interpreter, ii. 199 

Tithorea, ii. 218, 219 

To-day, ii. 99, 123 

Tom, ii. 304 

Tombs of the Kings, i. 

Tongue = steering pole, 
i. 109 

Toothache, incantation 
against, i. 360 



Topheth, i. 273 
Tortoise, i, 254 ; ii. 376 
Totems, i. 27 
Toua, i. 280 
Touch, god of, ii. 296 
Tpebiou, ii. 307 
Tpekhonti, ii. 305 
Tpekhu, ii. 307 
Tree gods, i. 116 
Trees, talking, i. 19 
Tree-trunk of Osiris, ii. 

124, 125 
Tree worship in the 

Sudan, i. 17 
Triad, the, i. 114 ff. 
Triangle, the, ii. 252 
Tribal ancestors, i. 27, 28 
Trocho'ides, i. 452 
Trolls, i. 12 
Tua-Heru, i. 248, 254 
Tua-khu, i. 248 
Tuamu, ii. 316 
Tuamutef, i. 83, 198, 

456; ii. 129, 145, 344 
Tuamutef = East, i. 158 
Tuamutef, son of Horus, 

i. 491, 492 
Tua-mut-f, ii. 184 
Tuat, i. 158, 510, 511 ; 

ii. 14, 51, 77, 97, 105, 

131 ; divisions of, i. 

176 ff. ; paut of, i. 91 
Tuat, the Book of that 

which is in, i. 174 ff. 
Tuat, the, described, i. 
' 171 ff. 

Tuatet-niaket-neb-s, i. 
' 242 

Tuati, i. 259 ; ii. 317 
Tuati, a god, i. 343 
Tuau = To-day, ii. 99, 

Tu-f (nome), i. 98 
Tu-menkh-rerek, ii. 344i 
Tun-abui, ii. 322 

Tunep, ii. 23 
Tun-pehti, i. 176 ; ii. 344 
Tuphium, ii. 357 
Tu-qa-aat, i. 178 
Tu-qat, i. 97 
Turquoise, sycamores of, 

ii. 107 
Turrupa, i. 326 
Turtle, i. 24 ; ii. 376 
Tushratta, ii. 279 
Tut-ankh-Amen, ii. 83, 

Tutu, i. 326, 463, 464 
Tutu-f, i. 419 ; ii. 343 
Tu-ui, Hathor of, i. 434 
Twin-gods, i. 148 
Tybi, ii. 63 

Tylor, Prof. E. B., i. 29 
Typho, ii. 187, 189, 192, 

Typhon, i. 422; ii. 92, 

124, 125, 354, 361; 

names of, ii. 246 
Tzetzes, ii. 96 

Ua, ii. 327 

Ua-ab, i. 180 

Uaau, i. 176; ii. 327 

Uab (nome), i. 98 

Uafet, i. 513 

Uahu, i. 80 

Uai, i. 326 

Uaipu, ii. 327 

Uak festival, ii. 149 

Uakh, i. 168 

Uamemti, i. 198, 419; 

ii. 327 
Uart, ii. 121 
Uart-neter-semsu, ii. 327 
Uas (nome), i. 31 
Ua seqeb em HetBenben, 

ii. 183 
Uash, ii. 25 
Uash-ba, i. 344 

Uash-neter, ii. 310 
Uasri, ii. 113 
Uast, i. 492 ; 523 
Uast, city, i. 97 
Uast (nome), i. 97 
Uatchet, i. 24, 92, 93, 

100, 329, 431, 432, 

441 ff., 479, 483 ; ii. 

8, 48, 71, 104, 289 
Uatchet (nome), i. 97 
Uatchet-Isis, i. 440 
Uatchit, i. 24; ii. 292, 

Uatchit (Isis) ii. 213 
Uatch, ka of Ka, ii. 

Uatch-Maati, ii. 327 
Uatch-nes, i. 419 
Uatch-Nesert, ii. 327 
Uatch-ura, ii. 47 ; Lake 

of, ii. 60 
Uatchti goddesses, ii. 8, 

Uauaa, i. 161 
Uauat, i. 477 
Uben, i. 345 ; ii. 320 
Uben-An, i. 345 

khet, i. 494; ii. 327 
Ufa, i. 23 
Ui, ii. 327 
Un (god), ii. 114 ; nome 

of, i. 98, 426 
Un-hat, ii. 328 
Un-nefer, i. 149, 427, 

475; ii. 114, 138, 145; 

hymn to, i. 153 

502 ; ii. 154 
Un-nefer (Osiris), i. 490 
Un-nefer, son of Nut, ii. 

Unas, i. 22, 23, 32,-33 ; 

ii. 8, 32, 33, 34,~43 ; 

hunts, kills, and eats 



gods, i. 34 ff, ; on the 

Ladder, ii. 242 
Underworld, the, ii. 105, 

170 ff. ; Paut of, i. 91 
Unen-nefer, ii. 328 
Unnu, i. 405; ii. 107 

251; city of, i. 426; 

the Hare-god, ii. 371 
Unnu-Meht, i. 88 
Unnu-Eesu, i. 88 
Unnut, ii. 327 ; goddess, 

ii. 371 ; city, ii. 371 ; 

counterpart of Thoth, 

i. 426 
Unnut-netchtet, i. 200 
Unpepet - ent - Het - Heru, 

ii. 327 
Unt, i. 161 
Unt (Xth Aat), i. 178 
Unti, ii. 154, 328 
Unti (Apep), i. 326 
Unti (god), ii. 114 
Unti, star-god, i. 198 
Uraeus, early worship of, 

i. 24 
Ur-at, ii. 328 
Ur-gu-la, ii. 316 
Ur-hekau, ii. 328 
Ur-heket, ii. 292 
Ur-mah, ii. 316 
Ur-maat, ii. 328 
Ur-maat-s, ii, 328 
Ur-inaau, ii, 73 
Ur-mertu-s-tesker- sheni, 

ii. 328 
Ur-mer, ii. 351 
Ur-nes, i. 208 
Ur-pehui, ii. 328 
Ur-sheps-f, i. 80 ; ii. 197 
Ur-sun, i. 458 
Ur-tenten, i. 480 
Ur-Uatchti, i. 483 
Ureret Crown, ii. 154 
Urit, i. 401 
Urshiu, ii. 320 

Urshiu, a god, i. 347 
Urshiu, the Watchers, i. 

Urshu of Pe, i. 84 
Urshu of Nekhen, i. 84 
Urt, i. 80, 101, 230, 456 
Urt-ab, ii. 139 
Urt-Apset, i. 432 
Urt-hekau, i. 80, 456; 

ii. Ill, 256, 362 
Urt-sekhemus, i. 216 
Urti goddesses, ii. 116 
Us, a nome, i. 31 
Us-ar (Osiris), ii. 113 
Usekk-hra, ii. 328 
Usekh-nemt, ii. 328 
Usekht-Maati, ii. 128 
Usekht-neinniat, i. 419 
User, ii. 113 
User-ab, ii. 328 
User-ba, ii. 328 
Userkaf, i. 329, 330 
Usert, i. 80 ; ii. 85, 328 
Usert (Isis), ii. 213, 216 
Usert-heqet, i. 432 
Usertsen I., i. 330 
Usit, i. 248 
Usoos, ii. 281 
Usr-Ea, ii. 113 
Usr, ka of Ea, ii. 300 
Ustha, ii. 305 
Utcha-ba-f, i. 101 
Utcha-re, ii. 328 
Utchat of Thoth, i. 413 ; 

of Ea, i. 413 
Utchat-Heru, the official, 

i. 458 
Utchat, seat of, ii. 155 
Utchat - sekhet - ur t-hent- 

neteru, i. 519 
Utchatet, i. 436 
Utchati, i. 160 
Utch-re, ii. 263 
Utennu, ii. 268 
Utemm beings, i. 160 

Utennu gods, i. 83, 84 
Utet-heh, ii. 60, 328 
Uteti, i.' 346 
Utet-tef-f, ii. 322 
Uthes, i. 80 
Utu, i. 246 
Utu-rekhit, i. 145, 419 ; 

ii. 328 
Uu, ii. 291 

Veda, i. 135 

Venus, i. 224; ii. 97, 

100, 218, 253, 303 
Vespasian, ii, 217 
Vesta, ii. 253 
Vine of heaven, i. 165 
Vine speaks, i. 19 
Virey, quoted, ii. 278 
Virgin Mary and Isis, ii. 

220, 221 
Vulcan, i. 501 
Vulture, early worship of, 

i. 24 
Vulture, the, ii. 372 

Wadi er-Eababi, i. 373 
Wadi Hammamat, i. 485 
Wadi Sabu'a, ii. 22 
Wall of Hell, i. 171 
Walls, a name of Mem- 
phis, i. 514 
Wasps (evil spirits), i. 15 
Watchers of Pe and 

Nekhen, i. 161 
Water, i. 288 
Water gods, i. 116 
Weighing of words, i. 36 
West, horn of, i. 205; 
Mountain of, i. 179; 
Souls of, i. 107 ; Spirits 
of, ii. 356 
Westcar Papyrus, i. 329 
Wheat of Horus, ii. 118 



White Crown, i. 39, 53; 

ii. 8, 26, 130, 151 
White Nekhen, i. 439 
White Wall, i. 125,514; 

ii. 148 
Wiedemann, ii. 97, 285 
Wilbour, Mr. C, ii. 52 
Wind-gods, i. 202; ii. 

295, 296 
Wine of the gods, i. 58 
Wings of angels, i. 5 
Winter Solstice, ii. 264 
Wolf, the, ii. 366 
Women in Egyptian 

heaven, i. 166 
Words of power, i, 13 
Word-soul, i. 340 

Words, weighing of, i. 

World-body, ii. 299 
World-Soul, ii. 299 
Worm of Babylonia, i. 

Worm, the, i. 202 
Workshop of Ptah, i. 501 

Xarmarokh, i. 266 
Xois, i. 99, 432 ; ii. 22 

Xoites, i. 96 

Yahweh, i. 137, 141, 
278 ; ii. 74 

Yannai, i. 276 
Ya'uth, ii. 289 
Yesterday, ii. 99, 123 

Zabara, Mount, ii. 281 

Zagoure, i. 280 

Zenei, i. 281 

Zenodotus, i. 289 

Zibanitum, ii. 316 

Zodiac of Dendera, ii. 

Zodiac, origin of, ii. 312- 

Zodiac, Signs of, Egyp- 
tian, ii. 315 

Zorokothora, i. 280 



The gods of the Egyptians; or, Studies 

Princeton Theological Semmary-Speer Library 

1 1012 00034 3618 


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